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SETTING AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND VEHICULAR EMISSION STANDARDS: DHAKA’S EXPERIENCE Mohammed Nasiruddin Project Director Air Quality Management Project Dhaka,

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Presentation on theme: "SETTING AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND VEHICULAR EMISSION STANDARDS: DHAKA’S EXPERIENCE Mohammed Nasiruddin Project Director Air Quality Management Project Dhaka,"— Presentation transcript:

1 SETTING AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND VEHICULAR EMISSION STANDARDS: DHAKA’S EXPERIENCE Mohammed Nasiruddin Project Director Air Quality Management Project Dhaka, Bangladesh

2 Dhaka is the eighth largest megacity of the world and home to million people living in an area of 1353km 2. Dhaka is the eighth largest megacity of the world and home to million people living in an area of 1353km 2. Air pollution is emerging as a major problem in Dhaka and other cities of Bangladesh. Air pollution is emerging as a major problem in Dhaka and other cities of Bangladesh. The main sources of air pollution in Dhaka are vehicles, industries particularly brick kilns, resuspended dust and biomass burning The main sources of air pollution in Dhaka are vehicles, industries particularly brick kilns, resuspended dust and biomass burning Being the 8 th largest mega city of the world it witnessed a very fast growth of urban population in recent times which contributed to rising demand for transport services, mainly the road transport. Being the 8 th largest mega city of the world it witnessed a very fast growth of urban population in recent times which contributed to rising demand for transport services, mainly the road transport. There has been a steep rise in the heterogeneous mix of old technology vehicles on the city roads despite that the road space is narrowing and traffic congestion reached to an unmanageable proportion. There has been a steep rise in the heterogeneous mix of old technology vehicles on the city roads despite that the road space is narrowing and traffic congestion reached to an unmanageable proportion.

3 Nearly 4,00,000 vehicles now ply on Dhaka city roads everyday of which about 3,00,000 are motorized vehicles that contribute most to deteriorating Dhaka’s air quality. Nearly 4,00,000 vehicles now ply on Dhaka city roads everyday of which about 3,00,000 are motorized vehicles that contribute most to deteriorating Dhaka’s air quality. Contributing factors for vehicular emission in Dhaka are: poor fuel quality, poorly maintained vehicles, inadequate transport infrastructure, lack of proper transport planning and management Contributing factors for vehicular emission in Dhaka are: poor fuel quality, poorly maintained vehicles, inadequate transport infrastructure, lack of proper transport planning and management PM 2.5 is the controlling pollutant of Dhaka’s air quality during 90% days of the year. PM 2.5 is the controlling pollutant of Dhaka’s air quality during 90% days of the year. A World Bank study says nearly 2x10 5 tons air pollutants are emitted from motor vehicles alone. A World Bank study says nearly 2x10 5 tons air pollutants are emitted from motor vehicles alone. Another World Bank study says as many as deaths, a million cases of major illness and 8.5 million cases of minor illness are caused by air pollution in Dhaka and three other cities of Bangladesh. Another World Bank study says as many as deaths, a million cases of major illness and 8.5 million cases of minor illness are caused by air pollution in Dhaka and three other cities of Bangladesh.

4 Dhaka city’s traffic problems and ambient air quality condition had reached such a crisis proportion that the challenge of sustaining economic growth and ensuring reasonable quality of life has become tougher. Dhaka city’s traffic problems and ambient air quality condition had reached such a crisis proportion that the challenge of sustaining economic growth and ensuring reasonable quality of life has become tougher. Deteriorating traffic and air pollution conditions had prompted the government to find urgent solutions. Deteriorating traffic and air pollution conditions had prompted the government to find urgent solutions.

