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**Chapter 6: Outline Future and Present Values of Multiple Cash Flows**

Valuing Level Cash Flows: Annuities and Perpetuities Comparing Rates: The Effect of Compounding Loan Types and Loan Amortization

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**Multiple Cash Flows –Future Value Example 6.1**

Find the value at year 3 of each cash flow and add them together. Today (year 0 CF): 3 N; 8 I/Y; PV; CPT FV = Year 1 CF: 2 N; 8 I/Y; PV; CPT FV = Year 2 CF: 1 N; 8 I/Y; PV; CPT FV = 4320 Year 3 CF: value = 4,000 Total value in 3 years = = 21,803.58 Value at year 4: 1 N; 8 I/Y; PV; CPT FV = 23,547.87

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**Multiple Cash Flows – FV Example 2**

Suppose you invest $500 in a mutual fund today and $600 in one year. If the fund pays 9% annually, how much will you have in two years? Year 0 CF: 2 N; -500 PV; 9 I/Y; CPT FV = Year 1 CF: 1 N; -600 PV; 9 I/Y; CPT FV = Total FV = = Formula: FV = 500(1.09) (1.09) =

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**Multiple Cash Flows – Example 2 Continued**

How much will you have in 5 years if you make no further deposits? First way: Year 0 CF: 5 N; -500 PV; 9 I/Y; CPT FV = Year 1 CF: 4 N; -600 PV; 9 I/Y; CPT FV = Total FV = = Second way – use value at year 2: 3 N; PV; 9 I/Y; CPT FV = Formula: First way: FV = 500(1.09) (1.09)4 = Second way: FV = (1.09)3 =

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**Multiple Cash Flows – FV Example 3**

Suppose you plan to deposit $100 into an account in one year and $300 into the account in three years. How much will be in the account in five years if the interest rate is 8%? Year 1 CF: 4 N; -100 PV; 8 I/Y; CPT FV = Year 3 CF: 2 N; -300 PV; 8 I/Y; CPT FV = Total FV = = FV = 100(1.08) (1.08)2 = =

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**Multiple Cash Flows – Present Value Example 6.3**

Find the PV of each cash flows and add them Year 1 CF: N = 1; I/Y = 12; FV = 200; CPT PV = Year 2 CF: N = 2; I/Y = 12; FV = 400; CPT PV = Year 3 CF: N = 3; I/Y = 12; FV = 600; CPT PV = Year 4 CF: N = 4; I/Y = 12; FV = 800; CPT PV = Total PV = = Formula: Year 1 CF: 200 / (1.12)1 = Year 2 CF: 400 / (1.12)2 = Year 3 CF: 600 / (1.12)3 = Year 4 CF: 800 / (1.12)4 =

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Example 6.3 Timeline 1 2 3 4 200 400 600 800 178.57 318.88 427.07 508.41

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**Multiple Cash Flows – PV Another Example**

You are considering an investment that will pay you $1000 in one year, $2000 in two years and $3000 in three years. If you want to earn 10% on your money, how much would you be willing to pay? N = 1; I/Y = 10; FV = 1000; CPT PV = N = 2; I/Y = 10; FV = 2000; CPT PV = N = 3; I/Y = 10; FV = 3000; CPT PV = PV = = Formula: PV = 1000 / (1.1)1 = PV = 2000 / (1.1)2 = PV = 3000 / (1.1)3 =

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**Annuities and Perpetuities Defined**

Annuity – finite series of equal payments that occur at regular intervals If the first payment occurs at the end of the period, it is called an ordinary annuity If the first payment occurs at the beginning of the period, it is called an annuity due Perpetuity – infinite series of equal payments

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**Annuities and Perpetuities – Basic Formulas**

Perpetuity: PV = C / r Annuities:

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**Annuities and the Calculator**

You can use the PMT key on the calculator for the equal payment The sign convention still holds Ordinary annuity versus annuity due You can switch your calculator between the two types by using the 2nd BGN 2nd Set on the TI BA-II Plus If you see “BGN” or “Begin” in the display of your calculator, you have it set for an annuity due Most problems are ordinary annuities

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Annuity – Example 6.5 You borrow money TODAY so you need to compute the present value. 48 N; 1 I/Y; -632 PMT; CPT PV = 23, ($24,000) Formula:

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**Annuity – Sweepstakes Example**

Suppose you win the Publishers Clearinghouse $10 million sweepstakes. The money is paid in equal annual installments of $333, over 30 years. If the appropriate discount rate is 5%, how much is the sweepstakes actually worth today? 30 N; 5 I/Y; 333, PMT; CPT PV = 5,124,150.29 Formula: PV = 333,333.33[1 – 1/1.0530] / .05 = 5,124,150.29

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Buying a House You are ready to buy a house and you have $20,000 for a down payment and closing costs. Closing costs are estimated to be 4% of the loan value. You have an annual salary of $36,000 and the bank is willing to allow your monthly mortgage payment to be equal to 28% of your monthly income. The interest rate on the loan is 6% per year with monthly compounding (.5% per month) for a 30-year fixed rate loan. How much money will the bank loan you? How much can you offer for the house?

