How can we lessen the danger of infectious diseases ? We have to modernize the world’s farms, improve basic health care and stockpile vaccines and antiviral drugs.
When a microbe succeeds in leaping from one species to another, the new host is often a dead end. succeed in + V-ing 成功地 … The blind man, despite all difficulties, succeeded in climbing Mt. Everest. Next
When a microbe succeeds in leaping from one species to another, the new host is often a dead end. from one to another 從一個 … 到另一個 … The wanderer has traveled from one country to another, looking for a place he could call home. one...after another 一個接著一個 The anxious mother asked one passer-by after another for her lost child. Next
When a microbe succeeds in leaping from one species to another, the new host is often a dead end. host 原義為「主人」，在此為 醫學用法，表「宿主，寄主」。 dead end 原表「死巷」，後來 引伸為「絕境，沒有出路」. Being a waiter is a dead end job. The new product turned out to be a dead end.
However, the infections we get from apes and pigs are a whole different story. 為一省略受格關係代名詞 引導的形容詞子句，用以 形容先行詞 infections 。
When the Ebola virus jumps from an ape into a person, it often races through a family or a hospital before burning itself out. burn itself (one’s self) out 耗盡；精疲力竭 My father always works too hard, and we are worried that he might burn himself out someday. 若 burn oneself out 的主詞是 fire ， 表「熄 滅」. Sometimes the only way to stop forest fires is to let them burn themselves out.
When the Ebola virus jumps from an ape into a person, it often races through a family or a hospital before burning itself out. burned out 為形容詞，表「精疲力竭 的」. The basketball players all lay on the floor, feeling burned out after winning the game.
And HIV is still spreading steadily after three decades of person-to-person transmission. The Introduction of HIV
HIV 是 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 的 縮寫。 HIV 為引起 AIDS 的病毒，感染 HIV 不一定會立刻發病，潛伏期可能高達十年。 HIV 在 1983 由法國研究人員首先發現，這種 病毒會感染白血球 ( 影響包括免疫系統的 T 細胞 ) ，進而破壞免疫系統。感染 HIV 會讓 患者因為免疫系統受損，使得一些原本輕微 的疾病症狀急速惡化，最後導致死亡。 Next
It has infected some 60 million people since crossing over from chimpanzees. cross over 原意為「橫跨」， 此處指「疾病的傳遞」。 為一主詞省略的分詞構句， 原句為： since it crossed over from chimpanzees 。
What turned it into a deadly disease was not just a new infectious agent but also a rapid increase of roads, cities, and airports, a breakdown of social traditions, and the start of blood banking and needle sharing. what 在此為複合關係代名詞的用法， 可等於 the thing which 。 deadly 表「致命的」， 類似的同義字有： fatal ， lethal 。 Next
What turned it into a deadly disease was not just a new infectious agent but also a rapid increase of roads, cities, and airports, a breakdown of social traditions, and the start of blood banking and needle sharing. agent 原意為「代理人」， 在此則指「帶原媒介」。 not just/only/merely...but (also)... 不僅... 而且... = not just/only/merely...but...(as well). What he cared about was not only how to make money but also how to spend it.
We placed ourselves in the path of the virus, we moved it around the world, and we’re well ready to do it again.
SARS is only the latest reminder of how powerful those connections can be. how + adj/adv + S + V... 作為名詞子句的用法 I don’t know how fast the new car can run. No one had guessed how successful the little boy would become.
The novel corona virus that causes the syndrome emerged from Guangdong Province, China. The Introduction of Corona Virus
The Introduction of Corona Virus corona virus 為「冠狀病毒」。冠狀病毒於 1930 年代首次在雞隻上發現，主要會引起禽 類的支氣管炎；感染人類的冠狀病毒則於 1960 年代首次發現。基本上，冠狀病毒是一 種單鏈 RNA ，本身呈多切面型狀，有一個脂 肪外套，此脂肪外套向細胞表面突出，使得 病毒本身看起來類似王冠狀，而稱之為「冠 狀病毒」。一般的冠狀病毒只會引發感冒， 引起 SARS 的則為一新種的冠狀 病毒，故稱為 novel corona virus 。 Next
Pigs, ducks, chickens, and people live closely together on the district's primitive farms, exchanging flu and cold germs so rapidly that a single pig can easily develop human and bird viruses simultaneously. The Introduction of Flu And Cold Germs
The Introduction of Flu And Cold Germs 流行性感冒 (flu) 和普通感冒 (cold) 雖然都是由病毒 感染呼吸道引起的，但它們是兩種不同的疾病。 流行性感冒是由流行性感冒病毒引起的，其中最 常見的為 A 型流感病毒。流感病毒的特點是非常 容易突變，因此每一年發生的流感的病毒株，或 病毒血清型往往是不同的。流感的流行常發生於 晚秋或初冬，藉由人與人之間的密切接觸，經由 空氣飛沫傳染的。流行性感冒可能引起區域性， 甚至世界性的大流行。感冒則是指普通感冒，是 由多種病毒引起的呼吸道疾病，在不同季節引起 感冒的致病病毒會有些不同。感冒病例分佈是散 發性的，不引起流行。 Next
Pigs, ducks, chickens, and people live closely together on the district's primitive farms, exchanging flu and cold germs so rapidly that a single pig can easily develop human and bird viruses simultaneously. simultaneously = at the same time 同時地 I can’t decide whether to go to the concert or the birthday party since they are held simultaneously.
