2Generation “Gap”03/06/11P1, patrial generation = the parents or first two organisims crossed.F1, first filial generation – the first set of offspringF2, second filial generation = the result of two of the F1 generation being crossed.Developed the terms – gene,allele, homozygous,heterozygous, dominent, recessive, genotype and phenotype.
303/06/11Mendel’s Laws 1. Law of Dominance 2. Law of Segregation 3. Law of Independent assortment
4Law of Independent Assortment Law of Independent Assortment 03/06/11Law of SegregationEach paired gene must seperate during gamete formation so alleles cqn recombine in new pairs..Law of Independent AssortmentLaw of Independent AssortmentLaw of Independent AssortmentTraits are inherited independantly and are not changed by other alleles for other traits.
5Results of Monohybrid Crosses 03/06/11Results of Monohybrid CrossesInheritable factors or genes are responsible for all heritable characteristicsPhenotype is based on GenotypeEach trait is based on two genes, one from the mother and the other from the fatherTrue-breeding individuals are homozygous ( both alleles) are the same
6Back or test cross to test for homo or heterozygous. 03/06/11Back or test cross to test for homo or heterozygous.
7Incomplete Dominance and Codominance 03/06/11Incomplete Dominance and Codominance
803/06/11Incomplete DominanceF1 hybrids have an appearance somewhat in between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties. Neither gene is dominent – both are expressed equally.RR = red flowerrr = white flowerBut Rr makes pink flowers!Rr
10Incomplete dominance problems 03/06/11In Andalusian chickens, the black Andalusian character is incompletely dominant to the white-splashed Andalusian character. The heterozygous condition produces blue Andalusian chickens. Determine the genotypes and phenotypes of the F1 and F2 generations if a pure breeding, black Andalusian is crossed with a pure breeding, white- splashed Andalusian.
11Codominance03/06/11Both alleles are equally expressed. The offspring have a mix of alleles which are equally expresses.Eg. Red cows crossed with white will generate Roan cows.But F2 generation demonstrate Mendalian genetics (1:2:1)
12Codominance vs Incomplete 03/06/11Codominance vs IncompleteIn incomplete dominance only one allele is active but is reduced in effect.In codominence both alleles are active. In human blood this produces a whole new blood group - AB.1. type A = IAIA or IAi2. type B = IBIB or IBi3. type AB = IAIB4. type O = ii
14OVERDOMINANCE03/06/11The phenotype falls outside the range of the parents e.g if one homozygote is tall (TT) and the other is short (tt) then the heterozygote may be extra tall (Tt). If this is a good adpation then it can become common in the population.
1503/06/11LETHAL GENEA mutation of a gene that produces a product that is nonfunctional. In some the homozygous dominant is lethal – it dies as an embryo so get a ratio of 2:1 instead of 1:2:1. In some it just affects expression of genes (Manx cats) and it can also be expressed at different stages of development e.g. Huntingtons.
1603/06/11Manx CatManx Cat – Tailless cat is another trait caused by an allele that has dominant effect in heterozygous and is lethal in homozygotes.The Manx and normal alleles are denoted by L and l respectivelyMLMl or MLML
1703/06/11Other example is achondroplasia, the most common form of dwarfism, with a normal length body trunk but shortened limbs. AA – die, aa – normal, Aa - dwarf.
18Multiple Alleles03/06/11More than one gene at a locus coding for a trait. Human blood type is a great example – there are three alleles for blood type, A,B and O. Allele A and B are co-dominant and both are dominant over O.Reminder – the truth about eye colour.
1903/06/11Try These1. If a male has blood type B and a female has blood type A, what are the possible blood types in the offspring?2. Is it possible for a child with Type O blood to be born to a mother who is type AB? Why or why not?3. A child is type AB. His biological mother is also type AB. What are the possible phenotypes of his biological father?
20Gene Interaction and Epistasis 03/06/11Gene Interaction and EpistasisThe phenomenon of two or more genes governing the development of single character is known as Gene interaction. The genes can be on different chromosomes.When one gene masks or alters the expression of another gene, the phenomenon is called Epistasis. (eg and meaning)
213.Supplementary Gene Action 03/06/113.Supplementary Gene ActionThis is the masking of a characteristic (which is determined by one pair of alleles) by the action of another pair of alleles.An example is mouse fur – one allele gives black (B) – lots of melanin, when recessive (b) it gives brown – less melanin. Another gene allows how much melanin is deposited so C allows colour to show but c does not.
