Presentation on theme: "Changing Rural Environments:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Changing Rural Environments: Unit 2: section AIn the human paper you will have to answer 3 questions; 1 on changing rural environments, 1 on population change and 1 on tourism. The paper is 1:30hrs long therefore you should aim to spend 30 minutes on each question.
2 The Syllabus Opposite is a copy of the syllabus for this unit of work. It should help you to highlight any gaps in your notes and learning.
3 Truth wall, Cornwall OR Longnor, Peak District A case study of a commercial farming area in the UK toillustrate the following points:The development of agri-businesses and the impact ofmodern farming practices on the environment.Demands from the market with reference to the demands ofthe supermarket chains and food processing firms.Competition from the global market.Development of organic farming.Government policies aimed at reducing the environmentaleffects of high impact farming.A case study of a rural area in the UK to illustrate thefollowing points:Reasons for and consequences of rural depopulation and the decline in rural services in remote areas.The characteristics and factors significant to a declining village.Growth in the ownership of second homes.Main Case StudiesTruth wall, Cornwall OR Longnor, Peak DistrictEast Anglia
4 Key idea no.1The rural-urban fringe is under intense pressure due to urban sprawl and the increasing mobility of the population.
5 What is the rural urban fringe? Over time cities have expanded outwards, along with their influence on the surrounding area. This transitional zone between the countryside and the city is known as the rural-urban fringe (where residents live in the countryside but tend to work and socialise in the city).
6 Why is the rural urban fringe under pressure? The rural-urban fringe is under pressure from urban sprawl. This is the expansion of cities outwards into the surrounding countryside. This is because the population of the UK is continuing to rise and the number of households is increasing.Modern technology, including the use of , video-calling, fast internet connections and teleworking, offers people and businesses greater flexibility as to where work takes place. Over the last 60 years the development of a 3500 kilometre motorway network has made cities more easily accessible for affluent motorists living in the countrysideThis means that people no longer need to live in urban areas to make a living!
7 Why is the rural urban fringe so important? Can you think of any out-of-town retail developments in the rural-urban fringe in Bristol?Does it have free parking? Is there lots of space? What is the infrastructure like around the area?The rural urban fringe is under pressure because the land is relatively cheap compared to urban areas. This makes it attractive to developers. They are very accessible as motorways often run through or past them linking them to the city and other areas. There is also more space available to build large developments such as business and retail parks.The Mall at Cribbs Causeway. It has free par
8 The Mall at Cribbs Causeway Free ParkingGood links/accessibility with M32 (to Bristol) M5 to the south and midlands (Birmingham) and M4 (Wales and London).All under one roof – large scale development due to the cheap cost of the landLocal people who wanted to retain their tranquil/rural living; environmentalists; shops and businesses in the city centre perhaps…Who do you think might have been opposed to building the Mall?
9 Look at this cartoon – what do you think it is saying about the impacts of urban sprawl on the countryside?
10 The impact of urban sprawl on the countryside Longer journeys by car from the edge of the city centreMore pollutionMore traffic congestion and gridlockWildlife habitats destroyed and fragmented leading to wildlife numbers and diversity decliningThe number of ‘tranquil’ areas have decreased by a third in the last 40 years.
11 Responses and Strategies for the future Planners in the UK decided that green belts were the best way to stop urban sprawl. Such areas were located around urban areas to slow the rate of urban growth.However…this doesn’t always work as development either eats into the green belt or simply leapfrogs the projected land and continues on the higher quality countryside beyond.Therefore urban sprawl is likely to continue in light of the fact that the government wants to build 3 million new homes by 2020 (with a quarter to be located on green belt land!).
12 Click on the question to find the answer Past Paper QuestionsPages 174 and 175 in Understanding GCSE Geography may helpClick on the question to find the answer
13 Suburbanised Villages A suburbanised village has residential population who sleep in the village but who travel to work in a nearby urban area. They have expanded as part of the larger process of counter-urbanisation.The characteristics of a suburbanised village: it is an original village core; infilling of houses between old houses; houses built along roads leading out of the village in ribbon developments and larger planned estates located outside the village core.
14 How might suburbanised villages be changing? Using page 176 in understanding GCSE geography, write one way in which suburbanised villages are changing under the following headings:PopulationHousingEmploymentServicesSocialTransportEnvironment
15 Key idea no. 2Remote rural areas have undergone social and economic changes.
16 Case Study: Cornwall – the social & economic changes in rural areas To understand general causes and results of rural depopulation in Cornwall.To be able to recognise the features of a village in decline.To understand why holiday and second homes are growing.To realise the consequences of decline for rural services, income levels and standards of living.
