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Air Quality Management Project

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1 Air Quality Management Project
SETTING AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND VEHICULAR EMISSION STANDARDS: DHAKA’S EXPERIENCE Mohammed Nasiruddin Project Director Air Quality Management Project Dhaka, Bangladesh

2 Dhaka is the eighth largest megacity of the world and home to 12
Dhaka is the eighth largest megacity of the world and home to million people living in an area of 1353km2. Air pollution is emerging as a major problem in Dhaka and other cities of Bangladesh. The main sources of air pollution in Dhaka are vehicles, industries particularly brick kilns, resuspended dust and biomass burning Being the 8th largest mega city of the world it witnessed a very fast growth of urban population in recent times which contributed to rising demand for transport services, mainly the road transport. There has been a steep rise in the heterogeneous mix of old technology vehicles on the city roads despite that the road space is narrowing and traffic congestion reached to an unmanageable proportion.

3 Nearly 4,00,000 vehicles now ply on Dhaka city roads everyday of which about 3,00,000 are motorized vehicles that contribute most to deteriorating Dhaka’s air quality. Contributing factors for vehicular emission in Dhaka are: poor fuel quality, poorly maintained vehicles, inadequate transport infrastructure, lack of proper transport planning and management PM 2.5 is the controlling pollutant of Dhaka’s air quality during 90% days of the year. A World Bank study says nearly 2x105 tons air pollutants are emitted from motor vehicles alone. Another World Bank study says as many as deaths, a million cases of major illness and 8.5 million cases of minor illness are caused by air pollution in Dhaka and three other cities of Bangladesh.

4 Dhaka city’s traffic problems and ambient air quality condition had reached such a crisis proportion that the challenge of sustaining economic growth and ensuring reasonable quality of life has become tougher. Deteriorating traffic and air pollution conditions had prompted the government to find urgent solutions.

5 At this backdrop the government in 2000 undertook the Air Quality Management Project with financial assistance of the World Bank. The primary objective of the project is to develop components of an air quality management system and to reduce human exposure to vehicular air pollution in Dhaka city only. The project activities subsequently extended to five Divisional towns under an extended monitoring programme.

6 The key components of the projects are:
improved enforcement, setting appropriate standards, piloting of pollution control technologies for diesel vehicles, better monitoring and dissemination of information, and air quality management assessment and strategy formulation.

7 Air Quality In Dhaka AQMP’s CAM Station results for Particulate Matter monitoring significantly exceed US EPA guidelines and other international standards. BAEC has estimated that the transport related fraction of PM10 is around 27% on a yearly average, rising to as much as 41% in the dry months. Diesel exhaust emissions are now considered a probable human carcinogen. If not managed, gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NOx, etc) could become a problem in the future.

8 Contribution of Vehicle Types to Emissions in Dhaka

9 Contribution of various types of vehicle to emissions in Dhaka
Petrol-driven light duty vehicles and auto-rickshaws contributes 85% CO Diesel buses and trucks contribute about 84% of total NOx TTW auto rickshaws contribute about half of total unburned HC from all vehicles Diesel buses and trucks contribute about 45% and auto-rickshaws 40% of total PM emissions SO2 emissions from vehicles are not very significant compared to other pollutants.

10 Year wise Registration of Motor Vehicles in Dhaka
Sl. No. Type of Vehicles Before 1995 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Total 1 Motor Car 36998 6923 8386 6528 4984 4330 2452 5560 5542 6163 4734 5633 98233 2 Jeep/St.Wangon/Microbus 17937 1556 1387 1492 1438 1371 910 1579 2911 1810 2114 3303 37808 3 Taxi 787 25 35 14 102 215 348 762 2101 4980 523 514 10406 4 Bus 269 145 73 58 184 224 202 453 632 374 779 728 4121 5 Minibus 2009 324 167 397 300 242 831 1924 1051 368 118 7946 6 Truck 9775 802 615 834 1681 855 1635 890 1127 2128 1437 1104 22883 7 Auto-rickshaw/Auto-tempo 8359 7301 4615 1902 1689 682 1881 75 2616 7996 2344 139 39599 8 Human Haller ** 673 136 20 829 9 Coverd Van * 527 .. 10 Motor-Cycle 61478 4427 4027 5346 4992 5330 8768 8590 9102 7239 7872 12879 140050 11 Others 2063 878 828 310 196 1326 819 1825 1012 3257 1300 2361 16175 139675 22381 20133 16881 15566 14548 17257 20565 26967 35671 22134 26799 378577 26,429 Two-Stroke Three-wheeler(Auto-rickshaw/Auto-tempo) removed from Dhaka. Human Hallers are included in others row (Sl. No. 11) Covered Van are included in others row (Sl. No. 11)