5 At this backdrop the government in 2000 undertook the Air Quality Management Project with financial assistance of the World Bank. At this backdrop the government in 2000 undertook the Air Quality Management Project with financial assistance of the World Bank. The primary objective of the project is to develop components of an air quality management system and to reduce human exposure to vehicular air pollution in Dhaka city only. The project activities subsequently extended to five Divisional towns under an extended monitoring programme. The primary objective of the project is to develop components of an air quality management system and to reduce human exposure to vehicular air pollution in Dhaka city only. The project activities subsequently extended to five Divisional towns under an extended monitoring programme.

6 The key components of the projects are: The key components of the projects are: improved enforcement, setting appropriate standards, piloting of pollution control technologies for diesel vehicles, better monitoring and dissemination of information, and air quality management assessment and strategy formulation. improved enforcement, setting appropriate standards, piloting of pollution control technologies for diesel vehicles, better monitoring and dissemination of information, and air quality management assessment and strategy formulation.

7 Air Quality In Dhaka AQMP’s CAM Station results for Particulate Matter monitoring significantly exceed US EPA guidelines and other international standards. AQMP’s CAM Station results for Particulate Matter monitoring significantly exceed US EPA guidelines and other international standards. BAEC has estimated that the transport related fraction of PM10 is around 27% on a yearly average, rising to as much as 41% in the dry months. BAEC has estimated that the transport related fraction of PM10 is around 27% on a yearly average, rising to as much as 41% in the dry months. Diesel exhaust emissions are now considered a probable human carcinogen. Diesel exhaust emissions are now considered a probable human carcinogen. If not managed, gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NOx, etc) could become a problem in the future. If not managed, gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NOx, etc) could become a problem in the future.

8 Contribution of Vehicle Types to Emissions in Dhaka

9 Contribution of various types of vehicle to emissions in Dhaka Petrol-driven light duty vehicles and auto-rickshaws contributes 85% CO Petrol-driven light duty vehicles and auto-rickshaws contributes 85% CO Diesel buses and trucks contribute about 84% of total NOx Diesel buses and trucks contribute about 84% of total NOx TTW auto rickshaws contribute about half of total unburned HC from all vehicles TTW auto rickshaws contribute about half of total unburned HC from all vehicles Diesel buses and trucks contribute about 45% and auto-rickshaws 40% of total PM emissions Diesel buses and trucks contribute about 45% and auto-rickshaws 40% of total PM emissions SO2 emissions from vehicles are not very significant compared to other pollutants. SO2 emissions from vehicles are not very significant compared to other pollutants.

10 Year wise Registration of Motor Vehicles in Dhaka Sl. No.Type of VehiclesBefore Total 1Motor Car Jeep/St.Wangon/ Microbus Taxi Bus Minibus Truck Auto- rickshaw/A uto-tempo Human Haller** Coverd Van********** Motor-Cycle Others Total *26,429 Two-Stroke Three-wheeler(Auto-rickshaw/Auto-tempo) removed from Dhaka. **Human Hallers are included in others row (Sl. No. 11) **Covered Van are included in others row (Sl. No. 11)

11 Key issues identified in respect of Vehicle Emission Control - Poor fuel quality - Many of the vehicles ply on the road are very old, worn out, poorly maintained and often overloaded - Poor inspection and maintenance - Poor enforcement of existing laws in the MV ordinance - Street congestion due to mixed traffic - Inadequate facilities for manually driven tricycle rickshaws - Poor traffic management - Poor traffic signaling system - Lack of pavement for street walkers - Preponderance of pre-Euro vehicles on the roads - more..

12 - Bus route overlapping - Unscientific method of allocating route permit - Lack of interdepartmental coordination - Poor urban transport governance

13 Vehicle Emission Standards in place before June 2005 in Bangladesh ParameterUnitStandard value Carbon Monoxide (CO) g/km24 volumetric4 % Hydrocarbons (HC) g/km2 volumetric180 ppmv Oxides of Nitrogen (NO x ) g/km2 volumetric600 ppmv Black Smoke 1 Hartridge Smoke Unit (HSU) 65 1 Measured at 2/3 of maximum rotating speed