17 Key word: rural depopulation Decline in numbers living in countryside areas, often due to out-migration
18 Where is Cornwall?Located in the remote south west corner of England, Cornwall is the county next to Devon. It is far from the core region of the south-east of England.
19 Why are remote rural areas in Cornwall in decline? Reduction in traditional employment due to:Declining labour requirements on mechanised farms;Increased competition from abroad;Exhaustion of natural resources (e.g. tin, copper & china clay).
20 Is everybody leaving Cornwall? Rural depopulation occurred between 1860 and From the 1960s onwards however, people began to move back to the countryside. The vast majority of these people were elderly, attracted by the mild climate and beautiful scenery. A quarter of the half million population here is over state pensionable age (compared to 19% across the UK). Today, the number of births is 4500 and the number of deaths is 6000 a year, giving a natural population decrease. Out migration of the younger, economically active population in search of education, jobs and affordable homes continues.
21 What are the results of rural depopulation in Cornwall? Rural depopulation tends to now be confined to the most isolated rural areas, this results in the following problems:An ageing population;A decline in services;Rural poverty;Isolation.
22 The Cycle of rural decline Reduced wealth & demand for rural servicesPopulation declineDecline in traditional rural employmentReduced rate of natural increaseDeterioration in age/sex structureFewer employment opportunitiesEmigration
23 The characteristics of a declining village HousingPopulationEmploymentServices & transportSocialEnvironment
24 The consequences of rural depopulation Increase in second homes causes house prices to riseDecline in rural servicesRural poverty
25 The increase in second homes A first time home in Cornwall is now more unaffordable than in London
26 The effect on rural services The availability of services in the rural parishes in England is in decline.The amount of rural parishes without key services remained high.Decreases in:Banks, petrol stations, dentists, post offices & job centresIncreases in:supermarkets, cashpoints, pubs & restaurants
27 The consequences of rural depopulation When areas become saturated with second home owners, those living near the poverty line become hidden in statistics.The 4 poorest wards in west Cornwall have more than ¼ are living in poverty.Penwith has the lowest rate of economic activity in south-west England.Out-migration is prevalent.It is estimated that by /3 of the population will be retired – this will put even more pressure on health & recreational services & shrink services for the young.The minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living.
28 Key idea no.3Attempts should be made to ensure that rural living is sustainable.
29 Lack of control over economic and social issues Rural areas are disappearing under concrete at a rate of 54 sq km a year. Can rural areas be protected and sustainably developed a the same time?The Rural Delivery Review, published in 2003 by the Department for the Environment, Farming and Rural Affairs (Defra) recognised the problems of the countryside, including:Lack of control over economic and social issuesThe loss of rural services and the complex and confusing system of rural funding
30 The Government established Natural England to conserve and manage tourism Other organisations…Environmental Stewardship SchemeTo conserve wildlifeIncrease biodiversityImprove landscape qualityProvide flood managementPromote public access to the countrysideRural Development ProgrammesTo support sustainable farming methods by investing £1.6bn in various schemes (between 2000 and 2006).It has 3 objectives:Conserving natural resourcesProtecting the environmentSustainable rural living
31 Key idea no. 4Commercial farming in favoured agricultural areas is subject to a number of human influences.
32 Farm types and key terms Arable (crops)Pastoral (animals)Mixed (bothDairy (cows)Hill SheepMarket gardening (e.g. flowers)Intensive - high labour and money (capital)Extensive - larger in size, low input and outputs per hectareSubsistence - producing food for yourself (mainly in LEDW)Commercial - farmers grow crops and rear animals to sell and make a profitNomadic - shifting cultivation or seasonal movements of livestock or pastureSedentary - farming in a fixed locationAgri-business Large scale (Commercial) farming enterprises/several farms joined together to form one business.
