Presentation on theme: "Air Quality Management Project"— Presentation transcript:
1Air Quality Management Project SETTING AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND VEHICULAR EMISSION STANDARDS: DHAKA’S EXPERIENCEMohammed NasiruddinProject DirectorAir Quality Management ProjectDhaka, Bangladesh
2Dhaka is the eighth largest megacity of the world and home to 12 Dhaka is the eighth largest megacity of the world and home to million people living in an area of 1353km2.Air pollution is emerging as a major problem in Dhaka and other cities of Bangladesh.The main sources of air pollution in Dhaka are vehicles, industries particularly brick kilns, resuspended dust and biomass burningBeing the 8th largest mega city of the world it witnessed a very fast growth of urban population in recent times which contributed to rising demand for transport services, mainly the road transport.There has been a steep rise in the heterogeneous mix of old technology vehicles on the city roads despite that the road space is narrowing and traffic congestion reached to an unmanageable proportion.
3Nearly 4,00,000 vehicles now ply on Dhaka city roads everyday of which about 3,00,000 are motorized vehicles that contribute most to deteriorating Dhaka’s air quality.Contributing factors for vehicular emission in Dhaka are: poor fuel quality, poorly maintained vehicles, inadequate transport infrastructure, lack of proper transport planning and managementPM 2.5 is the controlling pollutant of Dhaka’s air quality during 90% days of the year.A World Bank study says nearly 2x105 tons air pollutants are emitted from motor vehicles alone.Another World Bank study says as many as deaths, a million cases of major illness and 8.5 million cases of minor illness are caused by air pollution in Dhaka and three other cities of Bangladesh.
4Dhaka city’s traffic problems and ambient air quality condition had reached such a crisis proportion that the challenge of sustaining economic growth and ensuring reasonable quality of life has become tougher.Deteriorating traffic and air pollution conditions had prompted the government to find urgent solutions.
5At this backdrop the government in 2000 undertook the Air Quality Management Project with financial assistance of the World Bank.The primary objective of the project is to develop components of an air quality management system and to reduce human exposure to vehicular air pollution in Dhaka city only. The project activities subsequently extended to five Divisional towns under an extended monitoring programme.
6The key components of the projects are: improved enforcement, setting appropriate standards, piloting of pollution control technologies for diesel vehicles, better monitoring and dissemination of information, and air quality management assessment and strategy formulation.
7Air Quality In DhakaAQMP’s CAM Station results for Particulate Matter monitoring significantly exceed US EPA guidelines and other international standards.BAEC has estimated that the transport related fraction of PM10 is around 27% on a yearly average, rising to as much as 41% in the dry months.Diesel exhaust emissions are now considered a probable human carcinogen.If not managed, gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NOx, etc) could become a problem in the future.
8Contribution of Vehicle Types to Emissions in Dhaka
9Contribution of various types of vehicle to emissions in Dhaka Petrol-driven light duty vehicles and auto-rickshaws contributes 85% CODiesel buses and trucks contribute about 84% of total NOxTTW auto rickshaws contribute about half of total unburned HC from all vehiclesDiesel buses and trucks contribute about 45% and auto-rickshaws 40% of total PM emissionsSO2 emissions from vehicles are not very significant compared to other pollutants.
10Year wise Registration of Motor Vehicles in Dhaka Sl. No.Type of VehiclesBefore 199519951996199719981999200020012002200320042005Total1Motor Car3699869238386652849844330245255605542616347345633982332Jeep/St.Wangon/Microbus179371556138714921438137191015792911181021143303378083Taxi78725351410221534876221014980523514104064Bus269145735818422420245363237477972841215Minibus20093241673973002428311924105136811879466Truck9775802615834168185516358901127212814371104228837Auto-rickshaw/Auto-tempo83597301461519021689682188175261679962344139395998Human Haller**673136208299Coverd Van*527..10Motor-Cycle6147844274027534649925330876885909102723978721287914005011Others206387882831019613268191825101232571300236116175139675223812013316881155661454817257205652696735671221342679937857726,429 Two-Stroke Three-wheeler(Auto-rickshaw/Auto-tempo) removed from Dhaka.Human Hallers are included in others row (Sl. No. 11)Covered Van are included in others row (Sl. No. 11)
11Key issues identified in respect of Vehicle Emission Control Poor fuel qualityMany of the vehicles ply on the road are very old, worn out, poorly maintained and often overloadedPoor inspection and maintenancePoor enforcement of existing laws in the MV ordinanceStreet congestion due to mixed trafficInadequate facilities for manually driven tricycle rickshawsPoor traffic managementPoor traffic signaling systemLack of pavement for street walkersPreponderance of pre-Euro vehicles on the roadsmore..