The double infections can generate hybrids that set off a whole new chain of human infection. hybrids 是指（動物或植物的） 雜種，在此是指混合出來變種 的病毒。 為關係代名詞引導的形容詞子句， 用來修飾先行詞 hybrids 。
The decisive factor is that these farms sit just a few miles from Guangzhou, a city that mixes people, animals, and microbes from the countryside with travelers from around the world. a city 是 Guangzhou 的同位語， 可視為由 (which is) a city that mixes people...world 形容詞子句簡化而來的。
One could hardly design a better system for turning small outbreaks into big ones. turn...into... 將 … 轉變為 … The devastating earthquake turned many houses into wrecks. 表轉變的動詞多與介系詞 into 連用 change…into 將 … 變成 translate…into 將 … 翻譯成 transform…into 將 … 改變為
How can we lessen the danger?
A long-term strategy would have to include modernizing the world’s farms, improving basic health care, and stockpiling vaccines and antiviral drugs. long-term 長期的 short-term 短期的 include 的受詞有三部份，皆為 V-ing + O 的結構 (modernizing the world’s farms, improving basic health care, stockpiling vaccines and antiviral drugs) 。
As science illuminates the ecology of infectious disease, it may also inspire wiser and safer approaches to land use and wilderness preservation. approaches 表「解決方法」，要與介系詞 to 連用. We have better English grades than those of other classes, because our English teacher always finds new approaches to teach us. 與介系詞 to 連用的名詞有： an answer to... a clue to... a key to... an avenue to…
Until then, surveillance will be doubly important. The good news is that the forces making microbes so mobile are also making them easier to track. making microbes so mobile 為一現在分 詞片語，是由關係代名詞子句 which make microbes so mobile 簡化而來。 that the forces...track 為一名詞子句， 作為主詞補語.
Today even the most remote surveillance stations are tied into the Web-based Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases. The Introduction of Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases
The Introduction of Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases 世界疫症情報網 (Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases) 簡稱 ProMed ，是 International Society of Infectious Diseases (ISID) 底下的一個計畫。 ISID 是由 International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) 和 International Federationon Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (IFIPD) 兩個 組織於 1986 年合併而產生的協會，會員含括 來自世界 155 個國家的傳染病學專家。其宗旨 是為藉由研究增加對傳染病的認識，並分享
交流研究成果，以及協助世界各國有效地防 制傳染病。 ProMed 計畫開始於 1994 年，為 一網路通報系統，利用網路的快捷性，通報 世界各地與傳染病爆發有關的各種訊息，以 讓他國有所防護，防止傳染病擴散。 The Introduction of Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases Next
The world’s largest health agencies have created similar systems for sharing scientific research. If anything good has come of the SARS scare, it is a renewed commitment to ecological maintenance and environmental protection. come of 由 …( 作為結果 ) 產生 If we keep polluting our earth, nothing good will come of it. a commitment to... 對 … 的承諾 We made a commitment to always keep in touch with each other after graduating from senior high school.
