Challenge How to safely dispose of used injection equipment within the EPI and during mass vaccination campaigns?
Assuring safe disposal of used injection material within the EPI Waste mgmt is a chronic and frequently overlooked component of EPI EPI waste only a small proportion of healthcare waste ns greatly increases this chronic problemWeak health and community waste mgmt systems. Mass vaccination campaigns greatly increases this chronic problem Waste mgmt is an essential component of mass vaccination campaigns Early planning necessary to identify options and develop achievable plans
Challenges for Waste Management during mass vaccination campaigns No “one-size-fits-all” solution Need local assessment, simple solutions Environmental concerns, pressure groups, Kyoto agreement, bans on burning in some countries Implementation of the “Polluter Pays” principle Waste mgmt must be budgeted/funded/planned Measles and other vaccination campaigns should assist in the development of long-term EPI waste mgmt solutions
Options for disposing of used injection material within the EPI l Open burning and burying l High temperature incineration l Burial l Dumping in pit latrine or other secure pit l Transport for off-site treatment l New technologies/recycling
Injection Safety l Open burning - cheap and practical option Combustion is at lower temperature May not completely destroy injection equipment More toxic emission, chances of more waste scatter Usually done in open pit or metal drums Fence off and clear area and warn people to stay away from site Ashes should then be buried
Injection Safety l High temperature incineration The high temperature kills microorganisms Destroys syringes and needles by burning at high temperature (800 0 C) Minimal toxic fumes from incinerator, less air pollution Reduce volume of waste to minimum Requires special facilities Costly & complex to operate depending on model
Advantages of high temperature incineration Assures complete combustion of used injection equipment Markedly decreased risk of toxic emissions if properly used Increased melting of needles Less risk of blood-borne infections to the community
EPI Waste Management Protection of the Human Environment (PHE) Technical Options for Managing Waste Burning – High temperature De Montford Locally built brick Incinerator US $1000 Installed
EPI Waste Management Protection of the Human Environment (PHE) Technical Options for Managing Waste Burning – High temperature Factory built Prefabricated Incinerator US $5000 Installed
Injection Safety l Burial Burial can be for unburnt injection waste or waste generated by burning The pit should be at least 1 meter in depth It should be cordoned off to prevent access to site by people/children
EPI Waste Management Protection of the Human Environment (PHE) Technical Options for Managing Waste Waste Burial Pit
Assurance of injection safety with the EPI Conclusions Proper equipment is necessary, but not sufficient. Careful planning/budgeting/training needed Injection safety requires a long-term vision Short-term solutions available Creativity/teamwork needed to find long-term sustainable solutions Solving the overall health care waste mgmt challenge is beyond the scope of the EPI Mass vaccination campaigns should contribute towards finding sustainable solutions to the challenge of EPI waste mgmt. “Bundling” should include waste mgmt plans and financing
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