Presentation on theme: "A review of biometric technology along with trends and prospects Adviser:Frank. Yeong-Sung Lin Present by Limin Zheng J.A.Unar, Woo Chaw Seng, Almas Abbasi."— Presentation transcript:
A review of biometric technology along with trends and prospects Adviser:Frank. Yeong-Sung Lin Present by Limin Zheng J.A.Unar, Woo Chaw Seng, Almas Abbasi
The ever increasing criminal and terrorist acts in public places, government/private properties resulted in chaotic scenarios thereby making the existing surveillance systems questionable – “How effective is the surveillance system to prevent unlawful activities?” “Does the system guarantee the required level of security?” “Does the system distinguish an unauthorized user from an impostor reliably?” “Is the system user friendly?”.
Introdution In early stages, the identity manage- ment systems relied on cryptographic methods requiring the users to remember a secret text (password) or keep something with them (token, card) or a combination of both to prove their identity. Access control, computer logins, checking, making bank transactions, border control, welfare disbursements etc. However, the users challenged the efficacy of such systems.
Introdution As an answer, the research community proposed the idea of human identification based on physiological or behavioral attributes of individuals very often termed as “Biometrics”. Although biometrics is not the perfect solution but it offers several advantages over knowledge and possession based approaches in the way that 1) there is no need to remember anything, 2)biometric attributes can not be lost, transferred or stolen, 3)offer better security due to fact that these attributes are very difficult to forge and require the presence of genuine user while granting access to particular resources.
Introdution Any physiological or behavioral attribute can qualify for being a biometric trait unless it satisfies the criteria such as 1)Universality 2)Distinctiveness 3)Invariance 4)Collectability 5)Performance 6)Acceptability 7)Circumvention
Introdution 1)The paper provides details about each biometric modality along with prominent recognition techniques and public data sets available to the researchers. 2)The article contains a rough quantitative analysis of individual techniques in terms of accuracy. 3)The paper discusses multi-modal biometrics in detail which has not been well covered in other review articles on the subject. 4)The paper contains current market statistics along with future prospects for biometric based identification and authentication.
A biometric system is a pattern recognition system which matches the salient or discriminatory features of acquired image (probe image) with the features of pre-stored images (gallery image). For doing so, every biometric system comprises of 1)Image acquisition module 2)Feature extraction module 3)Matcher module 4)Database module
Biometric systems 2.1. Modes of operation Verification (positive recognition) The user after submitting the biometric signature to the system claims a parti- cular identity through a PIN, login name, etc. Recognition system validates or voids user's claim by making a 1:1 (one-to-one) comparison between the submitted biometric signa- ture and enrolled biometric signature associated with that parti- cular identity.
Biometric systems 2.1. Modes of operation Identification (negative recognition) Recognition system tries to recognize the user by comparing the submitted biometric signature to all the enrolled signatures in the database by making 1:N (one-to-many) comparisons without specific identity claim from the user.
Biometric systems 2.1. Modes of operation Screening This is an extension to identification where the biometric system assures that a particular individual does not belong to a watch list of identities by performing 1:N (one-to-many) comparisons throughout the database.
Biometric systems 2.1. Modes of operation ModesApplication VerificationComputer logins, ATMs, e-commerce, access control and user authentication on mobile devices . IdentificationIssuance of ID cards, passports, riving licenses, border crossing and welfare disbursements [1,2]. ScreeningAirport security, surveillance activities, public place and public events security etc. 
Biometric systems 2.2. Performance measurements The performance or accuracy of a biometric system is data dependent usually influenced by environmental and performance factors. Environmental Factors: Temperature, humidity and illumination conditions Performance Factors: Capturing good quality images, composition of target user population, time interval between the enrollment and verification phases and robustness of recognition algorithms .