12- Bus route overlapping - Unscientific method of allocating route permitLack of interdepartmental coordinationPoor urban transport governance
13Vehicle Emission Standards in place before June 2005 in Bangladesh ParameterUnitStandard valueCarbon Monoxide (CO)g/km24volumetric4 %Hydrocarbons (HC)2180 ppmvOxides of Nitrogen (NOx)600 ppmvBlack Smoke1Hartridge Smoke Unit (HSU)651 Measured at 2/3 of maximum rotating speed
14Why VES was necessary?The shortcomings of the existing VES were identified so as to fill in the lacunae while framing new standards for effective pollution abatement:Common emission standard irrespective of in-use, newly imported, reconditioned diesel and petrol vehicles.No separate emission standard for CNG vehiclesNo survey was done before framing emission standard.Mass emission limits and volume limits had no correspondence with each otherMethods of examining emission was not mentioned
15Objectives of VESTo reduce the adverse effects of vehicle emissions on human healthCO, NOx, O3, PM and SO2 management for sustainable environment
16Steps followed for revision of emission standards Emission tests performed on 1500 petrol/octane and CNG and 500 diesel run vehicles.Comprehensive review of vehicle emission standards in other countries within the region and beyondPrepared draft emission standard and circulated to different stakeholders for seeking their opinion.Discussions with stakeholders and regular meetings were held to hammer out standardsTechnical workshop held on draft VES.Workshop recommendations incorporated and placed before the DTAC meeting after refinement.Draft VES placed before AQMAC meeting and subsequently to Parliamentary Standing Committee on MoEFContd.
17A mid term review of the AQM jointly conducted by GOB and WB. Revised VES placed before inter ministerial committee.Sent to the MoLPA for vetting and publication in the gazette.New VES gazetted in June 2005
18How new VES is different from previous one? The new VES came with:-Standards for new and imported used vehiclesStandard for in-use vehiclesBangladesh-1 for diesel vehiclesBangladesh-II for petrol and CNG vehiclesThe new VES is an advancement over the old one. It wasintended with primary objective to ensure that advances inpollution control technology are implemented andprogressively lower fleet vehicle emissions are achieved overa period of time.
34New Vehicular Emission Standards (VES) [ Schedule – 6 (Ka) to Schedule –6(Cha)]Schedule-6 of the Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997 has been replaced by the following schedules: 6(Ka), 6(Kha), 6(Ga), 6(Gha), 6(Uma) and 6(Cha).
35Emission Standards (g/km) Schedule -6(Ka):Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used diesel driven vehicles.( Refer to Rules 4 & 12)(Bangladesh-1)Vehicle typeEmission Standards (g/km)Test ProcedureCOHC + NOxPM*Light duty vehicles (Not more than 8 seats in addition to driver & max. GVW 2.5 tons)New Type Approval (TA)Conformity of Production (COP)2.720.970.1491/441/EEC220.127.116.11Imported used dieselMedium duty Vehicles (More than 8 seats in addition to driver but less than 15 seats & GVW more than 2.5 tons but max. 3.5 tons)New TACOP18.104.22.16893/59/EC8.02.00.29
36Emission Standards (g/kWh) Schedule -6(Ka): Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used diesel driven vehicles.(Continued)Heavy Duty Vehicles (More than 15 seats in addition to driver & GVW more than 3.5 ton)Vehicle typeEmission Standards (g/kWh)Test ProcedureCOHCNOxPM*New TA4.51.18.00.3691/542/EECandECE R 49.02New COP4.91.239.00.4Imported usedFor the diesel engines with 85kW or less power the limit is to be increased by a factor of to 1.7.