14 Why VES was necessary? The shortcomings of the existing VES were identified so as to fill in the lacunae while framing new standards for effective pollution abatement: The shortcomings of the existing VES were identified so as to fill in the lacunae while framing new standards for effective pollution abatement: a. Common emission standard irrespective of in-use, newly imported, reconditioned diesel and petrol vehicles. b. No separate emission standard for CNG vehicles c. No survey was done before framing emission standard. d. Mass emission limits and volume limits had no correspondence with each other e. Methods of examining emission was not mentioned

15 Objectives of VES To reduce the adverse effects of vehicle emissions on human health To reduce the adverse effects of vehicle emissions on human health CO, NOx, O3, PM and SO2 management for sustainable environment CO, NOx, O3, PM and SO2 management for sustainable environment

16 Steps followed for revision of emission standards Emission tests performed on 1500 petrol/octane and CNG and 500 diesel run vehicles. Emission tests performed on 1500 petrol/octane and CNG and 500 diesel run vehicles. Comprehensive review of vehicle emission standards in other countries within the region and beyond Comprehensive review of vehicle emission standards in other countries within the region and beyond Prepared draft emission standard and circulated to different stakeholders for seeking their opinion. Prepared draft emission standard and circulated to different stakeholders for seeking their opinion. Discussions with stakeholders and regular meetings were held to hammer out standards Discussions with stakeholders and regular meetings were held to hammer out standards Technical workshop held on draft VES. Technical workshop held on draft VES. Workshop recommendations incorporated and placed before the DTAC meeting after refinement. Workshop recommendations incorporated and placed before the DTAC meeting after refinement. Draft VES placed before AQMAC meeting and subsequently to Parliamentary Standing Committee on MoEF Draft VES placed before AQMAC meeting and subsequently to Parliamentary Standing Committee on MoEFContd.

17 A mid term review of the AQM jointly conducted by GOB and WB. A mid term review of the AQM jointly conducted by GOB and WB. Revised VES placed before inter ministerial committee. Revised VES placed before inter ministerial committee. Sent to the MoLPA for vetting and publication in the gazette. Sent to the MoLPA for vetting and publication in the gazette. New VES gazetted in June 2005 New VES gazetted in June 2005

18 How new VES is different from previous one? The new VES came with:- The new VES came with:- a. Standards for new and imported used vehicles b. Standard for in-use vehicles c. Bangladesh-1 for diesel vehicles d. Bangladesh-II for petrol and CNG vehicles The new VES is an advancement over the old one. It was intended with primary objective to ensure that advances in pollution control technology are implemented and progressively lower fleet vehicle emissions are achieved over a period of time. a period of time.

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34 New Vehicular Emission Standards (VES) [ Schedule – 6 (Ka) to Schedule –6(Cha)] [ Schedule – 6 (Ka) to Schedule –6(Cha)] Schedule-6 of the Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997 has been replaced by the following schedules: 6(Ka), 6(Kha), 6(Ga), 6(Gha), 6(Uma) and 6(Cha). Schedule-6 of the Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997 has been replaced by the following schedules: 6(Ka), 6(Kha), 6(Ga), 6(Gha), 6(Uma) and 6(Cha).

35 Schedule -6(Ka):Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used diesel driven vehicles. ( Refer to Rules 4 & 12) ( Bangladesh-1) Vehicle typeEmission Standards (g/km)Test Procedure COHC + NO x PM* Light duty vehicles (Not more than 8 seats in addition to driver & max. GVW 2.5 tons) New Type Approval (TA) Conformity of Production (COP) /441/EEC Imported used diesel Medium duty Vehicles ( More than 8 seats in addition to driver but less than 15 seats & GVW more than 2.5 tons but max. 3.5 tons ) New TA COP /59/EC Imported used diesel

36 Schedule -6(Ka): Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used diesel driven vehicles. (Continued) Heavy Duty Vehicles (More than 15 seats in addition to driver & GVW more than 3.5 ton) Vehicle type Emission Standards (g/kWh ) Test Procedure CO HC NO x PM* New TA /542/EEC and ECE R New COP Imported used For the diesel engines with 85kW or less power the limit is to be increased by a factor of to 1.7.