11 Key issues identified in respect of Vehicle Emission Control
Poor fuel quality Many of the vehicles ply on the road are very old, worn out, poorly maintained and often overloaded Poor inspection and maintenance Poor enforcement of existing laws in the MV ordinance Street congestion due to mixed traffic Inadequate facilities for manually driven tricycle rickshaws Poor traffic management Poor traffic signaling system Lack of pavement for street walkers Preponderance of pre-Euro vehicles on the roads more..

12 - Bus route overlapping
- Unscientific method of allocating route permit Lack of interdepartmental coordination Poor urban transport governance

13 Vehicle Emission Standards in place before June 2005 in Bangladesh
Parameter Unit Standard value Carbon Monoxide (CO) g/km 24 volumetric 4 % Hydrocarbons (HC) 2 180 ppmv Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) 600 ppmv Black Smoke1 Hartridge Smoke Unit (HSU) 65 1 Measured at 2/3 of maximum rotating speed

14 Why VES was necessary? The shortcomings of the existing VES were identified so as to fill in the lacunae while framing new standards for effective pollution abatement: Common emission standard irrespective of in-use, newly imported, reconditioned diesel and petrol vehicles. No separate emission standard for CNG vehicles No survey was done before framing emission standard. Mass emission limits and volume limits had no correspondence with each other Methods of examining emission was not mentioned

15 Objectives of VES To reduce the adverse effects of vehicle emissions on human health CO, NOx, O3, PM and SO2 management for sustainable environment

16 Steps followed for revision of emission standards
Emission tests performed on 1500 petrol/octane and CNG and 500 diesel run vehicles. Comprehensive review of vehicle emission standards in other countries within the region and beyond Prepared draft emission standard and circulated to different stakeholders for seeking their opinion. Discussions with stakeholders and regular meetings were held to hammer out standards Technical workshop held on draft VES. Workshop recommendations incorporated and placed before the DTAC meeting after refinement. Draft VES placed before AQMAC meeting and subsequently to Parliamentary Standing Committee on MoEF Contd.

17 A mid term review of the AQM jointly conducted by GOB and WB.
Revised VES placed before inter ministerial committee. Sent to the MoLPA for vetting and publication in the gazette. New VES gazetted in June 2005

18 How new VES is different from previous one?
The new VES came with:- Standards for new and imported used vehicles Standard for in-use vehicles Bangladesh-1 for diesel vehicles Bangladesh-II for petrol and CNG vehicles The new VES is an advancement over the old one. It was intended with primary objective to ensure that advances in pollution control technology are implemented and progressively lower fleet vehicle emissions are achieved over a period of time.
















34 New Vehicular Emission Standards (VES)
[ Schedule – 6 (Ka) to Schedule –6(Cha)] Schedule-6 of the Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997 has been replaced by the following schedules: 6(Ka), 6(Kha), 6(Ga), 6(Gha), 6(Uma) and 6(Cha).