22Collaboration03/06/11This is where one characteristic is controlled by two or more pairs of alleles. The two genes interact to produce a novel phenotype. One well known example is comb shape in chickens. The four shapes are single,pea,walnut,rose.The ratio is the same as a normal dihybrid cross 9:3:3:1P_R_ - two dominants gives walnutP_rr – one dominant + one recessive gives peappR_ - other dominant and other recessive gives rosepprr – two recessives gives single.The big difference to a normal dihybrid cross is the fact that the phenotypes are four differnt, not variations of the same two traits.
23The ratio is 9:4:3. B_C_ - black B_cc – white bbC_ - brown 03/06/11The ratio is 9:4:3.B_C_ - blackB_cc – whitebbC_ - brownbbcc - white
24Types of Epistasis 1. Collaboration 2. Complementary 3. Supplementary 03/06/11Types of Epistasis1. Collaboration2. Complementary3. Supplementary
252. Complementary gene action 03/06/11In this case two dominant allelees from two different genes are needed to get expression of the gene. The genes are complementary to each other. The ratio is 9:7.As an example: sweet peas the development of purple flowers requires the presence of 2 dominant genes, C and R, e.g., CCRR.When either C or R alone present purple flowers cannot be produced; as a result white flowers are obtainede.g., ccRR or CCrr or ccrr
27Linkage and sex determination 03/06/11Linkage and sex determination
28What is so different between the X and Y chromosomes? 03/06/11What is so different between the X and Y chromosomes?X- over 1000 genes identifiedY- 330 genes identified, many are inactiveOne gene on the Y is very important: SRY. The SRY gene is the primary determinant of sex.If SRY is present, testes develop in the early embryo. The testes secrete the hormone testosterone, which causes development as a male.If SRY is absent (no Y chromosome), ovaries develop instead of testes, and the embryo develops into a female.
29The sex chromosomes03/06/11Many organisims like humans with a homogamteic sex (female XX) and a heterogametic sex (males XY).XY- female, XX- Male This system of sex determination operates in birds, reptiles, some insectsThe bird sex chromosomes are called Z and W.
30In some insects there is no Y chromosome so you get XO and XX. 03/06/11In some insects there is no Y chromosome so you get XO and XX.Diploid (2n) female, Haploid (n) maleThis system of sex determination is found mainly in Hymenoptera – honey bees, ants, termites, etc.The unfertilized haploids develop male and called drones.These drones carry only half the number (16) of chromosomes of the female (32)
3103/06/11In reptiles and some fish sex is determined by the environment ( temperature, abilty to change sex etc).
32Family trees 3 types – sex-linked 03/06/113 types – sex-linkedautosomal recessive and autosomal dominant
33Sex Linked Inheritance 03/06/11Sex Linked InheritanceBecause the X chromosome is larger than the Y there are parts of the X chromosome that have no matching part on the Y. Any gene carried on the non-homologous part are called sex linked. Examples are red-green colour blindendss, haemophilia, all tortiseshell cats are female.For males, any faulty gene on the X will show up as there is no gene on the Y to mask the effect. In females both parents must have the recessive trait to pass it on.We write the alleles above the X and Y symbol.
34XBXB normal female XBXb carrier female 03/06/11Sex-linked notationXBXB normal female XBXb carrier femaleXbXb affected female XBY normal maleXbY affected maleSEX LINKED DOMINANCEDominant gene on X chromosomeAffected males pass to all daughters and none of their sonsGenotype= XAY
35If Mother heterozygous (XAXa) 50% chance of each child being affected 03/06/11If the mother has an X- linked dominant trait and is homozygous (XAXA) all children will be affectedIf Mother heterozygous (XAXa) 50% chance of each child being affectedE.g. dwarfism, rickets, brown teeth enamelSEX LINKED RECESSIVEGene located on the X chromosomeMore males than females affected (males inherit X from mother)Females can only inherit if the father is
37affected and mother is a carrier (hetero) or affected (homo) 03/06/11affected and mother is a carrier (hetero) or affected (homo)An affected female will pass the trait to all her sonsDaughters will be carriers if father is not affectedMales cannot be carriers (only have 1 X so either affected or not)E.g. colour blindness, haemophilia, Duchene muscular dystrophy
382. Duchene type Muscular Dystrophy: 03/06/112. Duchene type Muscular Dystrophy:Is also depends on sex linked recessive gene.If mother is carrier, about half of the male children are expected to be affected.Can be identified by chromosome study.It affects male before they reach teens, with muscular deterioration .Muscles of leg and shoulders become stiff and the children usually become paralyzed and crippled during their middle or late teens.Virtually all die before age of 21.