37Emission Standards (g/km) Evaporation emissions (g/test) Schedule -6(Kha): Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used petrol and CNG driven vehicles.(Refer to Rules 4 & 12)(Bangladesh -2)Vehicle typeEmission Standards (g/km)Evaporation emissions (g/test)Test ProcedureCOHC + NOx2 and 3 wheelers4stroke petrol/CNG4.53.0-ECE-40Light duty vehicles (Not more than 8 seats in addition to driver & max. GVW 2.5 tons)Petrol/CNG2.20.52.094/12/ECImported used petrol /CNGMedium duty Vehicles (More than 8 seats in addition to driver but less than 15 seats & GVW more than 2.5 tons but max. 3.5 tons)New and imported used Petrol/CNG5.00.796/69/EC
38Schedule -6(Kha): Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used petrol and CNG driven vehicles. (Continued)Heavy Duty Vehicles (More than 15 seats in addition to driver & GVW more than 3.5 ton)Vehicle typeEmission Standards (g/kWh)Evaporation emissions (g/test)Test ProcedureCOHC/NMHC*NOxNew TA (Petrol/ CNG)4.51.18.02.091/542/EECand ECE R and 13- mode test cycle*New COP(Petrol/ CNG)22.214.171.124Imported used (Petrol/ CNG)* Applicable for CNG driven vehicles
39Schedule – 6 (Ga): Emission inspection standards for new locally made and new and imported used light, Medium duty and heavy duty (Petrol, Diesel and CNG driven) Vehicles (during registration)(Refer to Rules 4 & 12)Vehicle typeParameterEmission Standard4 wheeled Petrol and CNG driven vehiclesIdle COIdle HC0.5 %v/v1200 ppmNo load,>2500< RPM <3000COHCLambda0.3 %v/v300 ppm1± 0.03Visual check3-Way catalytic converter fitted in the exhaustDiesel Naturally aspiratedFree acceleration smoke1.2 m-1 smoke density(40 HSU)Diesel Turbo-charged2.2 m-1 smoke density(61 HSU)39
40Schedule- 6(Gha): Emission Standards for In-Service Vehicles registered after 1st July 2004. (Refer to Rules 4 & 12)Vehicle TypeTestCO (% by volume)HC(ppm)Lambda()SmokeAll 4-wheeled Petrol and CNG vehicles.Idle Speed1.01200-No load,> 2500 <RPM< 30000.53001.0 ± 0.034 Stroke Engine Petrol Two and Three Wheelers4.5All CNG Three Wheelers3.0All naturally aspirated diesel vehiclesFree acceleration65 HSU or 2.5 m-1All turbocharged diesel vehicles72 HSU or 3.0 m-1Note: Idle Speed RPM specified by the manufacturer.
41Schedule- 6(Uma): Emission Standards for In-Service Petrol and CNG Vehicles registered after July 1, 2004.( Refer to Rules 4 & 12)Vehicle TypeTestCO (% by volume)HC (ppm)All 4-wheeled Petrol VehiclesIdle Speed4.51,200All CNG drivenVehicles3.0-2 Stroke Engine Petrol Two and Three Wheelers7.012,0004 Stroke Engine Petrol Two and Three Wheelers3,000Note: Idle Speed RPM specified by the manufacturer.
42Trucks and all other diesel vehicles Schedule – 6(Cha): Emission Standards for In-Service Diesel Vehicle registered after July 1,2004.(Refer to Rules 4 & 12)Vehicle TypeTestSmoke OpacityCommencing January, 2004Commencing January, 2007Commencing January, 2009BusesFree acceleration80 HSUor3.7 m-170 HSU2.8 m-165 HSU2.4 m-1Trucks and all other diesel vehicles90 HSU5.3 m-1General instruction:Importer must submit Emission Compliance Certificate from an internationally recognized independent agency at the time of clearance of the imported vehicles under schedule 6 (Ka) or 6(Kha) as relevant to the vehicle type.
