Presentation on theme: "15.2 Notes I. Population Genetics and Evolution"— Presentation transcript:
115.2 NotesI. Population Genetics and EvolutionA. Organisms do not adapt new traits over their lifetimes.1. Natural selection acts on ALL organisms in a population.2. As a population’s genes change, the characteristics of that population also change.3. All of a population’s genes is collectively known as a gene pool.a. If a populations genes don’t change over many generations, the population is in genetic equilibrium.b. Populations in genetic equilibrium are not changing.
2B. Mutations can sometimes be responsible for changing the B. Mutations can sometimes be responsible for changing the genes in a population.1. Mutations are usually fatal.
3C. Genetic drift can also cause a population’s genes to change. 1. Small populations can experience genetic drift.D. Mutations and Genetic drift influence mostly smaller populations.1. Natural selection affects mostly large, less isolated populations.
4Selection for average size 1. Stabilizing selection – favors average organisms.Selection foraverage sizespidersNormal variation
52. Directional selection - favors one of the extreme 2. Directional selection - favors one of the extreme variations of a trait.Selection for longer beaksNormalvariation
63. Disruptive selection – individuals with either 3. Disruptive selection – individuals with either extreme are selected for.Selection forlight limpetsNormal variationSelection fordark limpets
7II. The Evolution of Species A. The evolution of a new species – Speciation.B. Species is defined as:1. A group of living things.2. Can breed with others in that group.3. Breeding results in FERTILE offspring.
8C. Fertile-able to reproduce by forming egg and sperm cells. D. There are three major events that lead to species formation:1. A barrier forms that separates members of a species (Geographic Isolation) .
9about 55 million years ago Speciation RatesLoxodontaafricanaElephasmaximus12Millions of Years AgoMammuthusprimigeniusElephas3Loxodonta4Mammuthus5Primelephas6Ancestral speciesabout 55 million years ago
10Question 1The fur of an Arctic fox turns white in the winter. Is this an example of natural selection? Why or why not?
11The answer is no. An individual cannot evolve a new phenotype (in this case, changing the color of its fur) within its lifetime in response to its environment.
12Question 2 A. divergent B. disruptive C. stabilizing D. directional Which type of natural selection does NOT favor the evolution of new species?A. divergentB. disruptiveC. stabilizingD. directional
13The answer is C. Stabilizing selection reduces variation in a population.
14Question 3 A. genetic drift B. lethal mutations C. gene flow Which of the following rarely affects a population’s genetic equilibrium?A. genetic driftB. lethal mutationsC. gene flowD. disruptive selection
15The answer is B. Organisms with lethal mutations do not survive The answer is B. Organisms with lethal mutations do not survive. Therefore, organisms with lethal mutations cannot produce enough offspring to affect a population’s genetic equilibrium.
16Question 4 A. The islands are an area exhibiting an Why are the Galapagos Islands rich in unique species of organisms?A. The islands are an area exhibiting anabnormal number of mutations.B. The islands are geographically isolated.C. The island species have been subjectedto increased gene flow.D. The island species have been subjectedto stabilizing selection.
17The answer is B. Geographic isolation has helped to keep the islands’ species unique.