35 Emission Standards (g/km)
Schedule -6(Ka):Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used diesel driven vehicles. ( Refer to Rules 4 & 12) (Bangladesh-1) Vehicle type Emission Standards (g/km) Test Procedure CO HC + NOx PM* Light duty vehicles (Not more than 8 seats in addition to driver & max. GVW 2.5 tons) New Type Approval (TA) Conformity of Production (COP) 2.72 0.97 0.14 91/441/EEC 3.16 1.13 0.18 Imported used diesel Medium duty Vehicles (More than 8 seats in addition to driver but less than 15 seats & GVW more than 2.5 tons but max. 3.5 tons) New TA COP 6.9 1.7 0.25 93/59/EC 8.0 2.0 0.29

36 Emission Standards (g/kWh)
Schedule -6(Ka): Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used diesel driven vehicles. (Continued) Heavy Duty Vehicles (More than 15 seats in addition to driver & GVW more than 3.5 ton) Vehicle type Emission Standards (g/kWh) Test Procedure CO HC NOx PM* New TA 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 91/542/EEC and ECE R 49.02 New COP 4.9 1.23 9.0 0.4 Imported used For the diesel engines with 85kW or less power the limit is to be increased by a factor of to 1.7.

37 Emission Standards (g/km) Evaporation emissions (g/test)
Schedule -6(Kha): Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used petrol and CNG driven vehicles. (Refer to Rules 4 & 12) (Bangladesh -2) Vehicle type Emission Standards (g/km) Evaporation emissions (g/test) Test Procedure CO HC + NOx 2 and 3 wheelers 4stroke petrol/CNG 4.5 3.0 - ECE-40 Light duty vehicles (Not more than 8 seats in addition to driver & max. GVW 2.5 tons) Petrol/CNG 2.2 0.5 2.0 94/12/EC Imported used petrol /CNG Medium duty Vehicles (More than 8 seats in addition to driver but less than 15 seats & GVW more than 2.5 tons but max. 3.5 tons) New and imported used Petrol/CNG 5.0 0.7 96/69/EC

38 Schedule -6(Kha): Emission standards for new locally made and new and imported used petrol and CNG driven vehicles. (Continued) Heavy Duty Vehicles (More than 15 seats in addition to driver & GVW more than 3.5 ton) Vehicle type Emission Standards (g/kWh) Evaporation emissions (g/test) Test Procedure CO HC/ NMHC* NOx New TA (Petrol/ CNG) 4.5 1.1 8.0 2.0 91/542/EEC and ECE R and 13- mode test cycle* New COP(Petrol/ CNG) 4.9 1.23 9.0 Imported used (Petrol/ CNG) * Applicable for CNG driven vehicles

39 Schedule – 6 (Ga): Emission inspection standards for new locally made and new and imported used light, Medium duty and heavy duty (Petrol, Diesel and CNG driven) Vehicles (during registration) (Refer to Rules 4 & 12) Vehicle type Parameter Emission Standard 4 wheeled Petrol and CNG driven vehicles Idle CO Idle HC 0.5 %v/v 1200 ppm No load, >2500< RPM <3000 CO HC Lambda 0.3 %v/v 300 ppm 1± 0.03 Visual check 3-Way catalytic converter fitted in the exhaust Diesel Naturally aspirated Free acceleration smoke 1.2 m-1 smoke density (40 HSU) Diesel Turbo-charged 2.2 m-1 smoke density (61 HSU) 39

40 Schedule- 6(Gha): Emission Standards for In-Service Vehicles registered after 1st July 2004.
(Refer to Rules 4 & 12) Vehicle Type Test CO (% by volume) HC (ppm) Lambda () Smoke All 4-wheeled Petrol and CNG vehicles. Idle Speed 1.0 1200 - No load, > 2500 <RPM < 3000 0.5 300 1.0 ± 0.03 4 Stroke Engine Petrol Two and Three Wheelers 4.5 All CNG Three Wheelers 3.0 All naturally aspirated diesel vehicles Free acceleration 65 HSU or 2.5 m-1 All turbocharged diesel vehicles 72 HSU or 3.0 m-1 Note: Idle Speed RPM specified by the manufacturer.

