2acknowledgementsInspiration for this talk from multiple sources, among them--Interview of Karim Brohi--Lecture by Karim Brohi MD on hypoT--Interview with Richard Dutton-- Conference lecture with Brian Cotton MD, Jay Johanning MD--Cath Hurn MD “There will be blood” (also available at Social Media and Critical Care website scmm.org )
3Definition “Keeping things from getting too crazy or out of hand.” “Emergency control of situations that may cause the sinking of a ship”As a tagline this was borrowed from maritime --used to describe a procedure first practiced by Dr. Stone in In “damage control”, rather than spending 6-8 hours in the OR to complete repair and closure, repair happens then in stages. The reasoning behind this was to prevent long OR times in a shocked patient, allow time for rewarming and resuscitation in the ICU. Goals of damage control are usually focused on: hemostasis, removal of GI contamination from bowel injury and resection or debridement of non-viable tissue. When necessary, the abdominal cavity is left in discontinuity. (as shown) This practice is now standard of care for the massively shocked trauma patient and is even used for general surgery as well.
4Damage Control Resuscitation permissive hypotensionlimiting crystalloidsdelivering higher ratios of plasma and platelets and/or clotting adjuncts as appropriateDamage Control Resuscitation has gone by several terms and includes several concepts. There are 3 primary components:permissive hypotensionlimiting crystalloidsdelivering higher ratios of plasma and platelets and/or clotting adjuncts as appropriateAll three of these are aimed at limiting/correcting coagulopathy and controlling hemorrhage.
5What are we after in the trauma bay? Picture perfect vital signs? We give fluid, high five each other because the patient has “stabilized”. But have we done our patients a service?Without getting too academic today I want to introduce the concept of permissive hypotension and try to give you some support for its legitimacy, understanding that it (permissive hypotension) is not “standard of care” at present, nor is it applicable or appropriate for all patients. I’m interested in it as a strategy that we can start to use more often and maybe begin to incorporate into our culture of resuscitation at LGH. I invite you to check out the reference-list provided— we each chose the most read-able overview articles. And just give yourself a moment of pause to think before you high-five.Think before you high-five
6Less is more: Permissive Hypotension Where did we get our resuscitation strategies from??After World War II, Wiggers developed the classic ‘controlled’ hemorrhagic shock model, which documented that if severe shock was allowed to persist for several hours, an irreversible shock state occurred from which the animals could not be resuscitated.In the 1960s, Shires and associates used the ‘Wiggers Preparation’ to document that extracellular fluid deficits coexist with hemorrhagic shock and are best replenished with balanced salt solutions. This resulted in the standard 3:1 crystalloid-blood ratio of resuscitationLR resuscitation resulted in 0-10% mortality vs. 80% mortality with replaced blood only. (Wolfman, 63)Bullet point one: if I asked any one of you what the ideal MAP goal for a patient is you would shout out something around 60/65. Because as we all know dipping much below this level starts to jeapordize perfusion to our “end-organs”. Also, it’s intuitive to want to fix a number that represents a pathological state. At the same time we recognize that treating hypovolemic shock is not the same as vasodilatory shock.So what does the literature say in trauma? The literature supporting these goals in trauma patients comes from animal models of hemorrhagic shock performed by Dr. Wiggers at Case Western University by inducing animals and surgically bleeding them. He let them alone at this state with a MAP around 40 , for a few hours and then replaced the blood. What he found was that even when the blood volume was completely replaced, about 50% of the animals went on to die as the result of that sustained shock/acidosis and hypoperfusion.In the 1960s, Shires and associates used the ‘Wiggers Preparation’ to document that extracellular fluid deficits coexist with hemorrhagic shock and are best replenished with balanced salt solutions. This resulted in the standard 3:1 crystalloid-blood ratio of resuscitation.These theories seem to be confirmed by other studies showing mortality benefit from infusing crystalloids before the introduction of blood products.The hypothesis was that the intracellular contraction in shock is not adequately addressed with blood products alone, which as colloidal solutions are more likely to stay extracellular. This model failed to account for the physiological reaction to shock with ongoing blood loss.Fink, M. Hayes,M. Soni, N. Classic papers in critical care. Ch. 12: “Fluids”. Springer-Verlag London Limited 2008.
