Presentation on theme: "Assessment of workplace accidents and risk reduction mechanisms among filling station pump operators in Aba, southeast Nigeria Aguwa EN Arinze-Onyia SU."— Presentation transcript:
Assessment of workplace accidents and risk reduction mechanisms among filling station pump operators in Aba, southeast Nigeria Aguwa EN Arinze-Onyia SU Asuzu MC
Background Filling/petrol/gas station pump operators dispense fuel These stations are where fuel & lubricants are sold Examples of fuel are 1.petrol (Premium Motor Spirit – PMS); 2.diesel (Automated Gas Oil – AGO) 3.Kerosene (Dual Purpose Kerosene – DPK)
Incidentally Increased proliferation of fuel stations Increase in fuel pump operators Stations are erected without following government regulations and standard safety practices for obtaining operational license from the regulatory body (Afolabi et al.2011). Living within 100m of fuel station is dangerous to health
Associated hazards Studies have established these stations as hazardous work places (Ahmed et al 2011) Inhalation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene poisoning Benzene conc was 3 times more than a recommended threshold of 0.5 ppm (Bahrami et al 2007). Benzene poisoning has been associated with leukemia (Brosselin et al 2009)
Other potential hazards Lead poisoning (91 – 100% of our fuel contains lead) Fire outbreaks Slips & Falls Work stress
Study Justification There is paucity of local literature on this group of workers - Prevalence of workplace accidents - What are the justifications for the warning signs?
Study objectives To obtain the knowledge of workplace hazards and use of PPEs To identify workplace accidents To identify risk reduction mechanisms
Study methods It was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in the last quarter of 2013 in Aba metropolis Ethical permit was obtained from Ethics Committee of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu Individual informed consent was obtained from the respondents The total number of registered petrol stations in Aba metropolis obtained from the Dept of Petroleum Resources in Abia State is 183
Study method contd. All the filling stations were invited to be part of the study Only 170 gave informed consent (response rate = 92.9%). For each station, where there is more than one pump operator, balloting was used to select the respondent for the study. Study instruments were a semi-structured questionnaire and an observational checklist Pre-test was in Umuahia.
The questionnaire The questionnaire had 6 sections: the demographic variables work experience work habits workplace accidents (a workplace accident for this study is defined as an unexpected and unplanned occurrence, arising out of or in connection with work which results in one or more workers incurring a personal injury, disease or death) related symptoms; work policies; provision and use of PPEs.
Note Where the respondent’s information did not agree with the observation, the observed information was preferred, e.g., in conditions of hazard signs on the workplace.
Inclusion criteria Those who gave informed consent Must have worked for at least 1 year Located in the study area Exclusion criteria Not registered with the department of petroleum resources
Study limitations Some chemical hazards like blood benzene levels & lead could not be estimated
Data entry and presentation Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Freq & % were presented as Tables. Factors that may affect utilization of control measures were obtained and their causal relationships assessed using Chi squares (where necessary likelihood chi square was obtained). Odds ratio of these variables was also calculated. Level of significance was P < 0.05 & 95% CI.
Table 2 – Years of work, awareness and source of information on occupational hazards
Table 3 - Medical history and workplace accidents (in the last 1 year)
Table 4 - Presenting symptoms post exposure to the petroleum product (in the last 1 year)
Table 5a - Administrative and Personal Protective control measures to reduce hazards risks
Table 5b - Administrative and Personal Protective control measures to reduce hazards risks
Table 5c - Administrative and Personal Protective control measures to reduce hazards risks
Table 6a: Factors that may affect control measures by staff
Table 6b: Factors that may affect control measures by staff
Table 6c: Factors that may affect control measures by staff
Issues arising from the results Compliance to PPEs Warning signs like “switch off cell phone sign” “Switch off car engine while refueling”
http://www.nacsonline.com/Research/FactSheets/Motor%20Fuels/Pages/GasolineMy thsFacts.aspx The Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association has said, "There is no evidence whatsoever that a wireless phone has ever caused ignition or explosion at a station anywhere in the world. Wireless phones don't cause gas stations to blow up." The American Petroleum Institute notes, "We can find no evidence of someone using a cell phone causing any kind of accident, no matter how small, at a gas station anywhere in the world.“ It is unlikely that cell phone batteries could ignite gasoline fumes, given that they are the same voltage as automobile batteries (12V D.C.) but deliver far less current. Likewise, cellular phone "ringers" do not produce electricity -- they produce audio tones that simulate the sound of a ringing telephone.
What about switching car engine off? Petrol gives off highly flammable vapour even at low temperature of -40 o C. It can be ignited by flame, spark or heat source, e.g., naked light, smoking, heaters, hot engines, etc
Conclusion PPEs are not always provided Increased awareness & Enforcement of punitive measures improve regular use of PPEs
Recommendations More work needs to be done - benzene and lead level estimation (for policy formulation and enforcement) Increase awareness on hazards
References Afolabi O, Olajide S, Omotayo O (2011). Assessment of safety practices in filling stations. J Community Med Prim Heal Care. 23(1-2): 9–15. Ahmed MM, Kutty SRM, Shariff AM, Khamidi MF (2011). Petrol fuel station safety and risk assessment framework. Natl Postgrad Conf. 1–8 Bahrami AR, Joneidi Jafari A, Ahmadi H, Mahjub H (2007). Comparison of benzene exposure in drivers and petrol stations workers by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid in west of Iran. Ind Health. 45: 396–401
References 2 Brosselin P, Rudant J, Orsi L, Leverger G, Baruchel A, Bertrand Y, et al. (2009) Acute childhood leukaemia and residence next to petrol stations and automotive repair garages: the ESCALE study (SFCE). Occup Environ Med.66: 598–606