33 Case Study: Arable farming – changes and damage to the landscape (East Anglia) Physical FactorsFlat landFertile SoilsThe sand, loam (a mix of sand and clay) and chalk soils are suitable for vegetables, fruit and root cropsLong growing seasonGood rainfallHuman FactorsLocated close to large urban areas (inc. London) which provides a large wealthy marketNext to the M11 motorway and A1 which allows for rapid transport of the produce to market)Arable farming is both intensive and commercial (cash crops are sold for profit). It takes place primarily in the South East of England. The following is a list of human and physical factors that make this area ideal for farming crops:
34 These changes show the development of large scale agribusiness Case Study: Arable farming – changes and damage to the landscape (East Anglia)1940/50sFarms were smallField size smallOutput lower/less intensiveHedgerows presentCrop rotation used (to replace nitrogen in the soil)Animals kept as part of rotationFarms were mixedEmploying large numbers of peopleTodayFarms are more intensiveCrop rotation disappeared - chemical fertilizer used so crops are grown in same field year on yearHerbicides and pesticides usedMechanization - reduce labour requiredImproved buildings (e.g. drying sheds for grain - temperature controlled)Agribusiness/AgrichemicalsHedgerows removed so that field size can be increasedMore land cultivated (known as extensification – woodland cleared)e.g. Higham Farm East AngliaThese changes show the development of large scale agribusiness
35 The ‘Hedgerow Problem’ Hedge cutting machinery is very expensiveHedges make the edges and corners of fields difficult to farmMany wild birds nest in hedgerowsHedgerow insects help pollinate cropsHedges help prevent soil erosion (thus cutting hedgerows increases soil erosion)Hedges provide shelter for small animalsHedge control takes up a farmers timeInsects and animals living in hedgerows may damage crops)Hedges look attractiveHedgerows protect crops from the windHedges used up land that could be farmedWeeds from hedgerows could spread into fieldsIn addition to the Hedgerow problem, other changes in farming in MEDCs have also caused:Nitrate pollution in rivers and lakes from the overuse of fertilizer (fish die due to lack of oxygen caused by eutrophication)2. Cheap imports threaten domestic producers thus forcing them to diversify to survive.
36 What can be done to solve these problems? Increasing field size – qualify for a grant to replant hedges/build stone walls as boundaries and so reducing size of fields.Overuse of chemicals – encourage the use of natural fertilisers and the expansion of organic farmingGrowth of factory farming – ban the battery farming of chickens, encourage greater free range production.
37 Demands from the market: In the past, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) guaranteed farmers a minimum price for their crop. They were also given subsidies (money ) for what they produced). This led to overproduction of food (food surpluses). Subsidies are planned to be phased out however, by Supermarkets now have the power…
38 Supermarkets and food processing firms Supermarkets and food suppliers have considerable power over farmers. Supermarkets have high standards and often demand produce of a certain size/weight etc. They set the prices and the farmers have no choice in what they get paid for their goods. In turn food processing firms are under pressure from the supermarkets too. This means that will only want to buy products a low prices. All this means is that the farmer often sells their produce at a loss.To cut down on costs many factories are located close to farms. This means food can be processed quickly whilst it is still fresh e.g. Birds Eye peas are frozen within one hour of picking.
39 Government policies aimed at reducing the environmental effects of farming: Over the past couple of decades farmers have been paid by the Government and the EU not to produce so much food but instead to ‘set-aside’ land to improve wildlife habitats and encourage biodiversity (a wider range of wildlife). This was all part of CAP (common agricultural policy). Today CAP money is spent on improving animal welfare and environmental standards across the EU.Environmental stewardshipIn 2005 farmers were offered incentives to conserve wildlife, maintain and enhance (improve) the landscape and protect natural resources e.g. Seed new hedgerows, leave grass headlands around fields and leave streams/ponds etc untouched.Energy crop schemeFarmers now get paid to produce biofuels instead of food e.g. Straw-fired power station, Ely, Cambridgeshire.
40 Organic farming:This does not use synthetic chemicals such as pesticides and insecticides. This is better for the health of the farm workers, wildlife and environment. This type of farming is expanding in the UK. It accounts for 1.6% of all farms and is worth £2 billion per year.Where do people buy their organic produce?Why don’t all farms produce organically?
41 Key idea no. 5Sub-tropical and tropical rural areas are increasingly subject to change and conflict.
42 Subsistence food production in subtropical areas: the Amazon Rainforest Shifting cultivation (sometimes called slash and burn) is the main example of subsistence farming in the rainforest. This is when Amazonian tribes clear a patch of land leaving a few large trees for protection (about 1 hectare) and burn it so that the ash fertilises the soil. The main crop ‘manioc’ is planted with yams, beans and pumpkins in clearings called ‘chagras’. After the nutrients are gone, the Amazonians move on to farm another piece of land, allowing the area to recover. This type of farming is sustainable.