7New Paradigm: Permissive Hypotension “Resuscitation is limited to keep blood pressure at 90 mm Hg, preventing renewed bleeding from recently clotted vessels.” (Holcomb, 2007)Examples from vascular specialties, the military:Aggressive volume resuscitation of patients with rAAAs before proximal aortic control predicted an increased perioperative risk of death, which was independent of systolic blood pressure…volume resuscitation should be delayed until surgical control of bleeding is achievedThis resuscitation-to-normal BP with crystalloids was/is pretty much standard [and is incorporated into ATLS guidelines], but leaders in the field are starting to think differently.Accepted method in treatment of ruptured AAA patients . And in the military ().Crawford ES. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg 1991;13:348-50Holcomb JB. The 2004 Fitts Lecture: current perspective on combat casualty care. J Trauma 2005;59:
8Evidentiary Basis: Animal studies Bickell, 1991: 16 swines treated with fluid or nothingTreatment group achieved higher MAPs. However, after 30-minutes 5 animals in the treatment group had died whereas all 8 animals in the control group had survived. They had significantly less blood loss as well.OthersNine trials compared hypotensive versus normotensive resuscitation (MAP >80) . The relative risk of death with hypotensive resuscitation was 0.37.“The effect of hypotensive resuscitation was to reduce the risk of death in all the trials. This suggests that using a lower than normal blood pressure as a guide to fluid resuscitation consistently reduces the risk of death regardless of the severity of injury”Bickell WH, Wall MJ Jr, Pepe PE, et al. Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torsoinjuries. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1105–1109.Bickell developed a model to study resuscitation in uncontrolled hemorrhage. A 5-mm aortotomy was inflicted in 16 anesthetized pigs, and the animals were separated into 2 groups. In the treatment group, resuscitation was started 6 minutes after aortotomy with aggressive infusion of crystalloid fluid2003 Analysis of 44 studies of fluid resuscitation and 9 studies of hypotensive resuscitation…When hemorrhage is severe (injury to the aorta or rat tail removed), fluid resuscitation reduces the risk of death; but when hemorrhage is less severe (injury to vessels other that the aorta or solid organ), the risk of death is increased.BUT REGARDLESS OF THE SEVERITY OF BLEEDING The effect of “hypotensive” resuscitation was to reduce the risk of death in all the trials. This suggests that using a lower than normal blood pressure as a guide to fluid resuscitation consistently reduces the risk of death regardless of the severity of injuryProbably most important of these, Sondeen JL, Coppes VG, Holcomb JB. 2003Sondeen demonstrated that after arterial injury and hemorrhage, followed by spontaneous clotting, if resuscitation commences and continues until the blood pressure reaches a systolic blood pressure of 94 ± 3 mm Hg, then newly formed clot is disrupted, bleeding resumes, blood pressure goes down, and the animal dies
9Meanwhile, in humans Bickell et al, 1994. Prospective controlled trial. N= 598Control= standard practiceExperimental= NO IV Fluid.Fluids and blood were then initiated at time of operation for SBP goal 100OUTCOMESControl group got 1L additional fluid, had a higher MAP at presentationSurvival rate was significantly higher (p=.04) in the delayed-resuscitation group.Control group also had a trend (p=.11) toward more blood loss intraop and trend (p=.08) toward more post-op complicationsThe earliest, and often-sited trial was performed by Bickel et al in It was a randomized control trial of 598 penetrating trauma to the abdomen with SBP <90 (including SBP not palpable), wherein the control group got fluids as they do in current practice and LR was given to penetrating trauma pts as soon as they were in the ambulance. The experimental group was given KVO (imagine being on those EMS crews where you have a patient who’s obviously bleeding and you’re starting a KVO gtt!). (Not sure how they got this one past the IRB, honestly. Average SBP was 60)They referred to this group as the “delayed resuscitation” group. Fluids and blood were then initiated at time of operation for SBP goal 100. OUTCOME: All in all, patients in the immediate group received about 1L prior to operation and the same intraop. As expected they had a HIGHER MAP on presentation, lower hct, higher PT/PTT. The overall rate of survival was significantly higher in the delayed-resuscitation group than in the immediate-resuscitation group (70 percent vs. 62 percent, P = Immediate also had a trend (p=.11) toward more blood loss intraop and trend (p=.08) toward more post-op complications.From this, authors concluded that DELAY OF FLUID RESUSCITATION UNTIL OPERATIVE INTERVENTION is likely beneficial. (Most importantly, it emphasized early operative hemostasis.)Bickell WH, Wall MJ Jr, Pepe PE, et al. Immediate versus delayed resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1105-9
10Others Dutton RP, et al. 2002 RCT. N= 55 Randomized to SBP goal 70 or 100. No difference in mortality. (injury severity scores higher in low-BP group…possible benefit?)Morrison et al, 2011.Number so far= 90Allocated to MAP goal >50 or >65.The lower MAP goal group shows less blood products, less IV fluid, less perioperative mortality, trend toward less 30-day mortality.However the complete f/up article is still not in print.In 2002 Dr Dutton and others studied “hypotensive” resuscitation in particular. This time blunt injury patients were included. No difference was found. The sample size was quite small and the ISS scores were not equal…suggests the need for a larger trial.-A newer study (RCT) whose results on the first 90 patients are published before print. Hypotensive group seems to be doing better but we’ll still have a while to wait for the outcomes.Morrison CA et al., Hypotensive resuscitation …l. Trauma Mar;70(3):Dutton RP, MacKenzie CF, Scalea TM. Hypotensive resuscitation during active haemorrhage: impact on in-hospital mortality. J Trauma. 2002;52:
11Theory“Lower blood pressure enhances regional vasoconstriction and facilitates clot formation and stabilization. Controlled volume administration reduces the development of hypothermia and limits dilution of red cell mass, platelets, and clotting factors. Weighed against this is the potential for worsening hypoperfusion, with a risk for increased acidosis and organ system injury.” Dutton, 2007As you can see, there is some intriguing evidence in favor of much more restricted fluid resuscitation than we currently employ.
12Practice PointsDelay aggressive fluid resuscitation until operative control is achievable. SBP >70 and MAP >55 appear safe*.An SBP of has been identified as the pressure at which clots blow in animal modelsStill under investigation: Should hypotensive resuscitation extend beyond the trauma bay/ambulance into the OR?(probably)it depends on the individual patient and the need to balance the potential for worsening hypoperfusion to end-organs. Example elderly, traumatic brain injured patients, patients with cardiac/valvular disease.Based on the Bickle study there is pretty good evidence to support this first bullet point for penetrating trauma patients and one can probably using reason apply this to blunt trauma “moderate hypotension for less than 30 minutes can be tolerated by trauma patients without progression to end-organ failure” and may prevent clot-breakup/coagulopathy.In answer to the second question: Probably, and It depends. Obviously its complicated when you have different goals between studies. As usual, more studies are needed before this is something that’s protocolized—for now the use of this strategy will remain dependent on the patient, provider and circumstances. What about the CT scan? Answer: hypotensive patients shouldn’t be IN the CT scan.* Except in the above populations
13Hypotensive Resuscitation (Dr. Jay Johanning) Goals of Fluid Resuscitation TherapyImproved state of consciousness (if no TBI)Palpable radial pulse corresponds roughly to systolic blood pressure of 80 mm HgAvoid over-resuscitation of shock from torso wounds.Too much fluid volume may make internal hemorrhage worse by “Popping the Clot.”
14“There are things that you think you will never need to know, things you may need to know only one time in your life, but you can save a life because you have that knowledge.”- Eric Thomas
15Blood Product Ratios and Limiting the Use of Crystalloids. II. Written in BloodBlood Product Ratios and Limiting the Use of Crystalloids.