37 Schedule -6(Kha): Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used petrol and CNG driven vehicles. (Refer to Rules 4 & 12) (Bangladesh -2) Vehicle typeEmission Standards (g/km) Evaporatio n emissions (g/test) Test Procedure COHC + NO x 2 and 3 wheelers 4stroke petrol/CNG ECE-40 Light duty vehicles (Not more than 8 seats in addition to driver & max. GVW 2.5 tons) Petrol/CNG /12/EC Imported used petrol /CNG /12/EC Medium duty Vehicles ( More than 8 seats in addition to driver but less than 15 seats & GVW more than 2.5 tons but max. 3.5 tons ) New and imported used Petrol/CNG /69/EC

38 Schedule -6(Kha): Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used petrol and CNG driven vehicles. (Continued) Heavy Duty Vehicles (More than 15 seats in addition to driver & GVW more than 3.5 ton) Vehicle type Emission Standards (g/kWh) Evaporation emissions (g/test) Test Procedure CO HC/ NMHC* NO x New TA (Petrol/ CNG) /542/EEC and ECE R and 13- mode test cycle* New COP(Petrol/ CNG) Imported used (Petrol/ CNG) * Applicable for CNG driven vehicles

39 Schedule – 6 (Ga): Emission inspection standards for new locally made and new and imported used light, Medium duty and heavy duty (Petrol, Diesel and CNG driven) Vehicles (during registration) (Refer to Rules 4 & 12) Vehicle type Parameter Emission Standard 4 wheeled Petrol and CNG driven vehicles Idle CO Idle HC 0.5 %v/v 1200 ppm No load, >2500< RPM <3000 CO HC Lambda 0.3 %v/v 300 ppm 1± 0.03 Visual check3-Way catalytic converter fitted in the exhaust Diesel Naturally aspirated Free acceleration smoke 1.2 m -1 smoke density (40 HSU) Diesel Turbo-charged Free acceleration smoke 2.2 m -1 smoke density (61 HSU)

40 Schedule- 6(Gha): Emission Standards for In-Service Vehicles registered after 1 st July (Refer to Rules 4 & 12) Vehicle TypeTestCO (% by volume) HC (ppm) Lambda ( ) Smoke All 4-wheeled Petrol and CNG vehicles. Idle Speed No load, > 2500

41 Schedule- 6(Uma): Emission Standards for In-Service Petrol and CNG Vehicles registered after July 1, ( Refer to Rules 4 & 12) Vehicle TypeTestCO (% by volume) HC (ppm) All 4-wheeled Petrol Vehicles Idle Speed4.51,200 All CNG driven Vehicles Idle Speed Stroke Engine Petrol Two and Three Wheelers Idle Speed 7.012,000 4 Stroke Engine Petrol Two and Three Wheelers Idle Speed7.03,000 Note: Idle Speed RPM specified by the manufacturer.

42 Schedule – 6(Cha): Emission Standards for In-Service Diesel Vehicle registered after July 1,2004. (Refer to Rules 4 & 12) Vehicle Type TestSmoke Opacity Commencing January, 2004 Commencing January, 2007 Commencing January, 2009 Buses Free acceleration 80 HSU or 3.7 m HSU or 2.8 m HSU or 2.4 m -1 Trucks and all other diesel vehicles Free acceleration 90 HSU or 5.3 m HSU or 3.7 m HSU or 2.4 m -1 General instruction: Importer must submit Emission Compliance Certificate from an internationally recognized independent agency at the time of clearance of the imported vehicles under schedule 6 (Ka) or 6(Kha) as relevant to the vehicle type.