41 Schedule- 6(Uma): Emission Standards for In-Service Petrol and CNG Vehicles registered after July 1, 2004. ( Refer to Rules 4 & 12) Vehicle Type Test CO (% by volume) HC (ppm) All 4-wheeled Petrol Vehicles Idle Speed 4.5 1,200 All CNG driven Vehicles 3.0 - 2 Stroke Engine Petrol Two and Three Wheelers 7.0 12,000 4 Stroke Engine Petrol Two and Three Wheelers 3,000 Note: Idle Speed RPM specified by the manufacturer.

42 Trucks and all other diesel vehicles
Schedule – 6(Cha): Emission Standards for In-Service Diesel Vehicle registered after July 1,2004. (Refer to Rules 4 & 12) Vehicle Type Test Smoke Opacity Commencing January, 2004 Commencing January, 2007 Commencing January, 2009 Buses Free acceleration 80 HSU or 3.7 m-1 70 HSU 2.8 m-1 65 HSU 2.4 m-1 Trucks and all other diesel vehicles 90 HSU 5.3 m-1 General instruction: Importer must submit Emission Compliance Certificate from an internationally recognized independent agency at the time of clearance of the imported vehicles under schedule 6 (Ka) or 6(Kha) as relevant to the vehicle type.

43 Implementation of VES for New Registration Vehicles
Government regulations/motor vehicle rules notifying Standards and Test Procedure Emission Certification by an Approved Laboratory for a vehicle model Periodic testing for conformity of production vehicles

44 View of an Emission Test Facility

45 In – Service Vehicles Emission Inspection & Maintenance
20 to 30 % of total vehicles, which are “Gross Polluters” contribute 70 to 80% of total vehicular emissions For real reduction in pollution In-Service Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance (I & M) is essential Most countries have mandatory I & M

46 In–Service Vehicles Emission Inspection & Maintenance (contd)
Purpose To Assure that vehicle is properly maintained and used Identify dirtiest (gross polluters) vehicles and get them repaired Benefits Lower emissions and better fuel economy Deterrent to tampering and misfuelling

47 In-Service Vehicles I & M
Inspection & Maintenance are two Separate Functions to be done by Different Agencies Government to conduct Inspection only Maintenance in private ownership Simple and low cost inspection tests required

48 Inspection Tests ( No Load Tests)
Petrol Vehicles - Idle CO mostly - Idle HC also in some countries Idle NOx is negligible, hence not measured Diesel Vehicles - Free Acceleration Test for black Smoke No Load CO&HC are too low for diesel, not measured

49 Bangladesh Emission Standards for In-Service Vehicles
AQMP started collection of emission data from different types of vehicles Emission measurement from about 1500 Petrol and 500 Diesel vehicles planned all over Dhaka Emission standards to be fixed to allow failure of only about 20 % vehicles Standards expected by Dec. 2002

50 Measurement of in-use vehicle emissions
Petrol Vehicles CO and HC Diesel vehicles Smoke

51 Implementation of VES for In-Service Vehicles
Government issue gazette notification Mandatory Annual/Half Yearly Inspection by BRTA Test Lanes Roadside emission inspection as spot checks at DOE Check Posts Failed Vehicles to be re-inspected after repairs by the operator – procedure/system to be developed

52 Emissions and Fuel Quality
Engine Fuel Emissions Matching Engine & Fuel

53 Automotive Fuel Consumption in Bangladesh, MT
Indigenous Imported Total Petrol 100,000 200,000 300,000 Diesel 380,000 1,700,000 2,080,000

54 Fuel Quality Issues Enable efficient functioning and durability of emission control devices viz. Cat. Conv. Petrol: Lead free, low sulphur Diesel: Low sulfur for Cat convertor Reduce direct contribution to pollutants e.g., benzene, Evap. HC, sulfates (PM) Petrol: Benzene, RVP (Evaporative HC) Diesel: Sulfur (Increases PM)

55 Fuel Quality Issues (contd.)
Ensure efficient combustion Petrol: Volatility, Octane Number Diesel: Volatility, Cetane Number Keep fuel system clean for efficient engine operation and less maintenance Deposit control additives, Oxidation and storage stability Reduce Air Toxics (Benzene,1-3 Buta-diene, Aldehydes, POM)

