Presentation on theme: "Schizophrenia Chapter 12. Schizophrenia Broad spectrum of cognitive and emotional dysfunctions that include –Hallucinations –Delusions –Disorganized speech."— Presentation transcript:
Schizophrenia Broad spectrum of cognitive and emotional dysfunctions that include –Hallucinations –Delusions –Disorganized speech and behavior –Inappropriate emotions
Affects about 1 in 100 Complete recovery is rare Costs in 1991 estimated at $65 billion
Early figures Emil Kraepelin –Dementia praecox –Distinguished this from manic- depressive illness by emphasizing onset and outcome Eugen Bleuler –Schizophrenia. “split mind” –“Breaking of associative threads” –Recognized inability to keep constant stream of thought
Symptoms of heterogeneous: not all people with schizophrenia share the same symptoms Psychotic: delusions or hallucinations Person can display psychosis without having schizophrenia
Positive symptoms Active manifestations of abnormal behavior or an excess or distortion of normal behavior Delusions –Delusions of grandeur –Delusions of persecution
Positive symptoms… Hallucinations –The experience of sensory events without input from the environment –Auditory hallucinations are the most common –Broca’s area (speech) active not Wernicke’s area (language comprehension)
Negative symptoms Absence or insufficiency of normal behavior –Social withdrawal –Apathy –Impoverished speech or thought –Avoliton: apathy –Alogia: poverty of speech
Negative symptoms Anhedonia: lack of pleasure Flat affect: lack of emotional expression
Developmental research Early brain damage? Brain plasticity –Compensation in early life more difficult as person gets older
Genetic influence More severe the parent’s schizophrenia greater likelihood child will develop schizophrenia Genetic relatedness increases chances Monozygotic twins: 48% Fraternal: 17% Genes predispose person to schizophrenia Smooth movement eye tracking: genetic marker?
Neurological considerations Dopamine Excess can cause psychotic symptoms Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors Negative effects of drugs similar to Parkinson's disease
Neurological considerations.. dopamine BUT Many with schizophrenia not helped by dopamine antagonists Dopamine blocked quickly, but symptoms remit long after More likely a dopamine/serotonin interaction Virus?
Neurological damage….. Positive symptoms: dopamine? Negative symptoms: enlarged ventricles? Can have these abnormalities w/o schizophrenia Less activity in frontal lobes, particularly dopamine pathway Finger tip ridge count: in 1/3 of of discordant twins
Psychological and social influences Extreme stress can produce psychotic symptoms May activate predisposition Family interactions: –Schizophrenogenic mother and double bind largely discounted –Expressed emotion related to relapse Criticism, hostility and emotional over- involvement