Presentation on theme: "Foodborne Illness Can Cause More than a Stomach Ache!"— Presentation transcript:
1Foodborne Illness Can Cause More than a Stomach Ache! MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines
2Lincoln-Lancaster County Health Dept. Alice Henneman, MS, RD Joyce Jensen, REHSLincoln-Lancaster County Health Dept.Alice Henneman, MS, RDUniversity of Nebraska Cooperative Extension in Lancaster CountyJune 2005
3Acknowledgments This slide set is based on information provided by: United States Department of AgricultureUnited States Department of Health & Human ServicesFor more information, visit:
4Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year: 76 million people become ill5,000 people die
5Dehydration (sometimes severe) Signs and symptomsFeverDiarrheaUpset stomachDehydration (sometimes severe)Vomiting
6Possible more severe conditions MeningitisParalysis
7Don’t count on these to test for food safety! SightSmellTaste
8Even IF tasting would tell … Why risk getting sick? A “tiny taste” may not protect you … as few as 10 bacteria could cause some foodborne illnesses!
9Why gamble with your health? It takes about ½ hour to 6 weeks to become ill from unsafe foods.You may become sick later even if you feel OK after eating.
10Why risk other people’s health? Is the food safe for everyone at the table?Some people have a greater risk for foodborne illnesses. A food you safely eat might make others sick.
11People with a higher risk of foodborne illness InfantsYoung children and older adultsPregnant womenPeople with weakened immune systems and individuals with certain chronic diseases
12Be a winner!Increase your odds of preventing a foodborne illness in YOUR HOME!
13“Key recommendations” for food safety The 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines give five “Key Recommendations” for food safety.Source:
14Recommendation 1: CLEAN Clean hands, food-contact surfaces, fruits and vegetables.Do NOT wash or rinse meat and poultry as this could spread bacteria to other foods.
15Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness. Wash your hands!Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness.
16How to wash hands Wet hands with WARM water. Soap and scrub for 20 seconds.Rinse under clean, running water.Dry completely using a clean cloth or paper towel.
17Wash hands after … AND before ... Sneezing, blowing nose & coughing Handling petsSneezing, blowing nose & coughingUsing bathroom or changing diapersAND before ...Touching a cut or open soreHandling food
18Clean during food preparation Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops in hot soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next.
19Avoid spreading bacteria Use paper towels or clean cloths to wipe up kitchen surfaces or spills.Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your washing machine and dry in a hot dryer.
20Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria Wet or damp dishcloths are ideal environments for bacterial growth.Have a good supply of dishcloths to avoid reusing them before laundry day.There are more germs in the average kitchen than the bathroom. Sponges and dishcloths are worst offenders. ~ research by Dr. Charles Gerba
21Recommendation 2: SEPARATE Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods.
22Use different cutting boards Use one cutting board for fresh produce and a separate one for raw meat, poultry and seafood.
23When groovy isn’t a good thing Replace cutting boards if they become excessively worn or develop hard-to-clean grooves.
24Use clean platesNEVER serve foods on a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry or seafood unless the plate has first been washed in hot, soapy water.
25Recommendation 3: COOKCook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
26ThermyTM temperature recommendations Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
27Chicken and turkeyThermy™ says: Cook chicken and turkey (whole birds, legs, thighs & wings) to 180 degrees F.
28HamThermy™ says: A "cook before eating" ham should reach 160 degrees F. To reheat a fully-cooked ham, heat it to 140 degrees F.
29Ground meatsThermy™ says: Cook hamburger, ground beef and other ground meats to 160 degrees F and ground poultry to 165 degrees F.
30LeftoversThermy™ says: Reheat leftovers until a temperature of 165 degrees F is reached throughout the product.
31Thermy™ says: Cook egg dishes such as quiche to 160 degrees F.
32Beef, lamb & veal steaksThermy™ says: Cook beef, lamb and veal steaks and roasts to 160 degrees F for medium doneness (145 degrees F for medium rare).
33TurkeyThermy™ says: A turkey is done when the temperature in the inner thigh reaches 180 degrees F.
35The ONLY way to know food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer!
36Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature? Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
37ABThis is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked.Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135 degrees F.This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperature of 160 degrees F, even though it's pink inside.Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
381 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
40DIGITAL instant-read Reads in 10 seconds Place at least ½ inch deep (or as directed by manufacturer)Gives fast readingCan measure temperature in thin and thick foodsNot designed to remain in food while it's cookingCheck internal temperature of food near the end of cooking timeSome models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructionsAvailable in "kitchen" storesSource: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
41DIAL instant-read Reads in 15-20 seconds Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of foodCan be used in roasts, casseroles, and soupsTemperature is averaged along probe, from tip to 2-3 inches up the stemCannot measure thin foods unless inserted sidewaysNot designed to remain in food while it is cookingUse to check the internal temperature of a food at the end of cooking timeSome models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructionsReadily available in storesSource: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
42Dial oven-safe Reads in 1-2 minutes Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of foodCan be used in roasts, casseroles, and soupsNot appropriate for thin foodsCan remain in food while it's cookingHeat conduction of metal stem can cause false high readingSome models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructionsSource: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
43Oven probe with cord Can be used in most foods Can also be used outside the ovenDesigned to remain in the food while it is cooking in oven or in covered potBase unit sits on stovetop or counterCannot be calibratedSource: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
44Disposable temperature indicators (Single-use) Reads in secondsPlace approximately ½ inch deep (follow manufacturer's directions)Designed to be used only onceDesigned for specific temperature rangesShould only be used with food for which they are intendedTemperature-sensitive material changes color when the desired temperature is reachedSource: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
45Thermometer-fork combination Reads in 2-10 secondsPlace at least ¼ inch deep in thickest part of foodCan be used in most foodsNot designed to remain in food while it is cookingSensor in tine of fork must be fully insertedCheck internal temperature of food near end of cooking timeCannot be calibratedConvenient for grillingSource: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
46Placing a food thermometer Place in the thickest part of food.Do NOT touch bone, fat, or gristle.Begin checking temperature toward the end of cooking, but before the food is expected to be "done."For irregularly shaped food – such as with a beef roast – check the temperature in several places.Clean thermometer with hot soapy water before and after each use!
47Using a thermometer in thinner foods For thinner foods such as meat patties, pork chops and chicken breasts, a DIGITAL instant-read food thermometer should be used if possible – as it doesn’t have to be inserted as far as a DIAL instant-read thermometer.Disposable temperature indicators are another option.For really thin foods, it may be necessary to insert a digital thermometer or disposable temperature indicator at an angle.
48Using a thermometer in thinner foods For an "instant-read" DIAL food thermometer, insert the probe in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2-3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food.When grilling or frying, to avoid burning fingers, it may be helpful to remove the food from the heat source before inserting the thermometer.
50The TWO-hour ruleRefrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time at room temperature is less than TWO hours or only ONE hour when temperature is above 90 degrees F.Perishable foods include:Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofuDairy productsPasta, rice, cooked vegetablesFresh, peeled/cut fruits and vegetables
51Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40 and 140 degrees F. DANGER ZONEBacteria multiply rapidly between 40 and 140 degrees F.
52Bacteria numbers can double in 20 minutes! A multiplication quizBacteria numbers can double in 20 minutes!How many bacteria will grow from 1 BACTERIA left at room temperature 7 hours?
53Refrigerate perishable foods within TWO hours. Answer: 2,097,152!Refrigerate perishable foods within TWO hours.
54How to be cool – part 1Cool food in shallow containers. Limit depth of food to 2 inches or less.Place very hot foods on a rack at room temperature for about 20 minutes before refrigeration.
55How to be cool – part 2It’s OK to refrigerate foods while they’re still warm.Leave container cover slightly cracked until the food has cooled.
56Recommended refrigerator & freezer temperatures Set refrigerator at 40 degrees F or below.Set freezer at 0 degrees F.
57Place an appliance thermometer in your refrigerator AND freezer
58Monitor refrigerator & freezer temperatures Place thermometer in the front of refrigerator/freezer in an easy-to-read location.Check temperature regularly – at least once a week.
59The THAW LAW Plan ahead to defrost foods. The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.
60When to leave your leftovers Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days.If in doubt, toss it out!
61~ seen on a refrigerator magnet Time to toss …"If it walks out, let it go!"~ seen on a refrigerator magnet
62Recommendation 5: AVOID... Raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk productsRaw or partially cooked eggs and foods containing raw eggsRaw and undercooked meat and poultryUnpasteurized juicesRaw sproutsMost at risk are infants, young children, pregnant women, older adults and the immunocompromised.
63Food safety recommendations for food groups The 2005 MyPyramid gives specific food safety recommendations for each food group.
65Cleaning fruits & vegetables Remove and discard outer leaves.Rinse under clean, running water just before preparing or eating.Rub briskly – scrubbing with a clean brush or hands – to remove dirt and surface microorganisms.Don’t use soap or detergent.
66Cleaning fruits & vegetables After washing, dry with a clean cloth or paper towel.Moisture left on produce may promote survival and growth of microorganisms. Drying is critical if food won’t be eaten or cooked right away.Cut away bruised and damaged areas.