56 Fuel Quality in Bangladesh
Petrol -Already Lead Free: Euro1 cars employ Cat.Converters - Sulfur( Specs. 0.1 % max) may be reduced further Diesel - Sulfur (Specs. 0.5 % max) to be reduced to : 0.25% max for Euro1 vehicles 0.05% max for Euro2 vehicles

57 Auto-Clinic Program by AQMP
First Clinic held from Dec. 23, 2001 to March 21,2002 Program conducted by the Society for Urban Environment Protection (SUEP) 2000 Auto- Rickshaw and Drivers participated Free carburettor and minor maintenance Idle CO &HC emission measurement before and after maintenance Smoke measurement under acceleration with normal oil and 2T oil.

58 Auto-Clinic Programme by AQMP (contd.)
Demonstration of effect of maintenance on CO & HC emissions Demonstration of effect of 2T oil in right quantity on reduction of blue smoke Health check – up of drivers Creating awareness on Bad effect of poor maintenance and oil qualty emissions from baby taxis Bad effect of smoke and other pollutants on health

59 Pilot Control Programs
AQMP has completed following three pilot programs; 1. Auto Clinic training program was held on 22 December, 2001 to 27 February, 2002. Objective: Training for drivers and mechanics on vehicle maintenance and their health impacts. No. of trainee: 2000,Two stroke three wheeler baby taxies drivers/mechanics. 2. Diesel engine maintenance improvement clinic from February 22 to March 28 ,2004. Objective: Training for driver/ mechanics on inspection and maintenance of the diesel vehicles to reduce vehicular air pollution. No. of trainee: 120 drivers/ mechanics from BRTC, Bangladesh Sarak Paribahan Fedaration, and others Government organizations.

60 Pilot Control Programs (Cont’d)
Under Diesel engine maintenance improvement clinic 420 drivers and mechanics were imparted training during 19 June- 17 August 2006 Similar clinic programs will be undertaken for Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet and Barisal.

61 Ambient Air Quality Standards
Air quality standards are the foundation upon which emission control strategies are based. Standards can be adopted as enforceable laws, typically (but not always) with deadlines and schedules for attainment Air quality standards are a meaningful way to report the frequency with which pollutant concentrations exceed healthful levels. They also form the basis of air quality index (AQI) calculations. AAQS are not just limits for each pollutant The standards also need to specify monitoring methods, locations and frequencies; average time and assessment procedures.

62 Bangladesh Standards for Ambient Air (mg/m3)
Sl. No. Area SPM SO2 CO NOx 1 Industrial and mixed 500 120 5000 100 2 Commercial and mixed 400 3 Residential and rural 200 80 2000 4 Sensitive 30 1000

63 Why revision of AAQS was necessitated
The previous standards do not specify monitoring methods and frequency, averaging times, compliance requirements and other necessary factors. Therefore, it was recognized that these standards require review.

64 Why AAQS needed? AQS are legal limits placed on levels of air pollutants in the ambient air during a given period of time. They characterize permissible level of a pollutant or a class of pollutants in the atmosphere and define the amount of exposure permitted to the population and/or to ecological systems.

65 AQS are not based solely on air quality criteria but are also based on a broad range of economic, social, technical and political considerations.

66 Steps followed for revision of AAQS
Reviewed ambient air quality standards in other countries within the region Analyzed the air quality monitoring data from the AQMP CAMS and found that concentrations of pollutants in the ambient air are generally within the USEPA standards The AQMP proposed the adoption of USEPA standards For Pb in ambient air the WHO standard recommended due to most appropriate degree of protection of public health Contd.