39Sex-influenced Genes03/06/11Some traits even though not on sex chromosomesappear differnntly in men and women e.g. pattern baldness. It is an inherited trait and controlled by one gene. In females it acts as a recessive so a woman needs two recessives to show baldness. In men only one is needed – BB – full hair both sexes, Bb – bald in men not in women, bb – bald in both.
40The Adams family and Baldness 03/06/11The Adams family and Baldness
41Colour blindness03/06/11We have 3 color receptors in the retinas of our eyes. They respond best to red, green, and blue light.Each receptor is controlled by a gene. The blue receptor is on an autosome, while the red and green receptors are on the X chromosome (sex- linked).
42Features of Colour blindness 03/06/11Colour blindness is a sex linked character discovered by WilsonIt is a hereditary disease and the affected person cannot distinguish green and red colour.The red blindness is called Protonopia, these persons cannot see red colourWhile, green blindness is called deuteronopia, such a persons cannot see green colour.Colour blindness is a recessive character, represented by ccThe genes are for colour blindness is located on X chromosome. It is common in male but rare female.Colour blindness follows criss- cross inheritance as transmitted from father to grandson through daughter.It is never transmitted from father to son
4403/06/11LinkageIt is universally accepted that genes are located in chromosomesLinkage: The tendency of two or more genes to stay together during inheritance because they are located on same chromosome.
45Recombination During Meiosis 03/06/11Recombination During MeiosisRecombinant gametesParental gametes
46Complete and Incomplete linkage 03/06/11Complete and Incomplete linkageGene show a linkage because they are located on a chromosome.For e.g., C and Sh are present in one chromosome, while their recessive alleles c and sh are situated in the homologous chromosome.C shc Shc ShC sh
47Each chromosome behaves as a unit during cell division. 03/06/11Each chromosome behaves as a unit during cell division.Therefore, C and Sh would move to one pole to while c and sh move to opposite pool.If this always happened, F1 generation (CcShsh) would produce 2 gametes viz., C Sh and c shWhen only parental character combinations are recovered in test progeny , it is called complete linkage.However, sometime, allele recombine to produce recombinant types like C sh, cShSuch a type are called Incomplete linkage.
4803/06/11Linkage is never 100%. No matter how tightly two genes are linked, if you observe enough individuals, you will find some recombinants.
49Linkage Mapping03/06/11Each gene is found at a fixed position on a particular chromosome. Making a map of their locations allows us to identify and study them better.In modern times, we can use the locations to clone the genes so we can better understand what they do and why they cause genetic diseases when mutated.Thus, the percentage of gametes that had a crossover between two genes is a measure of how far apart those two genes are.
5003/06/11Pleiotrophy – one gene with many different effects. Often seen in genetic diseases such as sickle cell aneamia.
51Sickle Cell Anemia03/06/11Under conditions of low oxygen tension, hemoglobin S will precipitate, causing cells to sickleMutations in one amino acidHH – normal and gets maleriaHh – protected from maleria but gets sickle cells in low O2Hh – dies young from anaemia.
5303/06/11Sickle cell anemia may be the result of a genetic mutation that happened in malaria- prone regions like Africa thousands of years ago.People with sickle cell trait may have been more likely to survive malaria epidemics - and because they survived when others did not, this allowed the trait to be passed down through generations.
5403/06/11Polygenes – two or more genes have similar and additive effects on the same characteristic. E.g. intelligence, height, skin colour. The phenotypes for these genes form a bell shaped curve and show continuous variation.e.gs
55Genes and Environment Determine Characteristics 03/06/11
56Gene/Environment Interactions 03/06/11Genes determine range of genotypes but environmental factors fine tune which phenotype is displayed.Internal and External Environment affectInternal:modifier genes – sometimes the expression of the gene at one locus is affected by alleles at another locus.Sex-limited genesSexlinked genes – sex hormaones affect.
57External environment Drugs Startvation or malnutrition Lack of light 03/06/11External environmentDrugsStartvation or malnutritionLack of lightTemperatureIonising radiationPoluuting chemicals