43 Implementation of VES for New Registration Vehicles Government regulations/motor vehicle rules Government regulations/motor vehicle rules notifying Standards and Test Procedure notifying Standards and Test Procedure Emission Certification by an Approved Laboratory for a vehicle model Emission Certification by an Approved Laboratory for a vehicle model Periodic testing for conformity of production vehicles Periodic testing for conformity of production vehicles

44 View of an Emission Test Facility

45 In – Service Vehicles Emission Inspection & Maintenance 20 to 30 % of total vehicles, which are “Gross Polluters” contribute 70 to 80% of total vehicular emissions 20 to 30 % of total vehicles, which are “Gross Polluters” contribute 70 to 80% of total vehicular emissions For real reduction in pollution In-Service Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance (I & M) is essential For real reduction in pollution In-Service Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance (I & M) is essential Most countries have mandatory I & M Most countries have mandatory I & M

46 In–Service Vehicles Emission Inspection & Maintenance (contd) Purpose To Assure that vehicle is properly maintained and used To Assure that vehicle is properly maintained and used Identify dirtiest (gross polluters) vehicles and get them repaired Identify dirtiest (gross polluters) vehicles and get them repairedBenefits Lower emissions and better fuel economy Lower emissions and better fuel economy Deterrent to tampering and misfuelling Deterrent to tampering and misfuelling

47 In-Service Vehicles I & M Inspection & Maintenance are two Separate Functions to be done by Different Agencies Inspection & Maintenance are two Separate Functions to be done by Different Agencies Government to conduct Inspection only Government to conduct Inspection only Maintenance in private ownership Maintenance in private ownership Simple and low cost inspection tests required Simple and low cost inspection tests required

48 Inspection Tests ( No Load Tests) Petrol Vehicles Petrol Vehicles - Idle CO mostly - Idle HC also in some countries Idle NOx is negligible, hence not measured Diesel Vehicles Diesel Vehicles - Free Acceleration Test for black Smoke No Load CO&HC are too low for diesel, not measured No Load CO&HC are too low for diesel, not measured

49 Bangladesh Emission Standards for In-Service Vehicles AQMP started collection of emission data from different types of vehicles AQMP started collection of emission data from different types of vehicles Emission measurement from about 1500 Petrol and 500 Diesel vehicles planned all over Dhaka Emission measurement from about 1500 Petrol and 500 Diesel vehicles planned all over Dhaka Emission standards to be fixed to allow failure of only about 20 % vehicles Emission standards to be fixed to allow failure of only about 20 % vehicles Standards expected by Dec Standards expected by Dec. 2002

50 Measurement of in-use vehicle emissions Diesel vehicles Smoke Petrol Vehicles CO and HC

51 Implementation of VES for In- Service Vehicles Government issue gazette notification Government issue gazette notification Mandatory Annual/Half Yearly Inspection by BRTA Test Lanes Mandatory Annual/Half Yearly Inspection by BRTA Test Lanes Roadside emission inspection as spot checks at DOE Check Posts Roadside emission inspection as spot checks at DOE Check Posts Failed Vehicles to be re-inspected after repairs by the operator – procedure/system to be developed Failed Vehicles to be re-inspected after repairs by the operator – procedure/system to be developed

52 Emissions and Fuel Quality Engine Fuel Emissions Matching Engine & Fuel

53 Automotive Fuel Consumption in Bangladesh, MT FuelIndigenousImportedTotal Petrol100,000200,000300,000 Diesel380,0001,700,0002,080,000

54 Fuel Quality Issues Enable efficient functioning and durability of emission control devices viz. Cat. Conv. Enable efficient functioning and durability of emission control devices viz. Cat. Conv. Petrol: Lead free, low sulphur Diesel: Low sulfur for Cat convertor Reduce direct contribution to pollutants e.g., benzene, Evap. HC, sulfates (PM) Reduce direct contribution to pollutants e.g., benzene, Evap. HC, sulfates (PM) Petrol: Benzene, RVP (Evaporative HC) Diesel: Sulfur (Increases PM)

