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The Era of Good Feelings or Was It?

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1 The Era of Good Feelings or Was It?
APUSH - Spiconardi

2 Nationalism After the War of 1812, America emerged with a heightened sense of nationalism “Victory” over Britain Westward expansion brought optimism Reduced sectionalism Citizens began to see themselves as Americans as opposed to state citizens first Cultural nationalism End of Federalist led to a one party system “Everyone” was a Republican

3 The American System The War of 1812 demonstrated that the United States lacked infrastructure and funds Military was not properly equipped Transportation of supplies was difficult Funds were limited Fortifications needed strengthening In his annual address to Congress in 1815, Madison put forth a plan to strengthen the national economy

4 The American System NATIONAL REPUBLICANS Henry Clay John C. Calhoun
Congressional Representative from Kentucky (Speaker of the House) Originally against a national bank, Clay believed circumstances had made on necessary Despite retaining his belief in an agrarian republic, Clay believed agriculture must be complimented by manufacturing. Representative from South Carolina Proposed bill for a second Bank of the United States (BUS) Supported federal funds for infrastructure NATIONAL REPUBLICANS Let us bind the nation together, with a perfect system of roads and canals. Let us conquer space

5 The American System Provide Economic Growth Road Building Canals
Northern factory workers would form a market for agricultural products from the South and West Southern and western farmers would buy manufactured products from the North Road Building National Road from Cumberland, MD to Ohio River Valley Canals Connect the Great Lakes and Mississippi River to the Atlantic seaboard Tariffs Protect goods produced in America

6 *Madison vetoes the bill on the eve of leaving the presidency
The American System Opposition Many Jeffersonian Republicans argued against the use of federal money for infrastructure The Vote (1817) Congress passed legislation which enacted an internal-improvements plan Surprisingly, Madison* vetoes it Madison believed allowing the federal government to exercise powers not appropriated in the Constitution would be dangerous to individual liberty and southern interests If we restricted the use of money to the enumerated powers , on what principle can the purchase of Louisiana be justified? *Madison vetoes the bill on the eve of leaving the presidency

7 The Tariff of 1816 Passed with the purpose of protecting American industry against foreign competition Tariff was the first “protective tariff” in history at 20% South opposed the tariff Calhoun one of the few Southerners who voted in favor of the tariff He believed the tariff would enable the south to develop a manufacturing center to rival New England’s. And tariff would be reduced after 3 years

8 The Second Bank of the United States
A second national bank was chartered in 1816 Powers Issued paper money Paid government’s debt Open branches Grant government loans Old Republicans and western settlers opposed the bank

9 Elections of 1816 & 1820 James Monroe is elected president in 1816 and re-elected in 1820 In 1820 Monroe essentially ran unopposed Fun Facts James is the most popular presidential first name Monroe is the last president elected who had attended Constitutional Convention Monroe last president elected from Virginia dynasty Monroe is last president to dress in the “old style”

10 James Monroe Era of Good Feelings
“Never before, perhaps, since the institution of civil government, did the same harmony, the same absence of party spirit, the same national feeling, pervade a community.” ~ Washington’s National Intelligencer, July 1817 Era of Good Feelings Monroe undertook a goodwill tour in 1817 to inspect military defenses Monroe visited every state in the nation Personable demeanor made him extremely popular Monroe hoped to preside over the decline of political parties

11 James Monroe Cabinet Surrounds himself with national Republicans
John Quincy Adams (Sec. of State) John C. Calhoun (Sec. of War) Despite his cabinet, he often vetoed legislation that extended economic nationalism and the American System Believed amendments had to be passed to eliminate all doubt about federal authority pertaining to infrastructural improvements

12 Panic of 1819 BUS did not regulate the issuance of paper money
Value of paper currency fluctuated Land speculation Price of land plummeted All those who invested in western real estate lost millions Demand for American goods dropped off Europeans did not buy as much Repayment of loans Banks start asking for loan repayment Farmers and businessmen could not payback the loans Many filed for bankruptcy


14 Panic of 1819 Impact Distrust of BUS
Several southern states levy taxes against the local branches of BUS Debt relief Western states suspend collection of debts Kentucky establishes a state bank Prints money and requires creditors to accept it for payments of loans Division within Republican Party Growing sectionalism North demands higher tariffs South withdraws the limited support it had from economic nationalism There has been within these two years an immense revolution of fortunes in every part of the Union; enormous numbers of persons utterly ruined; multitudes in deep distress


16 Era of Good Feelings or Was It?

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