16Historical PracticeData from the 1950s and 60s noted altered sodium, water distribution and retention following trauma with surgical management. Treatment surrounded management of intravenous fluids to balance input and output. (Cotton et al., 2006)The 1970s brought forward the thought of a “Golden Hour,” a concept emphasizing rapid diagnosis, surgery and resuscitation. Resulting in prolonged “fix everything now” surgeries. (Dutton, 2005)Chief publications in the 1980s stressed the importance of “supranormal resuscitation,” and the infusion of large amounts of fluid regardless of objective measurements.The late 1980s marked a major movement toward abbreviated laparotomy, with a definitive surgery only after correction of acidosis, coagulopathy and hypothermia.Coinciding with these advances, Intra-abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) became attributed to major interstitial swelling secondary to “supranormal resuscitation.”This led to the present day management of trauma with Damage Control Laparotomy and the minimization of crystalloids with increased use of blood products. (Cotton et al., 2006)
17Damage Control Laparotomy Phase 1 consists of transport to the OR in order to control hemorrhage and prevent contamination and further injury. The abdomen or site of injury is packed and left open with wound vac in place.Phase 2 starts in the OR with extended focus in the ICU where the patient can be physiologically stabilized, resuscitated and warmed in order to correct both acidosis and coagulopathy.Phase 3 is a staged definitive surgery to reconstruct the abdomen and close.
18Concentration on Phase 2-Resuscitation Beginning in the Trauma Bay or OR, Resuscitation can happen concurrently with surgery.The Anesthesia and MTP response team is focused on correcting the lethal triad: Acidosis, Hypothermia and CoagulopathyThis is done by administration of fluids, PRBC, FFP, platelets, Vitamin K, tranexamic acid, buffers, electrolytes and other interventions
19Damage Control Anesthesia Recommendations During SurgerySBP 90 mm HgUrine Output presentPaCO2 < 50pH> 7.25Lactate StableINR < 1.6Plt > 50,000Hct > 25%Deep AnesthesiaStabilization in ICUSBP >100Urine Output > 0.5ml/kg/hrPaCO2 < 40pH >7.35Lactate WNLINR < 2Plt > 50,000Hct >20Dutton, R.P., (2005). Damage Control Anesthesia, International Trauma Care,
20Extensive discussion is present in scholarly research regarding the ratio of PRBCS to FFP in order to ensure the best possible outcome for our patients.Furthermore there is increased awareness of the theoretical benefits of limiting use of crystalloids (NS and LR).(Cotton et al., (2006). The cellular, metabolic, and systemic consequences of aggressive fluid resuscitation strategies. Shock, 26(2), )Current trends
22246 Military patients: US Army Combat Support Hospital (retrospective chart review, 2007) RESULTS:For the low ratio group the plasma to RBC median ratio was 1:8mortality rate was 65%,For the medium ratio group, 1:2.5mortality rate was 34%For the high ratio group, 1:1.4mortality rate was 19%(Borgman, M.A., (2007). The ratio of blood products transfused affects mortality in patients receiving massive transfusions at a combat support hospital. Journal of Trauma, 63(4), )RESULTS:For the low ratio group the plasma to RBC median ratio was 1:8 (interquartile range, 0:12-1:5), for the medium ratio group, 1:2.5 (interquartile range, 1:3.0-1:2.3), and for the high ratio group, 1:1.4 (interquartile range, 1:1.7-1:1.2) (p < 0.001). Median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 18 for all groups (interquartile range, 14-25). For low, medium, and high plasma to RBC ratios, overall mortality rates were 65%, 34%, and 19%, (p < 0.001); and hemorrhage mortality rates were 92.5%, 78%, and 37%, respectively, (p < 0.001). Upon logistic regression, plasma to RBC ratio was independently associated with survival (odds ratio 8.6, 95% confidence interval ).
23150 Civilian patients: University of Alabama. (2005-2007) RESULTS:HRR= 40% mortalityLRR= 58% mortalityHowever, “survival bias was introduced as the patients in the low-ratio group died early which effectively fixed them at a low FFP-PRBC ration for the remained of the resuscitation period (p. 361).”(Snyder, C.W. et al., (2009). The Relationship of Blood Product Ratio to Mortality:Survival Benefit of Survival Bias?. Journal of Trauma, 66(2), )Groups were similar in terms of severity, adjuncts productsPatient’s receive PRBCs before FFPNon-survivors did not die due to a low FFP:PRBC ratio, they got a lower ratio because they died.