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**Buying a House - Continued**

Bank loan Monthly income = 36,000 / 12 = 3,000 Maximum payment = .28(3,000) = 840 30*12 = 360 N .5 I/Y 840 PMT CPT PV = 140,105 Total Price Closing costs = .04(140,105) = 5,604 Down payment = 20,000 – 5604 = 14,396 Total Price = 140, ,396 = 154,501

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Finding the Payment Suppose you want to borrow $20,000 for a new car. You can borrow at 8% per year, compounded monthly (8/12 = % per month). If you take a 4 year loan, what is your monthly payment? 4(12) = 48 N; 20,000 PV; I/Y; CPT PMT = Formula 20,000 = PMT[1 – 1 / ] / PMT =

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**Finding the Number of Payments – Example 6.6**

The sign convention matters!!! 1.5 I/Y 1000 PV -20 PMT CPT N = MONTHS = 7.75 years And this is only if you don’t charge anything more on the card! You ran a little short on your spring break vacation, so you put $1000 on your credit card. You can only afford to make the minimum payment of $20 per month. The interest rate on the credit card is 1.5 percent per month. How long will you need to pay off the $1,000.

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**Finding the Number of Payments – Another Example**

Suppose you borrow $2000 at 5% and you are going to make annual payments of $ How long before you pay off the loan? Sign convention matters!!! 5 I/Y 2000 PV PMT CPT N = 3 years 2000 = (1 – 1/1.05t) / .05 = 1 – 1/1.05t 1/1.05t = = 1.05t t = ln( ) / ln(1.05) = 3 years

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Finding the Rate Suppose you borrow $10,000 from your parents to buy a car. You agree to pay $ per month for 60 months. What is the monthly interest rate? Sign convention matters!!! 60 N 10,000 PV PMT CPT I/Y = .75%

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**Future Values for Annuities**

Suppose you begin saving for your retirement by depositing $2000 per year in an IRA. If the interest rate is 7.5%, how much will you have in 40 years? Remember the sign convention!!! 40 N 7.5 I/Y -2000 PMT CPT FV = 454,513.04 FV = 2000( – 1)/.075 = 454,513.04

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Annuity Due You are saving for a new house and you put $10,000 per year in an account paying 8%. The first payment is made today. How much will you have at the end of 3 years? 2nd BGN 2nd Set (you should see BGN in the display) 3 N -10,000 PMT 8 I/Y CPT FV = 35,061.12 2nd BGN 2nd Set (be sure to change it back to an ordinary annuity) Formula: FV = 10,000[(1.083 – 1) / .08](1.08) = 35,061.12 What if it were an ordinary annuity? FV = 32,464 (so receive an additional by starting to save today.)

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Annuity Due Timeline 32,464 If you use the regular annuity formula, the FV will occur at the same time as the last payment. To get the value at the end of the third period, you have to take it forward one more period. 35,016.12

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**Perpetuity – Example 6.7 Perpetuity formula: PV = C / r**

Current required return: 40 = 1 / r r = .025 or 2.5% per quarter Dividend for new preferred: 100 = C / .025 C = 2.50 per quarter Suppose the Fellini Co. wants to sell preferred stock at $100 per share. A very similar issue of preferred stock already outstanding has a price of $40 per share and offers a dividend of $1 every quarter. What dividend will Fellini have to offer if the preferred stock is going to sell.

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**Effective Annual Rate (EAR)**

This is the actual rate paid (or received) after accounting for compounding that occurs during the year If you want to compare two alternative investments with different compounding periods you need to compute the EAR and use that for comparison.