43 The impact of soil erosion in the rainforest Soil erosion is caused by:DeforestationCultivation on slopesRanchingHeavy machinery compacting the soilMiningPlantations of one crop (monoculture)Over cultivationIrrigation without soil drainageOvergrazingThe impact of soil erosion:The cycle in the rainforest is delicate. Without trees (after deforestation) there is no layer of humus (made of rotting leaves) to add organic nutrients to the soil. The lack of tress also means less interception so heavy rain washes the soil away. This can cause ‘gullying’ which is when the water carves out gully-shaped hollows in the soil. Rivers flood more frequently due to receiving more water. The soil quickly loses its fertility.
44 The impact of forestry and mining The 5000 miles of the Trans Amazon Highway built in the 1960s has brought development at a cost to the Amazon.As much as 80% of deforestation has occurred within 30km of official roads. Clear felling has supplied many jobs and incomes to the people of Brazil. Local people are now also involved in soya farming and ranching which now dominates the landscape. This is known as ‘cash cultivation’ or ‘commercial farming’.Land in tropical regions is also being cleared for mining operations and oil exploration. Open pit mining for precious metals for example, requires tress to be felled. The soils are then pumped with water across sieves. The heavy metals remain on the sieves as the water and sediment are washed away. Mercury added to amalgamate gold then enters the water and pollutes the river systems. Silt added to the river system can also kill fish.
45 Changes to agriculture caused by irrigation and appropriate technology developments. Irrigation is the artificial watering of the land and is used by farmers in dry climates. Water can be transferred to the field by simple gravity fed canals dug away from rivers with earthen banks and sluice gates that open and allow river water and nutrients to flood fields. Wells or holes dug down to the water table provide water for individual farms.
46 The Aswan Dam: EgyptIn Egypt, water management of the Nile allows rice, sugar cane etc. to be grown. These feed the growing population. This is good for a number of reasons:Assured Water SupplyDesert reclaimed for farmlandCultivated are doubled from 4% to 8%No longer any risk from summer floodsElectricity supply from HEP for the whole country
47 The impact of irrigation Human mismanagement of the land in the Indus valley in Pakistan on the edge of the Thar desert has converted marginal land to desert (desertification). Soil erosion is a prominent here due to over cultivation and over grazing. Salinization and water logging are frequent occurrences. Salinization occurs when high temperatures draw water and salts up through the soil via capillary action. This causes the soil to become saline and encourages the development of a thick crust which does not allow water to infiltrate causing water logging.
48 Appropriate Technology Sustainability can be achieved by providing a level of technology in terms of size and complexity that makes it suitable for use by local people (appropriate technology). Projects should therefore be small scale, affordable, suited to the local environment and improve their lives for today and generations to comes.
49 Appropriate Technology Examples…Rainwater conservationSoil conservationContour ploughingSee page 189 in New Understanding GCSE geography for an explanation of how these work
50 The impact of rural-urban migration and failing agricultural systems. As the population grows, people are moving in greater numbers to urban areas from rural areas in search of better opportunities.What are the impacts? Look to your revision guide/notes/page 189 in New Understanding GCSE Geography.
51 Improvements in agriculture in the Tropics Improved irrigation so that crops can be grown all year round and yields increasedImproved technology such as ploughs, seed drills and biogas plants to power machinery. This must be appropriate!The Green Revolution in the 1960/70s provided farmers with new high yield varieties of rice which helped them to produce more. Recent population growth has seen some countries importing food as production cannot keep up with demand.Growing cash crops to make a profit rather than subsistence farming. Big companies (TNCs) have helped here because they bring investment and create jobs e.g. rubber in Malaysia, tea in India
52 Past paper questions What is ‘agri-business’? (1 mark) Explain how the demands of supermarkets and food processing firms affect farming (4 marks)The following is a list of some of the features of modern farming methods.• Increasing field size• Overuse of chemicals• Factory farmingChoose two of the features listed or others that you have studied.Explain how the negative environmental effects of these features could be reduced. (4 marks)
53 Past paper questionsDescribe how tropical agriculture can be improved. (8 marks)Using example(s) explain why many developments are taking place in the rural-urban fringe. (8 marks)
54 Past paper questions6. Study Figures 7a and 7b, which are a map showing the percentage of houses which are second homes in the Lake District National Park, and a map of the Lake District National Park and the surrounding areas.7. What is a second home? (1 mark)8. Using Figures 7a and 7b, describe the distribution of second homes in theLake District National Park (4 marks)9. With the help of Figure 7b, suggest reasons for the distribution of secondhomes in the Lake District National Park shown on Figure 7a (2 marks)