24Initial studies have reported significant reductions in mortality, but are uncontrolled and methodologically flawed, particularly by survivorship bias. Presently, clinical decisions should be based in assessing the pros and cons of both strategies while considering local resources and individual clinical context.Clinical review: Fresh frozen plasma in massive bleedings - more questions than answers Bartolomeu et al. Critical Care 2010, 14:202 Hallet, J., Lauzier, F., Mailloux, O., Trottier, V., Archambault, P., Zarychanski, R., & Turgeon, A. (2013) The Use of Higher Platelet: RBC Transfusion Ratio in the Acute Phase of Trauma Resuscitation: A Systematic Review. Critical Care Medicine. 41(12) DOI: /CCM.0b013e31829a6ecb
25The Prospective, Observational, Multicenter, Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study: Comparative Effectiveness of a Time-varying Treatment with Competing Risks John B. Holcomb, et al. JAMA Surg. Feb 2013; 148(2): 127–136.PROMMTT was a prospective, multicenter observational cohort study (10 centers)ConclusionsIn the first 6 hours, patients with ratios < 1:2 were 3–4 times more likely to die than patients with ratios ≥1:1. ‘After 24 hours, plasma and platelet ratios were unassociated with mortality, when competing risks from non-hemorrhagic causes prevailed.On the whole:The current published literature, though limited by a number of the factors mentioned above, suggests that there may be a benefit in mortality for transfusion of higher volumes of plasma (perhaps with the greatest benefit with a transfusion ratio somewhere in the 1:1.5-2 plasma : RBC range).
26Theoretical basis of improved results with High Ratio Infusion “FFP is hypothesized to include a mechanism at the cellular level in combination of the replacement of coagulation factors... FFP repairs and normalizes the vascular endothelium by restoring tight junctions, building the glycocalyx, and inhibiting inflammation and edema.”(Pati, M.N. et al., 2010). Protective effects of fresh frozen plasma on vascular endothelial permeability, coagulation, and resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock are time dependent and dimnish between days 0 and 5 after thaw. Journal of Trauma. 69, )26
28365 Civilian patients: Multi-Institutional analysis of MTPs (prospective comparative study therapeutic, )RESULTSPatients who received less blood product received more crystalloid over 24-hour period.A direct relationship was seen between increased crystalloid use and VAP, bacteremia and sepsis.Of the “MTP patients (10 or more units) an increased fourfold morbidity was seen in patients with a 24 hour crystalloid volume in excess of 5 L.”(Duchesne, J.C. et al., (2013). Diluting the benefits of hemostatic resuscitation: A multi-institutional analysis. Trauma Acute Care Surgery, 75(1), )
29Theoretical basis of improved results with decreased Crystalloid use. “Cellular volume seems to drive many of the basic metabolic changes responsible for protein synthesis, cell turnover, and overall cellular performance. The cellular membranes…do not tolerate significant gradients in hydrostatic pressure.”(Cotton et al., (2006). The cellular, metabolic, and systemic consequences of aggressive fluid resuscitation strategies. Shock, 26(2), 116)In other words, when cells are edematous they cease to function well.