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**Annual Percentage Rate**

This is the annual rate that is quoted by law By definition APR = period rate times the number of periods per year Consequently, to get the period rate we rearrange the APR equation: Period rate = APR / number of periods per year You should NEVER divide the effective rate by the number of periods per year – it will NOT give you the period rate

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**Computing APRs What is the APR if the monthly rate is .5%?**

.5(12) = 6% What is the APR if the semiannual rate is .5%? .5(2) = 1% What is the monthly rate if the APR is 12% with monthly compounding? 12 / 12 = 1% Can you divide the above APR by 2 to get the semiannual rate? NO!!! You need an APR based on semiannual compounding to find the semiannual rate.

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Things to Remember You ALWAYS need to make sure that the interest rate and the time period match. If you are looking at annual periods, you need an annual rate. If you are looking at monthly periods, you need a monthly rate. If you have an APR based on monthly compounding, you have to use monthly periods for lump sums, or adjust the interest rate appropriately if you have payments other than monthly

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**Computing EARs - Example**

Suppose you can earn 1% per month on $1 invested today. What is the APR? 1(12) = 12% How much are you effectively earning? FV = 1(1.01)12 = Rate = ( – 1) / 1 = = 12.68% Suppose if you put it in another account, you earn 3% per quarter. What is the APR? 3(4) = 12% FV = 1(1.03)4 = Rate = ( – 1) / 1 = = 12.55%

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**EAR - Formula Remember that the APR is the quoted rate**

m is the number of compounding periods per year

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Decisions, Decisions I You are looking at two savings accounts. One pays 5.25%, with daily compounding. The other pays 5.3% with semiannual compounding. Which account should you use? First account: EAR = ( /365)365 – 1 = 5.39% Second account: EAR = ( /2)2 – 1 = 5.37% Which account should you choose and why? Rates are quoted on an annual basis. The given numbers are APRs, not daily or semiannual rates.

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**Decisions, Decisions I Continued**

Let’s verify the choice. Suppose you invest $100 in each account. How much will you have in each account in one year? First Account: 365 N; 5.25 / 365 = I/Y; 100 PV; CPT FV = Second Account: 2 N; 5.3 / 2 = 2.65 I/Y; 100 PV; CPT FV = You have more money in the first account.

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**Computing APRs from EARs**

If you have an effective rate, how can you compute the APR? Rearrange the EAR equation and you get:

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APR - Example Suppose you want to earn an effective rate of 12% and you are looking at an account that compounds on a monthly basis. What APR must they pay?

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**Computing Payments with APRs**

Suppose you want to buy a new computer system and the store is willing to sell it to allow you to make monthly payments. The entire computer system costs $3500. The loan period is for 2 years and the interest rate is 16.9% with monthly compounding. What is your monthly payment? 2(12) = 24 N; 16.9 / 12 = I/Y; 3500 PV; CPT PMT =

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**Future Values with Monthly Compounding**

Suppose you deposit $50 a month into an account that has an APR of 9%, based on monthly compounding. How much will you have in the account in 35 years? 35(12) = 420 N 9 / 12 = .75 I/Y 50 PMT CPT FV = 147,089.22

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**Present Value with Daily Compounding**

You need $15,000 in 3 years for a new car. If you can deposit money into an account that pays an APR of 5.5% based on daily compounding, how much would you need to deposit? 3(365) = 1095 N 5.5 / 365 = I/Y 15,000 FV CPT PV = -12,718.56

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**Pure Discount Loans – Example 6.12**

Treasury bills are excellent examples of pure discount loans. The principal amount is repaid at some future date, without any periodic interest payments. If a T-bill promises to repay $10,000 in 12 months and the market interest rate is 7 percent, how much will the bill sell for in the market? 1 N; 10,000 FV; 7 I/Y; CPT PV = PV = 10,000 / 1.07 =

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**Interest-Only Loan - Example**

Consider a 5-year, interest-only loan with a 7% interest rate. The principal amount is $10,000. Interest is paid annually. What would the stream of cash flows be? Years 1 – 4: Interest payments of .07(10,000) = 700 Year 5: Interest + principal = 10,700 This cash flow stream is similar to the cash flows on corporate bonds and we will talk about them in greater detail later.

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**Amortized Loan with Fixed Payment - Example**

Each payment covers the interest expense plus reduces principal Consider a 4 year loan with annual payments. The interest rate is 8% and the principal amount is $5000. What is the annual payment? 4 N 8 I/Y 5000 PV CPT PMT =

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Work the Web There are web sites available that can easily prepare amortization tables Check out the Bankrate.com site The monthly payment is $

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© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Discounted Cash Flow Valuation (Formulas) Chapter Six.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Discounted Cash Flow Valuation (Formulas) Chapter Six.

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