55 Fuel Quality Issues (contd.) Ensure efficient combustion Ensure efficient combustion Petrol: Volatility, Octane Number Diesel: Volatility, Cetane Number Keep fuel system clean for efficient engine operation and less maintenance Keep fuel system clean for efficient engine operation and less maintenance Deposit control additives, Oxidation and storage stability Reduce Air Toxics (Benzene,1-3 Buta-diene, Aldehydes, POM) Reduce Air Toxics (Benzene,1-3 Buta-diene, Aldehydes, POM)

56 Fuel Quality in Bangladesh Petrol Petrol -Already Lead Free: Euro1 cars employ Cat.Converters Cat.Converters - Sulfur( Specs. 0.1 % max) may be reduced further Diesel Diesel - Sulfur (Specs. 0.5 % max) to be reduced to : 0.25% max for Euro1 vehicles 0.25% max for Euro1 vehicles 0.05% max for Euro2 vehicles 0.05% max for Euro2 vehicles

57 Auto-Clinic Program by AQMP First Clinic held from Dec. 23, 2001 to March 21,2002 First Clinic held from Dec. 23, 2001 to March 21,2002 Program conducted by the Society for Urban Environment Protection (SUEP) Program conducted by the Society for Urban Environment Protection (SUEP) 2000 Auto- Rickshaw and Drivers participated 2000 Auto- Rickshaw and Drivers participated - Free carburettor and minor maintenance - Idle CO &HC emission measurement before and after maintenance - Smoke measurement under acceleration with normal oil and 2T oil.

58 Auto-Clinic Programme by AQMP (contd.) Demonstration of effect of maintenance on CO & HC emissions Demonstration of effect of maintenance on CO & HC emissions Demonstration of effect of 2T oil in right quantity on reduction of blue smoke Demonstration of effect of 2T oil in right quantity on reduction of blue smoke Health check – up of drivers Health check – up of drivers Creating awareness on Creating awareness on - Bad effect of poor maintenance and oil qualty emissions from baby taxis - Bad effect of smoke and other pollutants on health

59 Pilot Control Programs AQMP has completed following three pilot programs; 1. Auto Clinic training program was held on 22 December, 2001 to 27 February, Objective: Training for drivers and mechanics on vehicle maintenance and their health impacts. No. of trainee: 2000,Two stroke three wheeler baby taxies drivers/mechanics. 2. Diesel engine maintenance improvement clinic from February 22 to March 28,2004. Objective: Training for driver/ mechanics on inspection and maintenance of the diesel vehicles to reduce vehicular air pollution. No. of trainee: 120 drivers/ mechanics from BRTC, Bangladesh Sarak Paribahan Fedaration, and others Government organizations.

60 Pilot Control Programs (Cont’d) Under Diesel engine maintenance improvement clinic 420 drivers and mechanics were imparted training during 19 June- 17 August 2006 Under Diesel engine maintenance improvement clinic 420 drivers and mechanics were imparted training during 19 June- 17 August 2006 Similar clinic programs will be undertaken for Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet and Barisal. Similar clinic programs will be undertaken for Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet and Barisal.

61 Ambient Air Quality Standards Air quality standards are the foundation upon which emission control strategies are based. Air quality standards are the foundation upon which emission control strategies are based. Standards can be adopted as enforceable laws, typically (but not always) with deadlines and schedules for attainment Standards can be adopted as enforceable laws, typically (but not always) with deadlines and schedules for attainment Air quality standards are a meaningful way to report the frequency with which pollutant concentrations exceed healthful levels. Air quality standards are a meaningful way to report the frequency with which pollutant concentrations exceed healthful levels. They also form the basis of air quality index (AQI) calculations. They also form the basis of air quality index (AQI) calculations. AAQS are not just limits for each pollutant AAQS are not just limits for each pollutant The standards also need to specify monitoring methods, locations and frequencies; average time and assessment procedures. The standards also need to specify monitoring methods, locations and frequencies; average time and assessment procedures.