30Complications Associated with Aggressive Crystalloid Resuscitation -Ileus-Anastomic dehiscence-Decreased tissue healing-Abdominal Compartment Syndrome-Dilution of coagulation factors-Decreased blood viscosity-Disordered neurotransmitter metabolism-Disturbances in the release of catecholamines, glutamate, and acetylcholine.-Cellular acidification-Inflammation-Altered glucose productionand metabolism-Insulin disturbances-Disruption of cardiac myocyteaction potential-Decreased cardiac output-Cardiac arrhythmias andventricular dysfunction-Pulmonary Edema and ARDS-Increase gut permeability/bacterial translocation(Cotton et al., (2006). The cellular, metabolic, and systemic consequences of aggressive fluid resuscitation strategies. Shock, 26(2), )
31Current recommendations “Effective and aggressive incorporation of high ratio resuscitation is essential to correct the combination of metabolic acidosis, hypothermia, and acute coagulopathy of trauma shock associated with severe tissue injury and tissue hypoperfusion.” (Duchesne et al., 2013)Limit excessive crystalloid resuscitation in the acute phase of trauma/hemorrhageATLS GuidelinesInitial infusion of 1-2 L of crystalloid followed by PRBC if there is no response, when hemorrhagic shock is suspected.Current recommendations
35Reversal of Coagulopathy & Thromboelastograpy Directed Therapy
36Objectives After this presentation the audience will be able to: Discuss pharmacology of novel oral agentsDescribe risk factors for hemorrhageDescribe agents used to stop hemorrhagingDevelop an algorithm for life threatening hemorrhages
37Clotting Cascade Damaged surface Trauma Fibrin clot XII XIIa XI XIa IX IXaTraumaVIIaVIITissue factorVIIIaXXaXUFHVaLMWHProthrombinII (Thrombin)Xa inhibitorsFibrinogenFibrinVKA DTIXIIIaFibrin clot
38FDA Indications FDA Supported Indications Reduce the risk of systemic embolism in patientswith non-valvular AFibApixaban Dabigatran RivaroxabanDVT prophylaxis in knee/hip replacementRivaroxabanTreatment of DVT/PE and extended TxNon-FDA Approved IndicationsTreatment of DVT/PEApixabanDabigatranAcute Coronary Syndromes** Investigational
43Serious or life- threatening bleeding NowINRBleedingTherapeutic Options> 3.0 – 10NobleedingHold warfarin until INR returns to normal range>10No bleedingHold warfarin and give vitamin K mg PO*Any INRSerious or life- threatening bleedingHold warfarin and administer PCC and supplement with vitamin K 5-10mg IV* infusion and repeat as necessaryAlternatively, FFP or recombinant VIIa may be supplemented with vitamin K 5-10 mg IV infusion may be used instead of PCC* Low dose reduces INRs to < 4.0 in 1.4 days after PO or 24 hrs after IV. High dose IV vit K begins reducing INR within 2 hrs with a correction to normal generally by 24 hrs.Holbrook. CHEST. e152-e184
44CHEST and ICH Guidelines Holbrook. CHEST. e152-e184, AHA/ASA ICH Guidelines. Stroke 2010;41:
45Bleeding and Reversal DTI Xa Inhibitors( Xarelto) No direct antidote Prothrombin Complex Concentrates (PCC)Recombinant Factor VIIFresh Frozen PlasmaDabigatran is dialyzableXa Inhibitors( Xarelto)Under development (Andexanet alfa, Portola Pharmaceuticals)
46Agents Generic Name Brand Name Approved Uses PCC - 4 Factor Kcentra (Octaplex, Beriplex)Reversal of acute major bleeding due to warfarinActivated PCC - 4 Factor(anti -inhibitor coagulant complex)FeibaHemophilia A and BPCC – 3 FactorProfilnine® SDHemophilia B with factor IXdeficiencyRecombinant Factor VIIaNovoSeven® RTPatients with factor VII deficiency or with hemophilia A or BKcentra Package Insert. CSL. April;2013.Feiba. Medical letter. Baxter. 2;2011. Profilnine SD. Factor Levels. Grifols. 03/12. NovoSeven. LexiComp. Hudson, OH
48Non inverse relationship between plasma factor VII levels and INR. Imberti et al(Blood Transf Apr.’11,9(2) ).Non inverse relationship between plasma factor VII levels and INR.Noted that with INR < 4.5, usually sufficient levels of factor VII to allow 3 factor PCC to be effective.When higher, levels are usually too low(<10%) and 4 factor PCC is more effective.Unlike other clotting factors, only % of factor VII is needed for adequate hemostasis.
