What is Cognition? How we perceive, process, interpret, and store information Patterns of reasoning, moral thinking, and adjustments to our surroundings. Piaget—Theory that as we get older, we think more abstractly. ◦ Making inferences, conjectures, analytic thinking
Morality What is morality? ◦ Deciding what is right and wrong. What would a moral dilemma be? ◦ Heinz dilemma. ◦ Asked children this dilemma and recorded their conclusions and arguments. Developed 3 levels of Moral development ◦ Broken into 6 stages.
Activity Time! We will break into 7 groups. ◦ Count off 1 through 7 ◦ Same numbers get into a group. You will become a specialist in 1 stage/level Return to your seats. ◦ Regroup 1 -7 get into group. ◦ Now you will take turns teaching each other your stage/level. ◦ All group members will listen and answer the questions on their worksheet.
Cognitive/Moral recap What is Cognitive development ◦ What does it mean to develop cognitively? What is Moral development? ◦ Can you think of personal examples of Moral development?
Cognitive recap 6 months to 1.5 years Sensorimotor Experiences world through senses and interaction Lack object permanence (until 7 - 9 months) Stranger anxiety
Cognitive recap 2 – 7 years Preoperational First use of representational thought and symbols Ability to pretend Lacks logical reasoning Egocentrism; unable to take another’s point of view
Cognitive recap Ages 8 – 12 Concrete Operational Thinks logically about concrete events Mathematical transformations: performs arithmetical operations Have begun to internalize thoughts and reflections
Cognitive recap Ages 12 + Formal Operational Abstract reasoning Potential for mature moral reasoning Can go beyond appearances to deal with the truth or falsity
What are Morals? Dictionary Definition ◦ concerning or relating to what is right and wrong in human behavior ◦ based on what you think is right and good ◦ agreeing with a standard of right behavior
Moral recap Pre-Conventional First Level: Infants & preschoolers 1st stage: Child believes that bad behavior is behavior that is punished & good behavior is behavior is not 2nd stage: good is something pleasant & desirable; bad is unpleasant & undesirable
Moral recap Conventional 2nd Level: Conventional role conformity 1st stage: practices morality that wins approval from parents, teachers, peers praise = moral 2nd stage: moral = conforming to rules and norms of society obeys authority figures
Moral recap Post Conventional 3rd level: Self accepted Principles Individual judges their own moral standards Can distinguish between good and bad laws Individual principles of conscience
Moral recap Key Ideas to Keep in Mind: Individuals do not always remain permanently at one level, but can shift between levels. Only a small percentage of the population ever reaches post- conventional levels of morality. It is possible for a human being to be physically mature but not morally mature.