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Uniwersytet JagiellońskiInstytut Fizyki Jacek BierońZakład Optyki Atomowej FAMO, Jurata, IX 2006 MCDHF approach to CPT symmetries in heavy atoms

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Uniwersytet JagiellońskiJacek Bieroń MCDHF approach to CPT symmetries in heavy atoms Time reversal possibility is a fascinating story, not only for Faust. All, or better almost all laws of Physics are symmetric: the time arrow can be inverted. Physicist strongly believe in time-charge-parity (CPT) symmetry: inverting the electrical charge, the parity (the left-right hand orientation and the time, the whole Universe would be the same. (See this on last slide). From experiments on beta decay in mid 50’ies we know that the charge parity is not valid itself, from kaon decay we know that CP parity does not hold either. What about time symmetry? Here prof.. J. Bieron from Jagallonian Univeristy describes experiments in Atomic Physics running at Gronningen University: if an atom with the dielectrically moment existed, its presence would violate time reversal. We thank for the kind concession. (comment by Grzegorz Karwasz).

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Parity

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CP and Time-reversal symmetry CP invariance was violated in neutral kaon system. T operation - connects a process with that obtained by running backwards in time: reverses the directions of motion of all components of the system. T symmetry: "initial state final state" can be converted to "final state initial state" by reversing the directions of motion of all particles.

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CPT theorem Define product symmetries, like CP (parity and charge conjugation) a system of antiparticles in the reverse-handed coordinate system symmetry. Combined CPT symmetry is absolutely exact: for any process, its mirror image with antiparticles and time reversed should look exactly as the original CPT theorem. If any one individual (or pair) of the symmetries is broken, there must be a compensating asymmetry in the remaining operation(s) to ensure exact symmetry under CPT operation. The CPT symmetry was checked through the possible difference in masses, lifetimes, electric charges and magnetic moments of particle and antiparticles and was found to be exact down (relative difference in masses).

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C-symmetry violation C invariance was violated in weak interactions because parity was violated, if CP symmetry was assumed to be preserved. Under C operation left-handed neutrinos should transform into left-handed antineutrino, which was not found in nature. However, the combined CP operation transforms left-handed neutrino into right-handed antineutrino, which does exist.

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Time reversal violation and the Electric Dipole Moment J QM: J//d any particle will do d n em d e < em d e (SM) < em find suitable object Schiff need amplifier atomic (Z 3 ) nuclear suitable structure Consider all nuclides time d EDM violates parity and time reversal Why is EDM a TRV observable

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Time reversal violation and EDM TRV is possible in the SM__ CP or T violation in K 0 K 0 d u,c,t s _ _ _ _ _ s u,c,t d K0K0 __ K 0 WW WW V dx immeasurably small otherwise extensions SM have much larger EDM EDM tool for theory selection slides with white background courtesy of Klaus Jungmann & Hans Wilschut (KVI)

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Principle of EDM measurement B E B E - = state preparation detection precession

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EDM Now and in the Future 1.6 Start TRI P 199 Hg Radium potential d e (SM) < NUPECC list

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Independent Particle Model

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Central Field Approximation spherical function radial function

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Hartree-Fock equations

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Hyperfine structure magnetic dipole electric quadrupole

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Relativistic correction Non-Rel. Rel.Non-Rel. Rel. f - expansion d - expansion... s - contraction 1s 2s 3s 7s 4d 4f

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Corrections: radium vs lithium RaLi

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CPT invariance by M. C. Escher mirror image time time matter anti-matterstart identical to start anti-particle particle e + e - PCT From H.W. Wilschut

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What ? Transition rates and energies „Benchmark” for chemistry Astrophysics, plasma physics, spectroscopy Hyperfine struktures, isotope shifts Nuclear structure, NMR P- (spatial inwersion) & T- (time reversal) violation QED tests, time/frequency standards Thank you for your attention Schiff moments, PNC amplitudes … and why?

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Co-Producers (in alphabetical order) Jacek Bieroń Uniwersytet Jagielloński ( ) Charlotte Froese Fischer Vanderbilt University (38) Stephan Fritzsche Universität Kassel Ian Grant University of Oxford (9) Paul Indelicato l’Université Paris VI (41) Per Jönsson Malmö Högskola Pekka Pyykkö Helsingin Yliopisto (72) Michel Godefroid Université Libre Bruxelles ( ) T-foils = thanks to Klaus Jungmann & Hans Wilschut (KVI)

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