62 Bangladesh Standards for Ambient Air (mg/m3) Sl. No.Area SPM SO2 CONOx 1Industrial and mixed Commercial and mixed Residential and rural Sensitive

63 Why revision of AAQS was necessitated The previous standards do not specify monitoring methods and frequency, averaging times, compliance requirements and other necessary factors. The previous standards do not specify monitoring methods and frequency, averaging times, compliance requirements and other necessary factors. Therefore, it was recognized that these standards require review. Therefore, it was recognized that these standards require review.

64 Why AAQS needed? AQS are legal limits placed on levels of air pollutants in the ambient air during a given period of time. AQS are legal limits placed on levels of air pollutants in the ambient air during a given period of time. They characterize permissible level of a pollutant or a class of pollutants in the atmosphere and define the amount of exposure permitted to the population and/or to ecological systems. They characterize permissible level of a pollutant or a class of pollutants in the atmosphere and define the amount of exposure permitted to the population and/or to ecological systems.

65 AQS are not based solely on air quality criteria but are also based on a broad range of economic, social, technical and political considerations. AQS are not based solely on air quality criteria but are also based on a broad range of economic, social, technical and political considerations.

66 Steps followed for revision of AAQS Reviewed ambient air quality standards in other countries within the region Reviewed ambient air quality standards in other countries within the region Analyzed the air quality monitoring data from the AQMP CAMS and found that concentrations of pollutants in the ambient air are generally within the USEPA standards Analyzed the air quality monitoring data from the AQMP CAMS and found that concentrations of pollutants in the ambient air are generally within the USEPA standards The AQMP proposed the adoption of USEPA standards The AQMP proposed the adoption of USEPA standards For Pb in ambient air the WHO standard recommended due to most appropriate degree of protection of public health For Pb in ambient air the WHO standard recommended due to most appropriate degree of protection of public healthContd.

67 Concentration of PM10 and 2.5 significantly exceeded the standards during the non monsoon periods Concentration of PM10 and 2.5 significantly exceeded the standards during the non monsoon periods Action plan suggested for reducing PM concentrations in the ambient air to meet the proposed standards Action plan suggested for reducing PM concentrations in the ambient air to meet the proposed standards Draft proposals pertaining to AAQS put to stakeholders consultation Draft proposals pertaining to AAQS put to stakeholders consultation Placed before DTAC meeting in Feb 2003 Placed before DTAC meeting in Feb 2003 Presented to a stakeholder workshop in March 2003 Presented to a stakeholder workshop in March 2003 Again presented to AQMAC meeting in March 2003 Again presented to AQMAC meeting in March 2003 Proposal submitted to Inter-ministerial Committee for consideration Proposal submitted to Inter-ministerial Committee for consideration Sent to law Ministry for vetting and publication in the gazette Sent to law Ministry for vetting and publication in the gazette New AAQS gazetted in June 2005 New AAQS gazetted in June 2005

68 Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards for Bangladesh

69 Particulate Matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) Particulate Matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) Sulphur Dioxides (SO 2 ) Sulphur Dioxides (SO 2 ) Oxides of Nitrogen (NO x ) Oxides of Nitrogen (NO x ) Ozone (O 3 ) Ozone (O 3 ) Carbon mono oxide (CO) Carbon mono oxide (CO) Lead (Pb) Lead (Pb) Principal Air Pollutants in Dhaka City

70 Vehicle Emission Inventory for Dhaka: >85% of PM10 from Diesel Vehicles

71 Principal pollutants and sources of air pollution in Dhaka City Principal pollutants Sources Particulate Matter (PM 10, PM 2.5 ) Vehicle, Brick Kiln, Cooking, Combustion Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Fuel burning Sulphur Dioxide Coal burning Ozone Photochemical Reaction