49Pro & Con Table Agent C o s t A v a i l V o l u m e Infus Time Admix TimeOn se tEffectiv enessInfect RiskThrombo sis RiskFFP+Lg120 min-++Kcentra$$Sm20 minFEIBA$$$15 minProfilnine$NovoSevenPush+++Kcentra. LexiComp. Hudson, OHFeiba. LexiComp. Hudson, OH Profilnine SD. LexiComp. Hudson, OH NovoSeven. LexiComp. Hudson, OH Cupp. Pharmacist’s Letter Oct
50Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC) Rebound Drug EffectsAnticoagulation Reversal PharmacokineticsAgentOnsetDurationRebound of AnticoagulantProtamine5 minIrreversibleLikely with SBQ dosing from postponed drug deliveryVitamin K4-12hrsDays forINRDose dependentFresh Frozen Plasma (FFP)1-4hrs6hrs4-6hrsProthrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC)10-15min12-24hrs≈12hrsrFactor VII10min6-12hrs
51Full Anticoagulation Reversal for Life Threatening Hemorrhage Oral Drug Generic Brand Reversal StrategyVit K AntagonistWarfarin Coumadin PCC - 4 factor + Vitamin K 10mg IVRivaroxaban Apixaban EdoxabanXarelto EliquisFactor Xa InhibitorPCC - 4 factorDTIDabigatranPradaxaPCC - 4 factorImmediately after IV UFH bolus: 1mg protamine per 100units heparin30-60min post UFH: 0.5mg protamine per 100 units heparinUFHHeparinN/A≤8hrs since dose: 1mg of protamine per 1 mg of enoxaparin8-12hrs since dose: 0.5mg of protamine per 1 mg of enoxaparinEnoxaparinLovenoxLMWH≤8hrs since dose: 1 mg of protamineper 100 anti-Xa units8-12hrs since dose:0.5 mg of protamine per 100 anti-Xa unitsDalteparinFragminFactor Xa InhibitorFondaparinuxArixtraPCC - 4 Factor
52Dosing As literature comes forth, focus on the outcome! Laboratory reversal versus hematoma reduction!The goal is to stop the bleed, not the surrogate marker lab value that may lag behind.Pre-Treatment INRDose of 4F-PCC (Units of Factor IX)Maximum Dose (Units of Factor IX)2 to <425 units/kg2500 units4-635 units/kg3500 units>650 units/kg5000 units
54Thromboelastogarphy( teg) Developed by H. Hartert in Germany in as a research tool.First clinical application in liver transplantation by Kang 25 years later.Historically, widest use in CPB and liver transplantation.More recently, with advent of damage control and hemostatic resuscitation, increased use for directed blood therapy.TEG predicts blood product usage in trauma patients. J Trauma. 1997;42(4):716-22TEG accurately measures coagulopathy in trauma patients . Anesth Analg ;86(2S):88S
55Thromboelastography Functional assay Factor Deficiencies Global evaluation of(from initiation of protein coagulation through lysis)clot.Factor DeficienciesFibrinogen FunctionPlatelet FunctionClot StrengthLysisStandard coagulation tests, termed the plasma clotting assays, include the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), provide general measures of the extrinsic and intrinsic clotting pathway integrity, respectively. These tests are performed on platelet-poor plasma and are unable to assess the true rate of clot formation, overall strength of the clot and the degree of clot lysis (fibrinolysis) as TEG can. (4)
56Coagulopathy of Trauma Pro-thrombotic StateDVT / PE(Majority)Hemorrhagic StateBleedingOngoing hypotensionIntegral to limiting hemorrhage and subsequent survival is one’s ability to form a fibrin clot at the site of injury. However, the same hemostatic process required to limit hemorrhage can also be life threatening when venothromboembolic (VTE) complications occur. Hence, a delicate balance exists between pro-coagulant and anticoagulant activities in vivo. It is important to be able to accurately evaluate the hemostatic status after injury so we adequately restore clotting factors in a bleeding patient or assess the efficacy of pharmacologic therapy in prothrombotic patients.Coagulopathy of trauma is dynamic.