43Implementation of VES for New Registration Vehicles Government regulations/motor vehicle rulesnotifying Standards and Test ProcedureEmission Certification by an Approved Laboratory for a vehicle modelPeriodic testing for conformity of production vehicles
45In – Service Vehicles Emission Inspection & Maintenance 20 to 30 % of total vehicles, which are “Gross Polluters” contribute 70 to 80% of total vehicular emissionsFor real reduction in pollution In-Service Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance (I & M) is essentialMost countries have mandatory I & M
46In–Service Vehicles Emission Inspection & Maintenance (contd) PurposeTo Assure that vehicle is properly maintained and usedIdentify dirtiest (gross polluters) vehicles and get them repairedBenefitsLower emissions and better fuel economyDeterrent to tampering and misfuelling
47In-Service Vehicles I & M Inspection & Maintenance are two Separate Functions to be done by Different AgenciesGovernment to conduct Inspection onlyMaintenance in private ownershipSimple and low cost inspection tests required
48Inspection Tests ( No Load Tests) Petrol Vehicles- Idle CO mostly- Idle HC also in some countriesIdle NOx is negligible, hence not measuredDiesel Vehicles- Free Acceleration Test for black SmokeNo Load CO&HC are too low for diesel, not measured
49Bangladesh Emission Standards for In-Service Vehicles AQMP started collection of emission data from different types of vehiclesEmission measurement from about 1500 Petrol and 500 Diesel vehicles planned all over DhakaEmission standards to be fixed to allow failure of only about 20 % vehiclesStandards expected by Dec. 2002
50Measurement of in-use vehicle emissions Petrol VehiclesCO and HCDiesel vehiclesSmoke
51Implementation of VES for In-Service Vehicles Government issue gazette notificationMandatory Annual/Half Yearly Inspection by BRTA Test LanesRoadside emission inspection as spot checks at DOE Check PostsFailed Vehicles to be re-inspected after repairs by the operator – procedure/system to be developed
52Emissions and Fuel Quality EngineFuelEmissionsMatchingEngine & Fuel
53Automotive Fuel Consumption in Bangladesh, MT IndigenousImportedTotalPetrol100,000200,000300,000Diesel380,0001,700,0002,080,000
54Fuel Quality IssuesEnable efficient functioning and durability of emission control devices viz. Cat. Conv.Petrol: Lead free, low sulphurDiesel: Low sulfur for Cat convertorReduce direct contribution to pollutants e.g., benzene, Evap. HC, sulfates (PM)Petrol: Benzene, RVP (Evaporative HC)Diesel: Sulfur (Increases PM)
55Fuel Quality Issues (contd.) Ensure efficient combustionPetrol: Volatility, Octane NumberDiesel: Volatility, Cetane NumberKeep fuel system clean for efficient engine operation and less maintenanceDeposit control additives, Oxidation and storage stabilityReduce Air Toxics (Benzene,1-3 Buta-diene, Aldehydes, POM)
56Fuel Quality in Bangladesh Petrol-Already Lead Free: Euro1 cars employCat.Converters- Sulfur( Specs. 0.1 % max) may be reduced furtherDiesel- Sulfur (Specs. 0.5 % max) to be reduced to :0.25% max for Euro1 vehicles0.05% max for Euro2 vehicles
57Auto-Clinic Program by AQMP First Clinic held from Dec. 23, 2001 to March 21,2002Program conducted by the Society for Urban Environment Protection (SUEP)2000 Auto- Rickshaw and Drivers participatedFree carburettor and minor maintenanceIdle CO &HC emission measurement before and after maintenanceSmoke measurement under acceleration with normal oil and 2T oil.
58Auto-Clinic Programme by AQMP (contd.) Demonstration of effect of maintenance on CO & HC emissionsDemonstration of effect of 2T oil in right quantity on reduction of blue smokeHealth check – up of driversCreating awareness onBad effect of poor maintenance and oil qualty emissions from baby taxisBad effect of smoke and other pollutants on health
59Pilot Control Programs AQMP has completed following three pilot programs;1. Auto Clinic training program was held on 22 December, 2001 to 27 February, 2002.Objective: Training for drivers and mechanics on vehicle maintenance and their health impacts.No. of trainee: 2000,Two stroke three wheeler baby taxies drivers/mechanics.2. Diesel engine maintenance improvement clinic from February 22 to March 28 ,2004.Objective: Training for driver/ mechanics on inspection and maintenance of the diesel vehicles to reduce vehicular air pollution.No. of trainee: 120 drivers/ mechanics from BRTC, Bangladesh Sarak Paribahan Fedaration, and others Government organizations.
60Pilot Control Programs (Cont’d) Under Diesel engine maintenance improvement clinic 420 drivers and mechanics were imparted training during 19 June- 17 August 2006Similar clinic programs will be undertaken for Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet and Barisal.
61Ambient Air Quality Standards Air quality standards are the foundation upon which emission control strategies are based.Standards can be adopted as enforceable laws, typically (but not always) with deadlines and schedules for attainmentAir quality standards are a meaningful way to report the frequency with which pollutant concentrations exceed healthful levels.They also form the basis of air quality index (AQI) calculations.AAQS are not just limits for each pollutantThe standards also need to specify monitoring methods, locations and frequencies; average time and assessment procedures.
62Bangladesh Standards for Ambient Air (mg/m3) Sl. No.AreaSPMSO2CONOx1Industrial and mixed50012050001002Commercial and mixed4003Residential and rural2008020004Sensitive301000
63Why revision of AAQS was necessitated The previous standards do not specify monitoring methods and frequency, averaging times, compliance requirements and other necessary factors.Therefore, it was recognized that these standards require review.
64Why AAQS needed?AQS are legal limits placed on levels of air pollutants in the ambient air during a given period of time.They characterize permissible level of a pollutant or a class of pollutants in the atmosphere and define the amount of exposure permitted to the population and/or to ecological systems.