72 Sites for PM Sampling in Dhaka City LALBAG MOTIJHEEL TEJGAON TONGI

73 Location of sampling sites in Bangladesh Rajshahi Dhaka Chittagong Barisal Khulna Sylhet Narayangonj

74 Trends Analysis of SO 2 in Dhaka City

75 Trends Analysis of CO in Dhaka City

76 Trends Analysis of O 3 in Dhaka City

77 Trends Analysis of NO x in Dhaka City

78 Trends Analysis of Particulate Matter in Dhaka City

79 Seasonal Variation of Particulate Matter in Dhaka City

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82 Cost benefit of Air Quality Improvement in Dhaka For Baby Taxi Ban: More than 900 premature death avoided and $ 25 million saved in health cost per year. For Baby Taxi Ban: More than 900 premature death avoided and $ 25 million saved in health cost per year. By 20% reduction: Premature mortality could be reduced by about 1100 and health cost could be saved is $152 million By 20% reduction: Premature mortality could be reduced by about 1100 and health cost could be saved is $152 million By reduction to proposed national standard: Premature mortality could be reduced by about 3300 and $474 million per year. By reduction to proposed national standard: Premature mortality could be reduced by about 3300 and $474 million per year. Source: World Bank, Dhaka

83 What is AQI?  The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a public information tool to express the air pollution level for a particular area on a certain period  This is a simple way of describing the quality of air from human health point of view  The AQI is linked to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) which is set based on health impacts

84 Purpose of AQI  To give complex information about the air pollution level and the quality of air in a simple way that people can easily understand;  To inform how clean or polluted air you are breathing in relation to health based objectives; and  To advise the people about the general health effects associated with different pollution levels.

85 CLASSIFICATION OF AQI AQI Range ColourCategory0-100Green Very Good OrangeGood VioletMedium >300RedBad

86 Air Quality in Dhaka: Seasonal …8686 Air quality objective Monsoon period – Air Quality OK Non-monsoon period – Air Quality is poor Note: PM is the major pollutant of concern in Dhaka.

87 % of Days in Air Quality Index Category

88 Reporting Format (English) Today’s Air Quality Index for Dhaka provided by Department of Environment was 67 based on pollutants monitored in CAMS, Sangsad Bhaban, The AQI category was “Very Good” and the colour code was Green. The Responsible pollutant was PM2.5. Air Quality Index (AQI) for 23 rd August, 2006 AQI Value Category Responsible Pollutant 67 Very Good PM 2.5 Department of Environment

89 Interventions benefited air pollution abatement  Phase out leaded petrol in 1999  Jan 2001 setting standards for lubricants  Phase out of two stroke 3-wheeler from January  Ban on the plying of trucks older than 25 years and buses older than 20 years.  Introduction of ambient air quality standards.  Introduction of emission standards EURO I for new diesel and EURO II petrol vehicles from  Introduction of in use vehicle emission standards from 2005.

90 Implications for adopting VES and AAQS Public awareness of air quality may increase Public awareness of air quality may increase Reporting exceedences of the standards may cause adverse reactions from within and outside of Bangladesh Reporting exceedences of the standards may cause adverse reactions from within and outside of Bangladesh An AQI system that is consistent with the standards can be developed An AQI system that is consistent with the standards can be developed An immediate need to develop emission inventories and control strategies to reduce dominant pollutant emissions An immediate need to develop emission inventories and control strategies to reduce dominant pollutant emissions The need to develop an industrial permitting program to foster improved environmental planning. The need to develop an industrial permitting program to foster improved environmental planning.

91 Lessons learned It is easy to implement revised VES and AAQS if people’s participation is ensured. It is easy to implement revised VES and AAQS if people’s participation is ensured. Phasing out of gross polluting two stroke three wheelers was possible due to overwhelming peoples support Phasing out of gross polluting two stroke three wheelers was possible due to overwhelming peoples support Gross polluting diesel vehicles are being phased out under a 5-year road map came into force in Gross polluting diesel vehicles are being phased out under a 5-year road map came into force in Awareness of people about air pollution is necessary to enforce standards. Awareness of people about air pollution is necessary to enforce standards.

92 Thank you


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