Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Urban Services Chapter at a Glance…"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1: Urban Services Chapter at a Glance… Management ScienceOptimal Solutions for Urban ServicesEuler CircuitsParking-Control Officer ProblemFinding Euler CircuitsQualifications: Even Valence and ConnectednessBeyond Euler CircuitsChinese Postman ProblemEulerizing a GraphUrban Graph Traversal ProblemsMore practical applications and modifications
2Chapter 1: Urban Services Management Science Uses mathematical methods to help find optimal solutions to management problems. Often called Operations Research.Optimal Solutions — The best (most favorable) solutionGovernment, business, and individuals all seek optimal results.Optimization problems:Finish a job quicklyMaximize profitsMinimize costsUrban Services to optimize:Checking Parking MetersDelivering MailRemoving SnowCollecting Garbage
3Chapter 1: Urban Services Euler Circuits Street map for part of a town.Parking-Control Officer ProblemChecking parking metersOur job is to find the most efficient route for the parking-control officer to walk as he checks the parking meters.Problem: Check the meters on the top two blocks.Goals for Parking-Control OfficerMust cover all the sidewalks without retracing any more steps than necessary.Should end at the same point at which he began.Problem: Start and end at the top left-hand corner of the left-hand block.Euler circuit – A circuit that traverses each edge of a graph exactly once and starts and stops at the same point.
4Chapter 1: Urban Services Euler Circuits Simplified graph (b) is enlarged to showthe points (vertices) labeled with letters A – F which are linked by edges.Simplified graph (a) is superimposed on the streets with parking meters.Graph – A finite set of dots (vertices) and connecting links (edges).Graphs can represent our city map, air routes, etc.Vertex (pl. vertices) – A point (dot) in a graph where the edges meet.Edge – A link that joins two vertices in a graph (traverse edges).Path – A connected sequence of edges showing a route, describedby naming the vertices traveled.Circuit – A path that starts and ends at the same vertex.
5Chapter 1: Urban Services Euler Circuits Path vs. CircuitPaths – Paths can start and end at any vertex using the edges given. examples: NLB, NMRB, etc.Circuits – Paths that starts and ends at the same vertex. Examples: MRLM, LRBL, etc.Nonstop air routesCircuit vs. Euler Circuit (Both start and end at same vertex.)Circuits may retrace edges or not use all the edges.Euler circuits travel each edge once and cover all edges.
6Chapter 1: Urban Services Finding Euler Circuits Two Ways to Find an Euler CircuitTrial and errorKeep trying to create different paths to find one that starts and ends at the same point and does not retrace steps.Mathematical approach (better method)An Euler circuit exists if the following statements are true:All points (vertices) have even valence.The graph is connected.Leonhard Euler (1707–1783)Among other discoveries, he was credited with inventing the idea of a graph as well as the concepts of valence and connectedness.
7Chapter 1: Urban Services Finding Euler Circuits Valence – The number of edges touching that vertex(counting spokes on the hub of a wheel).Connectedness – You can reach any vertex bytraversing the edges given in the graph.Euler circuit – Has even-valent vertices and is connected.If vertices have odd valence, it is not an Euler circuit.Proving Euler’s TheoremIf a graph has an Euler circuit, it must have only even-valent vertices and it must be connected. This can be proved by pairing up edges at each vertex, thus proving all vertices have paired edges and further proving there is an even number of edges at each vertex, X. Thus, every edge at X has an incoming edge (arriving at vertex X) and an outgoing edge (leaving from vertex X). Example: At vertex B, you can pair up edges 2 and 3 and edges 9 and 10.An Euler circuit starting and ending at A7
8Chapter 1: Urban Services Finding Euler Circuits Is there an Euler Circuit?Does it have even valence? (Yes)Is the graph connected? (Yes)Euler circuit exists if both “yes.”Create (Find) an Euler CircuitPick a point to start (if none has been given to you).Number the edges in order of travel, showing the direction with arrows.Cover every edge only once, and end at the same vertex where you started.
9Task: Represent the street network of stores to be serviced for delivery as a graph. The stars represent stores.
10Solution: Start with a basic street network Solution: Start with a basic street network. Without the stores, it looks like this:
11Solution: Now replace each intersection or corner with a vertex Solution: Now replace each intersection or corner with a vertex. Represent these with circles like this:
12Solution: By replacing each row of stores with an edge, the graph is made!
13Task: Is this graph an Euler Circuit? Draw an Euler Circuit.
