Presentation on theme: "Artificial Intelligence AI: The branch of computer science dedicated to the creation of machines that perform task which if done by humans would be considered."— Presentation transcript:
Artificial Intelligence AI: The branch of computer science dedicated to the creation of machines that perform task which if done by humans would be considered ‘intelligent’. Historical background Devices for aiding human mental processes trace back to earliest Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations 1600’s both William Schikard & Blaze Pascal developed calculating machines that could outperform humans 1800 Charles Babbage: difference engine and analytical engine 1930’s Allan Turing and the Turing Machine and the Turing Test 1940’s-50’s John von Neumann and the ‘von Neumann’ architecture – RAM; subroutines; serial processing
AI: Historical Background cont. 1940’ McCullough and Pitts: neurons as logical operators 1956: Birth of AI at MIT conference AI camps: GOFAI (symbol processors based on rules and information) – Rule following vs. common sense – Algorithms vs. pattern recognition/inference and meaning-making Embodied AI (PDP models and robotics) Expert systems (Narrowly designed AI for specific problems; e.g. EXCon for computer design; Mycin for medical diagnosis) Philosophical issues: Is AI real intelligence? Searle’s “Chinese room” Principle of indistinquishibility Strong AI vs. weak AI
The triumph of Deep Blue In 1996, Deep Blue vs. Garry Kasparov DB 1 win; GK 3 wins; 2 draws. In 1997, there was rematch. Result: 1 for GK; 2 for DB and 3 draws. For the first time in history a computer was the world’s best chess player! Deep Blue was a combination of special purpose hardware and software with an IBM RS/6000 SP2 (seen here) -- a system capable of examining 200 million moves per second, or 50 billion positions, in the three minutes allocated for a single move in a chess game. (VV1001)
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