55 Glossary of Key TermsAgri-business – type of farming that is run as a big business (no longer a way of life)Cash crop farming – crops grown for sale instead of farmer’s own use (the opposite of subsistence farming)Commercial farming – type of agriculture based on growing crops or rearing livestock for saleCommuter – person who travels to work in another place every day by car or public transportCounter-urbanisation - the movement of people from urban areas into the surrounding countrysideEnvironmental degradation – productive land turned into wasteland by damage to the soilFood miles – distance that food travels between supplier and supermarket shelfFunction (of a settlement) – what it does, why it is there, e.g. capital city, port, industrial centreLand uses (urban) – ways in which the Earth’s surface is used, e.g. houses, factories, shops, transport, parks in towns and citiesOrganic farming – type of agriculture that does not use chemicals and artificial growth stimulants; farming in a natural and sustainable wayQuality of life – how well a person is able to enjoy living; high quality is living comfortably (without always being wealthy) and low quality is struggling to survive
56 Glossary of Key TermsRural depopulation – decline in numbers living in country areas, often due to out-migrationRural–urban fringe – area of countryside lying on the edge of the main built-up area, sometimes partly built onSecond home – house (often in rural areas) that is not the owner’s main place of residenceSubsistence farming – type of agriculture based on growing crops and rearing livestock mainly to feed the familySuburbanised village – small settlement in the countryside that has grown with new housing and now is less like the old rural settlement it used to beUrban sprawl – outward spread of towns and cities into and taking over rural areasUrbanisation – increase in the percentage of people living in urban areas
58 Level 1 (Basic) 1–4 marksSimple statements largely concerned with the developments that have taken place rather than the reasons. Knowledge of basic information. Simple understanding. Few links; limited detail; uses a limited range of specialist terms. Limited evidence of sentence structure. Frequent spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors.They can build shopping centres there. They can build houses. The land is cheap.Level 2 (Clear) 5–6 marksLinked statements showing some appreciation of why the rural-urban fringe is being built on. Knowledge of accurate information. Clear understanding. Answers have some linkages; occasional detail/exemplar; uses somespecialist terms where appropriate. Clear evidence of sentence structure. Some spelling, punctuation andgrammatical errors.There is plenty of open space and the land is cheaper than the centre of the city so developers want to build houses there. These houses are popular with buyers as they are in an attractive area. Out of town shopping centres are popular because there is plenty of space and they areaccessible.Level 3 (Detailed) 7–8 marksDetailed information with the use of an example(s) which. Knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised and/or at correct scale. Detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and exemplars. Well organised, demonstrating detailed linkages and the inter-relationships between factors. Range of ideas in a logical form; uses a range of specialist terms where appropriate. Well structured response with effective use of sentences. Few spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors.Out of town shopping centres have been built because they need a largeamount of land in order to provide plenty of car parking space. These arelarge scale because they have a large range of shops close together orunder one roof. These need a huge infrastructure to support them and therelative cheapness of the land compared to the city centre is therefore anadvantage. In Gloucester the greenbelt between Gloucester andCheltenham is being taken up with the building of the M5 motorway,housing estates and golf courses.
59 3(b)(ii)Greenpeace / ecowarriors / environmentalists / conservationists / farmers / people living in the existing villages.
60 3(b)(iii)Conservationists want the land left as open space so the habitat of the wildlife is not disturbed.Farmers lose their land and so will not be able to make a living.Existing villagers feel that new development would spoil the look of the area / increase the noise / put pressure on services.
61 Longnor – student notes Longnor suffers many economic and social problems, due to old people moving there to retire, therefore the cost in housing has gone up due to popular demand. This means young people are moving away because they cannot afford to live there. The effect is that shops and community services have been forced to close down, because there are few young people to run them.However, decision makers have managed change in the economic and social environment of the area. They have done this by building new housing developments allowing room for a larger population. The Coventry churches housing association has also provided more affordable housing estates, there were 14 houses which were rented only to young people due to 50% of year olds leaving the village. This effect has helped the economic environment of this area because there are more jobs being filled.Another example of how the decision makers have managed change in the area is by setting up IRD projects, which encourages business and community projects. This helps reduce population and decline by introducing business enterprises, encouraging young people to stay living in the village. Some examples of this include, renovating the market hall to provide a craft centre and tea rooms. This employs many locals and attracts tourists to the area, therefore helping the economic problem. Rural development commission has awarded grants in the form of reduced business rates, which has also helped with the economic issues in the village.