Presentation on theme: "Why do you think we have to learn about Chemistry in a Biology class?"— Presentation transcript:
1Why do you think we have to learn about Chemistry in a Biology class?
2A Brief History: Democritus (Fourth Century BC) Ahem… Er, Mr. Democritus, I don’t believe this is a laughing matter.Democritus (Fourth Century BC)First named the “atom”From Greek word “atomos” meaning unable to cutAn atom is the basic unit of matterLacked evidenceJohn Dalton ( )Performed experiments to discover:Dalton’s Atomic TheoryWould you kindly remove yourself? You’re blocking my information.
3Dalton’s Atomic Theory Um, who is this? He looks pretty different from you and me, Carbon.I’m Oxygen. I am different from you, but I’m sure we could find some way to bond!It sure is nice hanging out with you, Carbon.All elements composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms.Atoms of the same element are identicalTell me about it, Carbon!
4Still more of Dalton’s Atomic Theory… Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or can chemically combine to form compounds.Chemical reactions occur when:atoms are separated, joined or rearranged;however, they are never changed into atoms of another element.
5Reflecting on Dalton’s Theory Most of Dalton’s theory is still accepted. Which part do you think has been rejected?The Atom is Divisible!Return to Theory #1 and cross out the word “indivisible”
6The three kinds of subatomic particles 1. Protons (p+)Discovered in 1886, Eugen Goldstein saw cathode rays traveling against the flow.What do you think the proton’s mass is in relation to the electron? ________________Actual mass = 1.67 x gramsOne unit of positive charge2. Neutrons (n0)Discovered by James Chadwick in 1932.No charge1,840 times as big
7The three kinds of subatomic particles 3. Electrons (e-)Discovered by J.J. Thomson in 1897.He used a cathode ray tubeIn 1916, Robert Millikan discovered the mass was 1/1840 H, and the charge was one unit of negative charge.Actual mass: 9.11 x __________grams
8So how are all these parts put together? In 1911, Rutherford performed an experiment:What did this prove?Source of alpha particlesThin sheet of gold foil
9Atoms are mostly empty space Rutherford proposed that the atomic structure was like “planets around the sun”This did not account for very specific traits that atoms possessed.
10Atomic Structure Protons and Neutrons make up the nucleus Electrons spin around in orbitals surrounding the nucleus
11The Bohr ModelIn 1915, Neils Bohr modified Rutherford’s “planetary” model of the atomHe added the new discovery of orbitalsOuter orbitals = Max out at 8Innermost Orbital = Maxes out at 2
12What makes atoms different from each other, if they have the same basic parts? The Atomic NumberDefinition: The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element.
13Why protons? Why not neutrons? Or electrons? Oxygen’s Atomic Number is 8.How many protons does it have? _______How many neutrons does it have? ________How many electrons does it have? ________Wait a minute, how do we know we have that many of each atomic component?888
14Atomic Mass (AMU)The total number of protons and neutrons is called the atomic mass.Based on this nucleus, what is the atomic mass?What element is it?4+Helium+
15What about those special cases? Sometimes there are more or less neutrons in a nucleus, these are called isotopes.
16B B The Atomic Number 5 5 Element’s Name 6 Boron 5 Atomic Mass 10.81 P = _____5Element’s NameN = _____6BoronE = _____5Atomic Mass10.81Bohr DiagramLewis StructureB
17Welcome! Please pick up your folder and go to your Science group! Clean out your folder, leaving only your “Periodic Table Basics” worksheet in there.
18Bonding and Chemical Reactions Hi there!I’m Nitrogen.Am I an atom or a compound?You were right! I am now Ammonia! But, am I an atom or a compound now?Greetings, Nitrogen. We are Hydrogen atoms. Perhaps we will change the way you think about yourself.Bonding and Chemical ReactionsChemical Bonding:Combining Atoms of Elements to form Chemical CompoundsOh, you can’t be serious!
19BondingTo achieve stability, an atom will either gain, lose or share electrons.Ionic Bonds:A bond that involves a transfer of electrons
21Covalent Bonds Can you guess which element I am? What will complete my valence shell?A covalent bond is a chemical bond formed by sharing electrons.
22Different types of Covalent Bonds Single Bond: One pair of shared electronsDouble Bond: Two pairs of shared electronsTriple Bond: Three pairs of shared electronsHydrogen Cyanide (HCN) can form this.Can you?= H – HHHO=C=OCOOLone pairs: Electron pairs not shared between atomsHNHH
23Bonding Basics Practice 1-2+1-Ionic BondsMg + BrPb + SAl + ClBrMgBrMgBr22-4+2-SPbSPbS21-ClClAlClAlCl31-3+1-
24Bonding Basics Practice Covalent BondsH + ClC + ClSi + OHClH – ClHClClClClCClClCClCCl4ClClOSiOO = Si = OSiO2
25Bond with your classmate! Each of you will have an element.The charge – or oxidation number – is on the element.Your goal is to bond with as many of your classmates as possible.Balance your equations!i.e., Magnesium (Mg) and Bromine (Br) must make… MgBr2Bond!