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Introduction to AI Kaziwa H. Saleh. What is AI? John McCarthy defines AI as “the science and engineering to make intelligent machines”. AI is the study.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to AI Kaziwa H. Saleh. What is AI? John McCarthy defines AI as “the science and engineering to make intelligent machines”. AI is the study."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to AI Kaziwa H. Saleh

2 What is AI? John McCarthy defines AI as “the science and engineering to make intelligent machines”. AI is the study and design of intelligent agents, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. 223/10/2014 University of Sulaimani

3 History of AI 1950: Claude Shannon, and Alan Turing developed chess programs onwards, Arthur Samuel, wrote a number of checkers program. The term artificial intelligence was first coined in 1956, by John McCarthy at the Dartmouth conference. 23/10/2014 University of Sulaimani 3

4 History of AI – Cont’d 1956: Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and J. C. Shaw, (The Logic Theorist). 1961: Newell and Simon, GPS (General Problem Solver). 1963: McCarthy, Advice Taker. 1965: Weizenbaum, ELIZA. 1969: Buchanan, DENDRAL. Mid 1970: MYCIN. 1972: PROLOG. 23/10/2014 University of Sulaimani 4

5 Strong AI Strong AI refers to a machine that approaches or supersedes human intelligence if: It can do typically human tasks. It can apply to a wide range of background knowledge. Strong AI aims to build machines whose overall intellectual ability is indistinguishable from that of a human being. 23/10/2014 University of Sulaimani 5

6 Weak AI Weak AI refers to the use of software to accomplish specific problem solving or reasoning tasks that do not encompass the full range of human cognitive abilities. Weak AI does not achieve self-awareness, it demonstrates wide range of human-level cognitive abilities, it is merely intelligent, a specific problem solver. Example: a chess program like Deep Blue (against Garry Kasparov). 23/10/2014 University of Sulaimani 6

7 Turing Test (1950) 23/10/2014 University of Sulaimani 7

8 Chinese Room (1980) 23/10/2014 University of Sulaimani 8 A flash animation illustrating Chinese room experiment

9 Applications of AI Chinook: was declared the man-machine world champion in checkers in Deep Blue: a chess playing computer, beat Garry Kasporov in a famous match Autonomous planning and scheduling: NASA’s Remote Agent Program. Autonomous control: The ALVINN computer vision system was trained to steer a car to keep it following a lane. Diagnosis. Robotics. Language understanding and problem solving: PROVERB (1999) is a computer program that solves crossword better than most humans. 23/10/2014 University of Sulaimani 9

10 Research in AI Game Playing. Speech Recognition. Natural Language Processing. Expert Systems. Computer Vision. Robotics. E-commerce. 23/10/2014 University of Sulaimani 10

11 Further Readings Chinese Room Experiment: room/ room/ le_chinese_room/searle_chinese_room.p hp 23/10/2014 University of Sulaimani 11


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