Biometric systems 2.2. Performance measurements Sample acquisition errors Environmental conditions surrounding the system give rise to acquisition errors. 1)Failure to enroll error 2)Failure to capture error
Biometric systems 2.2. Performance measurements Performance errors These errors are used to measure the accuracy of biometric systems in real environment. A brief description is given below: 1)False match rate (FMR) or false accept rate (FAR) 2)Falsenon – match rate(FNMR)orfalserejectrate(FRR) 3)Equal error rate (EER)
Biometric modalities 3.1. Hand region modalities 1)Fingerprints(BEST) 2)Palmprint 3)Hand geometry 4)Finger knuckle print 5)Finger nail bed 6)Hand vein pattern
Biometric modalities 3.1. Hand region modalities
Image acquisition methods: 1)Optical 2)Thermal 3)Silicon 4)Ultrasonic imaging Exceptions: 1)Hand geometry → use a camera to acquire 3D image 2)Hand vein → beneath the skin thereby exposing hand to near infrared light
Biometric modalities 3.2. Facial region modalities Advantage: 1)The most nature 2)non-intrusive 3)contactless Disadvantage: 1)cosmetics 2)plastic surgery 3)person's face may change or be changed over time 4)expensive imaging hardware 5)illumination conditions, pose variations, ageing conditions 6)poor recognition accuracy higher public acceptance
Biometric modalities 3.3. Ocular region modalities 1)Iris 2)Retina 3)Sclera
Biometric modalities 3.3. Ocular region modalities
Image acquisition methods: 1)infra-red light(retina, sclera ) 2)illuminating human eye with near infra-red light or in visible wavelength light(iris)
Biometric modalities 3.4. Medico-chemical biometrics Image acquisition methods: 1)Specialized medical/chemical sensors Samples from blood, hair, ear wax, dental floss and finger nail clippings(DNA) Different organic compounds(body odor)
Biometric modalities 3.4. Medico-chemical biometrics Advantage: 1)The Most accurate (DNA) Disadvantage: 1)Intrusive 2)Privacy issues 3)Physical contact with sensors 4)Requirement of skilled operators 5)Full cooperation from the subjects 6)Dependence over human medical and emotional states
Instead of the tremendous advances in biometric technology, the recognition systems based on the measurement of single modality can not guarantee 100% accuracy. This is due to influence of several factors. 1)Noisy data 2)Intra-class variations 3)Distinctiveness 4)Non-universality 5)Spoof attacks
Multi-modal biometrics 4.1. Sources of information According to the nature of information sources, a multi-modal biometric system can be classified into following categories: [23,275,276] 1) Multi-sensor systems 2) Multi-algorithm systems 3) Multi-instance systems 4) Multi-sample systems 5) Multi-modal systems
Multi-modal biometrics 4.2. Modes of operations A multi-modal biometric system functions in two modes: 1)Serial/cascaded mode 2)Parallel mode
Multi-modal biometrics 4.3. Fusion levels The multiple biometric evidences acquired from different sources can be combined together at different levels: 1)Sensor level 2)Feature level 3)Matching score level 4)Decision level
Multi-modal biometrics 4.3. Fusion levels
The increasing interest from the government and private stakeholders to adopt biometric based identity management systems prove the efficacy of such systems over the knowledge and possession based systems.
Reliable Identification is a crucial requirement in a wide variety of systems & different scenarios. Traditional cryptographic methods do not offer practical identification capabilities. As an alternative, reliable identification, very often referred as “biometrics” provide better solutions to high security demands of the present day. A wide variety of biometric characteristics have been discovered and tested in recent decades.
Conclusion In this paper, we provided an overview of the existing biometric technologies along with their composition, classification and performance evaluation indicators. This paper also provides an in- depth overview followed by detailed discussion over different biometric attributes along with their potential advantages and challenges. In terms of multiple attributes, careful selection is the key point to success since selecting the modalities belonging to one region may not be a good choice
Conclusion Furthermore, we also stress the importance of reliable template protection strategies since the development of artificial gummy fingers and synthetic irises may lead to questions regarding the reliability of the most secure biometric signatures so far.
Conclusion Despite the challenges, the market trend presented in the paper portrays a keen interest in biometric solutions to a number of identity management tasks. The large deployment of such systems in private as well as the stringent security environments is evident from the exemplary evidences produced here. Conclusively, the increasing trend of interest from government and private stake- holders promises a bright future to the science of biometrics.