67Wash this produce, too!Bacteria on the outside of fruits can be transferred to the inside when the fruit is peeled or cut.Wash fruits – such as cantaloupe and other melons – under running water.
68Handling fruits & vegetables Cover and refrigerate cut/peeled fruits and vegetables.TOSS cut/peeled fresh produce if left at room temperature longer than TWO hours.
69Separate fruits & vegetables from other foods Keep fruits and vegetables separate from raw meat, poultry and seafood while shopping, preparing or storing them.
70Read labelsRead labels on bagged produce to determine if it is ready-to-eat.Ready-to-eat, prewashed, bagged produce can be used without further washing if kept refrigerated and used by the “use-by” date.
72Do NOT drink milk directly from the carton. Dairy do’s and don’tsAvoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products such as some soft cheeses.Refrigerate dairy foods promptly. Discard dairy foods left at room temperature for more than two hours – even if they look and smell good.Do NOT drink milk directly from the carton.
74Avoid washing raw meat & poultry Do NOT wash raw meat and poultry. Washing is not necessary.Washing increases the danger of cross-contamination, spreading bacteria present on the surface of meat and poultry to ready-to-eat foods, kitchen utensils, and counter surfaces.
75Refrigerator storageStore raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator so juices don’t drip onto other foods.
76Cook to safe temperatures Avoid raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs and raw/undercooked meat and poultry.Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm, not runny.
77Signs of safely cooked fish Fin fish: Slip point of sharp knife into flesh; pull aside. Edges should be opaque, the center slightly translucent with flakes beginning to separate. Let stand 3 to 4 minutes to finish cooking. Shrimp, lobsters & crab: Turn red and flesh becomes pearly opaque. Scallops: Turn milky white or opaque and firm. Clams, mussels & oysters: Watch for their shells opening to know they’re done. Toss those that stay closed.The US Food & Drug Administration recommends cooking most seafood to an internal temperature of 145 degrees F for 15 seconds.Source: United States Food & Drug Administration
78Specific group recommendations These groups should avoid some types of fish and eat types lower in mercury:Pregnant women and those who may become pregnantNursing mothersYoung childrenFor more information: dms/admehg3.html or call SAFEFOOD.
79Specific group recommendations Pregnant women, older adults, and the immunocompromised should only eat deli meats and frankfurters that have been reheated to steaming hot to avoid the risk of listeriosis.
81Should you keep or toss … Pizza left on the counter overnight?
82Toss it out!Even if you reheat pizza left on the counter overnight, some bacteria can form a heat resistant toxin that cooking won’t destroy.
83Should you keep or toss … Hamburger thawed on the kitchen counter?
84Toss it out!As with pizza left out more than TWO hours, bacteria may have formed heat-resistant toxins.The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.Thaw packages of meat, poultry and seafood on a plate on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator to prevent their juices from dripping on other foods.
85Should you keep or toss … Perishable food left out from the noon meal until the evening meal?
86Toss it out!Perishable foods – such as meats, gravy and cooked vegetables – should be refrigerated within TWO hours.
87Should you keep or toss … Pumpkin pie stored at room temperature overnight?
88Toss it out!Foods with eggs, milk, and a high moisture content – such as pumpkin pie – must be refrigerated.Avoid keeping pumpkin pie at room temperature more than TWO hours, including time after baking AND before being served.Some commercial pumpkin pies –purchased at room temperature – must later be refrigerated. Check label for storage requirements and don’t buy them if label directions are unclear or missing.
89Should you keep or toss … Cut/peeled fruits and vegetables at room temperature for over TWO hours?
90Toss it out!Once you have cut through the protective skin of fruits and vegetables, bacteria can enter.Refrigerate cut or peeled fruits and vegetables within TWO hours.
91Should you keep or toss … Leftovers in the refrigerator for over a week?
92Toss it out!Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days.You can’t always see or smell if a food is unsafe. It may be unsafe to taste a food.
93Should you keep or toss … A FULL pot of chicken soup stored in the refrigerator while still hot?
94…(can you guess?)How long would it take an 8-inch stock pot of steaming chicken soup to cool to a safe temperature in your refrigerator?
95Would you believe … 24 hours! TOSS IT OUT!Remember: Transfer hot foods to shallow containers to speed cooling.
96Should you keep or toss … A turkey in your freezer for five years?
97You decide!Food kept frozen at 0 degrees F is still safe to eat. However, it may not taste as good.To assure best flavor, eat a frozen turkey within a year.