65AQS are not based solely on air quality criteria but are also based on a broad range of economic, social, technical and political considerations.
66Steps followed for revision of AAQS Reviewed ambient air quality standards in other countries within the regionAnalyzed the air quality monitoring data from the AQMP CAMS and found that concentrations of pollutants in the ambient air are generally within the USEPA standardsThe AQMP proposed the adoption of USEPA standardsFor Pb in ambient air the WHO standard recommended due to most appropriate degree of protection of public healthContd.
67Concentration of PM10 and 2 Concentration of PM10 and 2.5 significantly exceeded the standards during the non monsoon periodsAction plan suggested for reducing PM concentrations in the ambient air to meet the proposed standardsDraft proposals pertaining to AAQS put to stakeholders consultationPlaced before DTAC meeting in Feb 2003Presented to a stakeholder workshop in March 2003Again presented to AQMAC meeting in March 2003Proposal submitted to Inter-ministerial Committee for considerationSent to law Ministry for vetting and publication in the gazetteNew AAQS gazetted in June 2005
68Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards for Bangladesh
69Principal Air Pollutants in Dhaka City Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5)Sulphur Dioxides (SO2)Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)Ozone (O3)Carbon mono oxide (CO)Lead (Pb)
70Vehicle Emission Inventory for Dhaka: >85% of PM10 from Diesel Vehicles
71Principal pollutants and sources of air pollution in Dhaka City Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5)Vehicle, Brick Kiln, Cooking, CombustionNitrogen Dioxide and Carbon MonoxideFuel burningSulphur DioxideCoal burningOzonePhotochemical Reaction
72Sites for PM Sampling in Dhaka City TONGITEJGAONMOTIJHEELLALBAG
73Location of sampling sites in Bangladesh RajshahiDhakaNarayangonjSylhetKhulnaChittagongBarisal
82Cost benefit of Air Quality Improvement in Dhaka For Baby Taxi Ban: More than 900 premature death avoided and $ 25 million saved in health cost per year.By 20% reduction: Premature mortality could be reduced by about 1100 and health cost could be saved is $152 millionBy reduction to proposed national standard: Premature mortality could be reduced by about 3300 and $474 million per year.Source: World Bank, Dhaka
83What is AQI?The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a public information tool to express the air pollution level for a particular area on a certain periodThis is a simple way of describing the quality of air from human health point of viewThe AQI is linked to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) which is set based on health impacts
84Purpose of AQITo give complex information about the air pollution level and the quality of air in a simple way that people can easily understand;To inform how clean or polluted air you are breathing in relation to health based objectives; andTo advise the people about the general health effects associated with different pollution levels.
85CLASSIFICATION OF AQI AQI Range Colour Category 0-100 Green Very Good OrangeGoodVioletMedium>300RedBad
86Air Quality in Dhaka: Seasonal Non-monsoon period – Air Quality is poorMonsoon period – Air Quality OKAir quality objectiveNote: PM is the major pollutant of concern in Dhaka.…8686
88Reporting Format (English) Today’s Air Quality Index for Dhaka provided by Department of Environment was 67 based on pollutants monitored in CAMS, Sangsad Bhaban, The AQI category was “Very Good” and the colour code was Green. The Responsible pollutant was PM2.5.Air Quality Index (AQI) for 23rd August, 2006AQI ValueCategoryResponsible Pollutant67Very GoodPM2.5Department of Environment
89Interventions benefited air pollution abatement Phase out leaded petrol in 1999Jan 2001 setting standards for lubricantsPhase out of two stroke 3-wheeler from January 2003.Ban on the plying of trucks older than 25 years and buses older than 20 years.Introduction of ambient air quality standards.Introduction of emission standards EURO I for new diesel and EURO II petrol vehicles from 2005.Introduction of in use vehicle emission standards from 2005.
90Implications for adopting VES and AAQS Public awareness of air quality may increaseReporting exceedences of the standards may cause adverse reactions from within and outside of BangladeshAn AQI system that is consistent with the standards can be developedAn immediate need to develop emission inventories and control strategies to reduce dominant pollutant emissionsThe need to develop an industrial permitting program to foster improved environmental planning.
91Lessons learnedIt is easy to implement revised VES and AAQS if people’s participation is ensured.Phasing out of gross polluting two stroke three wheelers was possible due to overwhelming peoples supportGross polluting diesel vehicles are being phased out under a 5-year road map came into force in 2004.Awareness of people about air pollution is necessary to enforce standards.