67 Concentration of PM10 and 2
Concentration of PM10 and 2.5 significantly exceeded the standards during the non monsoon periods Action plan suggested for reducing PM concentrations in the ambient air to meet the proposed standards Draft proposals pertaining to AAQS put to stakeholders consultation Placed before DTAC meeting in Feb 2003 Presented to a stakeholder workshop in March 2003 Again presented to AQMAC meeting in March 2003 Proposal submitted to Inter-ministerial Committee for consideration Sent to law Ministry for vetting and publication in the gazette New AAQS gazetted in June 2005

68 Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards for Bangladesh

69 Principal Air Pollutants in Dhaka City
Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) Sulphur Dioxides (SO2) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Ozone (O3) Carbon mono oxide (CO) Lead (Pb)

70 Vehicle Emission Inventory for Dhaka: >85% of PM10 from Diesel Vehicles

71 Principal pollutants and sources of air pollution in Dhaka City
Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5) Vehicle, Brick Kiln, Cooking, Combustion Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Fuel burning Sulphur Dioxide Coal burning Ozone Photochemical Reaction

72 Sites for PM Sampling in Dhaka City

73 Location of sampling sites in Bangladesh
Rajshahi Dhaka Narayangonj Sylhet Khulna Chittagong Barisal

74 Trends Analysis of SO2 in Dhaka City

75 Trends Analysis of CO in Dhaka City

76 Trends Analysis of O3 in Dhaka City

77 Trends Analysis of NOx in Dhaka City

78 Trends Analysis of Particulate Matter in Dhaka City

79 Seasonal Variation of Particulate Matter in Dhaka City

80 Seasonal Variation of Particulate Matter in Dhaka City


82 Cost benefit of Air Quality Improvement in Dhaka
For Baby Taxi Ban: More than 900 premature death avoided and $ 25 million saved in health cost per year. By 20% reduction: Premature mortality could be reduced by about 1100 and health cost could be saved is $152 million By reduction to proposed national standard: Premature mortality could be reduced by about 3300 and $474 million per year. Source: World Bank, Dhaka

83 What is AQI? The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a public information tool to express the air pollution level for a particular area on a certain period This is a simple way of describing the quality of air from human health point of view The AQI is linked to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) which is set based on health impacts

84 Purpose of AQI To give complex information about the air pollution level and the quality of air in a simple way that people can easily understand; To inform how clean or polluted air you are breathing in relation to health based objectives; and To advise the people about the general health effects associated with different pollution levels.

85 CLASSIFICATION OF AQI AQI Range Colour Category 0-100 Green Very Good
Orange Good Violet Medium >300 Red Bad

86 Air Quality in Dhaka: Seasonal
Non-monsoon period – Air Quality is poor Monsoon period – Air Quality OK Air quality objective Note: PM is the major pollutant of concern in Dhaka. …8686

87 % of Days in Air Quality Index Category

88 Reporting Format (English)
Today’s Air Quality Index for Dhaka provided by Department of Environment was 67 based on pollutants monitored in CAMS, Sangsad Bhaban, The AQI category was “Very Good” and the colour code was Green. The Responsible pollutant was PM2.5. Air Quality Index (AQI) for 23rd August, 2006 AQI Value Category Responsible Pollutant 67 Very Good PM2.5 Department of Environment

89 Interventions benefited air pollution abatement
Phase out leaded petrol in 1999 Jan 2001 setting standards for lubricants Phase out of two stroke 3-wheeler from January 2003. Ban on the plying of trucks older than 25 years and buses older than 20 years. Introduction of ambient air quality standards. Introduction of emission standards EURO I for new diesel and EURO II petrol vehicles from 2005. Introduction of in use vehicle emission standards from 2005.

90 Implications for adopting VES and AAQS
Public awareness of air quality may increase Reporting exceedences of the standards may cause adverse reactions from within and outside of Bangladesh An AQI system that is consistent with the standards can be developed An immediate need to develop emission inventories and control strategies to reduce dominant pollutant emissions The need to develop an industrial permitting program to foster improved environmental planning.

91 Lessons learned It is easy to implement revised VES and AAQS if people’s participation is ensured. Phasing out of gross polluting two stroke three wheelers was possible due to overwhelming peoples support Gross polluting diesel vehicles are being phased out under a 5-year road map came into force in 2004. Awareness of people about air pollution is necessary to enforce standards.

92 Thank you

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