57CONTACT TISSUE COMMON PATHWAY THROMBIN / FIBRINOGEN The hypercoagulable state resulting from tissue injury has been attributed mainly to extrinsic (TF)-dependent thrombin generation. The contact pathway (TF-independent) can also lead to thrombin generation in vitro but the physiologic significance of this pathway in vivo has been less well understood. (20-21)In cardiac patients, contact pathway enzyme, FXIa, was significantly higher in those with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) than in those with stable angina pectoris (SAP) pointing to its role in vascular thrombosis. Hence both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways may both have a role in maintaining hemostasis after injury.THROMBIN / FIBRINOGEN
58Hemostasis profile: R time Angle MA LY Selected parameters will be discussed here.R time – time to first fibrin strand formation; this is the point at which all other plasma clotting assays (e.g., PT/aPTT) stop measuring. Its value will increase with coagulation factor deficiency or its value will decrease when the coagulation factors involved in thrombin generation is increased as when FVIIa is administered.α-angle measures the angle between the tangent line drawn from the curve to the split point and the tracing's horizontal line, in degrees. It is reflective of kinetic interaction of fibrin/fibrinogen with platelets.Maximum Amplitude – Reflects ultimate clot strength due to fibrin/fibrinogen interaction with GPIIb/IIIa receptor on functioning platelets.Lysis 30 – Rate of amplitude reduction (clot break down) and is an indication of clot stabilityHemostasis profile:R time Angle MA LYFibrin strands clot kinetics strength/elasticity dissolution
59TEG Components R (reaction) time K (clotting) time Alpha angle Coagulation factorsK (clotting) timeInteraction of factors, fibrin & plateletsAlpha angleFibrin & plateletsMaximal Amplitude (MA)Platelet functionLysis 30/60 (LY30/60)FibrinolysisDeveloped by H. Hartert in Germany in 1948 as a research toolFirst used clinically in liver transplantation by Kang in Pennsylvania more than 25 years laterWidest use in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and liver transplantationOther uses: Trauma / Obstetrics / Surgery / ICU / Hypercoagulable states etc.2 studies onlyTEG predicts blood product usage in trauma patients J Trauma. 1997;42(4):716-22TEG accurately measures coagulopathy in trauma patients Anesth Analg. 1998;86(2S):88SUtility under investigation at Balad LTC Donald Jenkins and Maj Steve Abbate
62Patient status: bleeding Platelet AbnormalityPatient status: bleedingProbable causes:Factor deficiencyLow platelet countLow platelet functionIn this tracing, bleeding is probably due to a combination of factors. The long R value suggests a coagulation factor deficiency, while the low MA suggests low platelet count and/or platelet dysfunction.The TEG decision tree, used as a guide for bringing the hemostatic system back into balance, suggests that the R should be reduced first, then the MA.
64Fibrinogen Deficiency Patient status: bleedingProbable cause: fibrinogen deficiencyCommon treatment: Cryoprecipitate, FFP, or prothrombin complexCommon treatments for fibrinogen deficiency include cryoprecipitate, FFP, and prothrombin complex. The choice of treatment is determined by product availability and protocols at each institution.
65TEG DIRECTED THERAPY- pt. 1 Gsw to pelvis and right LERectal, Small Bowel, Sacral, & Open Femur FxArrived in Class IVShock
67GSW to Left Flank- pt. 2Sigmoid Colon, Small Bowel, and Abdominal Wall Injury2 PRBC given intra-op
68GSW to Left Flank- pt. 2 Post-op TEG shows early fibrinolysis TEG after Amicar infusion
69Clinical Randomisation of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Hemorrhage
70Guideline for Blood Product Use Abnormal TEGProlonged R timeProlonged K time or Decrease a-AngleTransfuse 4 units FFPTransfuse 4 units FFPthen 4 units CryoprecipitateConsider rVIIa if abnml after aboveDecrease Maximum AmplitudeIncrease LY30Transfuse plateletsAmicar or Tranexamic Acid
71Hemorrhage is the enemy (early) Hypercoagulability is the enemy (late)Diagnosis: time consuming and confusingTEG is extremely useful“Whole blood coagulation measurement”FastOne testEasily repeatableIt’s what you want-clot measurement