The cost may be high, but such a significant commitment is always worth keeping....worth keeping. be worth + V-ing 表「值得 … 」， 此句型要注意 worth 之後動詞 要以主動代被動. Back
I.Reading for the Main Idea and Details ____ 1. Which of the following is the main idea of the reading? (A) Diseases can be prevented if basic rules of sanitation are followed. (B) In order to stop diseases from spreading, the only thing we can do is to invent new vaccines. (C) With advanced technology, scientists have successfully found ways to control the spread of diseases. (D) Modern technology has greatly improved our lives, but it has also enhanced the spread of infectious diseases simultaneously. D
I.Reading for the Main Idea and Details ____ 2. Which of the following statements is NOT true about recent infectious diseases? (A) Bird flu can jump from birds to pigs. (B) SARS was first found in Guangdong Province, China. (C) AIDS is a newly emerging disease in the past decade. (D) The outbreak of Ebola fever was found mainly in central Africa. C
I.Reading for the Main Idea and Details _____ 3. Which of the following does NOT create a new avenue for infection? (A) Big cities. (B) Blood banks. (C) Jet planes. (D) Surveillance stations. D
I.Reading for the Main Idea and Details _____4. Which of the following is true about SARS? (A) The disease broke out in the spring of (B) The disease is mainly caused by corona virus. (C) It is an example of disease transmitted from humans to animals. (D) The separation of animals from humans leads to the outbreak of the disease. B
I.Reading for the Main Idea and Details _____ 5. How can we lessen the danger caused by emerging infections? (A) Getting enough vaccines. (B) Modernizing farms. (C) Improving basic health care. (D) All of the above. D
II. Reading Strategy: Critical Reading When you read an article, always ask yourself questions like “What opinions is the author trying to give?” or “Why was the article written?” By thinking about questions like these, you are engaging in critical reading, whichcan help you better understand the article from the author's viewpoint.
Exercise: ____ 1. The article in the reading is probably taken from a _____. (A) news magazine (B) fashion magazine (C) novel (D) history textbook A
Exercise: _____ 2. The last statement of the reading is _______. (A) a fact (B) the author’s prediction (C) an expert’s comment (D) the author’s point of view D
Exercise: ____ 3. The author thinks that _______. (A) progress also has its bad influence on our lives (B) SARS is the most dreaded disease in the 21st century (C) progress is more important than the preservation of ecosystems (D) the modernization of farms will upset delicately balanced ecosystems A
Exercise: _____4. The author wrote the article mainly to _______. (A) emphasize the danger of SARS (B) argue against global migration of animals (C) arouse people's awareness of the problem of emerging infections (D) argue the importance of preserving the balance of ecosystems C
Exercise: _____ 5. Which of the following would the author agree with? (A) All cross-species diseases are fatal and incurable. (B) There is nothing we can do about emerging infections. (C) The disturbance of nature may cause the death of microbes. (D) People should commit themselves to environmental protection. D
Reference answer : No, I don't think it is worthwhile disturbing the natural environment, no matter whether it is for economic developments or for technological achievements. As we know, nature is invaluable and fragile. If we spoil it at will, soon our world will become dullno more singing birds to hear, no more beautiful flowers to watch, no more fresh air to breathe, and no more crystal-clear
1. Do you think it is worthwhile disturbing the natural environment to develop human enterprise? What would it be like if people spoil the environment at will?
Reference answer : rivers to enjoy. Even worse, besides animals and plants, we human beings will also face the fate of extinction. Actually, during the recent decade, we have faced some environmental problems which are undoubtedly caused by modern technology or so-called “human enterprise.” For instance, cars enable us to travel easily, but their exhaust simultaneously pollutes the air and
Reference answer : contributes to global warming. As a result, we have sizzling summer and warmer winter. Icebergs in the polar regions melt. The sea level rises; seawater floods the coastal areas. If we keep spoiling the nature, the situation would get worse and some day we would eat the fruit of our own doing. In other words, we human beings would meet our doom.
2. Do you remember the outbreak of SARS in 2003? How did you feel at that time? What should people do to lessen the danger of disease in the future?
Reference answer : Yes, I still remember it clearly. At that time, I was terribly frightened. The disease was like an invisible killer lurking around me. There was no efficient way to prevent it. Every day, I heard of scary news of increasing SARS cases and deaths on TV or radio. To make things worse, there was no cure for the disease. Even doctors and nurses were panicked. Some of them even refused to return to
Reference answer : hospitals to take care of SARS patients. At that time, I could not help wondering whom I should turn to if I had got SARS. I was afraid that I might become one of the victims of SARS. I was also afraid that I might lose my friends or family. It seemed hopeless then. The disease was not only a disaster but also a test to people in Taiwan. It tested us if we would make a stand for
Reference answer : humanity in the face of great danger. Obviously, we did poorly in the test, which was much more depressing than the fact that our medical science was not good enough to prevent such a disease. Therefore, I think, in the future, one of the best ways to lessen the danger caused by SARS is: we should hang together. We should take care of one another. We should do things for everyone's good, not
Reference answer : just for our own good. In short, “united, we stand; divided, we fall.” Back