19Chapter 1: Urban Services Beyond Euler Circuits Chinese Postman ProblemIn real life, not all problems will be perfect Euler circuits.If no Euler circuit exists (odd valences), you want to minimize the length of the circuit by carefully choosing the edges to be retraced.For our purposes, we assume all edges have the same length—simplified Chinese postman problem.Chinese mathematician Meigu Guan first studied this problem in 1962, hence the name.The blue dots indicate parking meters along the street.
20Task: Represent the street network of parking meters as a graph Task: Represent the street network of parking meters as a graph. The blue dots represent parking meters.
22Chapter 1: Urban Services Beyond Euler Circuits Eulerize the Graph to Solve Chinese Postman ProblemFor graphs that are connected but have vertices with odd valence, we will want to reuse (duplicate) the minimum number of edges until all vertices appear to have even valence.Only existing edges can be duplicated (or added).Each edge that is duplicated (added) will later be the edge that will be reused during eulerization.A circuit is made by reusing the edge CG. Below, the graph is eulerized (starts and stops at same point and covers all “edges” once — including reused ones.The edge CG is reused, which would make all vertices appear to have even valence.22
23Chapter 1: Urban Services Beyond Euler Circuits Steps to Eulerizing a GraphLocate all of the vertices with an odd valence.Add one edge at each such vertex, matching up the new edge with an existing edge in the original graph.After Eulerization, each vertex has an even valence.Create an Euler circuit by numbering each edge and indicating which direction.Final step is to “squeeze our Euler circuit onto the original graph that indicates reuse.**If you add the new edges correctly, the number of reuses of the edges equals the number of edges added during eulerization**
24Chapter 1: Urban Services Beyond Euler Circuits Hints for Eulerizing a GraphFor the most efficient eulerization, look for the fewest edges to add to make all vertices even.Typically, locate odd valence vertices and try to reuse (add) the connecting edge between the vertices.Sometimes vertices are more than one edge apart; in this case, reuse edges between vertices (see graph below).Remember: Only duplicate (add to) the existing edges.Odd vertices, X and Y, are more than one edge apart.This is not allowed — must only reuse existing edges.Reuse existing edges between the odd vertices.
25Chapter 1: Urban Services Beyond Euler Circuits A Better EulerizationOnly reuse (add) edge BC.Squeeze the eulerized circuit onto the graph.
29Chapter 1: Urban Services Beyond Euler Circuits Rectangular Networks – This is the name given to a street network composed of a series of rectangular blocks that form a large rectangle made up of so many blocks high by so many blocks wide.Eulerizing rectangular networks: “Edge Walker”Start in upper left corner (at A).Travel (clockwise) around the outer boundary.As you travel, add an edge by the following rules:If the vertex is odd, add an edge by linking it to the next vertex.If this next vertex becomes even, skip it (just keep “walking”).If this next vertex becomes odd, (on a corner) link it to the next vertex.Repeat this rule until you reach the upper left corner again.
30Chapter 1: Urban Services Urban Graph Traversal Problem Euler Circuits and Eulerizing Graphs: Practical ApplicationsChecking parking meters (discussed)Collecting garbageSalting icy roadsInspecting railroad tracksSpecial Requirements May Need to Be AddressedTraffic directionsNumber of streets/lanes (divided routes)Parking time restriction
31Chapter 1: Urban Services Urban Graph Traversal Problem Theory Modifications Can Address Special RequirementsA digraph (directed graph) is used to show one-way street.Arrows show restriction in traversal possibilities (not part of circuits).Territories may need to be divided into multiple routes.Salt-spreading route, where each west-west street has two traffic lanes in the same directionsAppropriate digraph model
32Chapter 1: Urban Services Urban Graph Traversal Problem Dr. Doug Shaw is usually blamed for spreading mathematical rumors. After investigating the rumor sources we have the following:Basho T. heard the rumor from Jordan M.Wayland M. heard it from Ren W. & Jordan M.Doug Shaw heard it from Laurel S. and Wayland M.Ren W. heard it from Laurel S.Laurel S. heard it from Doug ShawMake a digraph to investigate!
33Chapter 1: Urban Services Urban Graph Traversal Problem Can one conclude that Doug Shaw is the true culprit?Who is the only one who could not have started the rumor?If Laurel S. incorrectly stated that Doug Shaw was the source of the rumor she heard, then what can one conclude?
34Suppose Amina needs to spread a written message among friends Suppose Amina needs to spread a written message among friends. The paper can only be given to one person at a time. Because of a restriction in the flow of communication, her 6 friends can pass the message as follows:FriendCan Deliver toHeidiNadia, AminaNadiaHeidi, AdamAliFaiz, BaraFaizBara, AliAminaHeidi, FaizBaraFaiz, AliAdamHeidi, Nadia