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Abnormal PSYCHOLOGY Third Canadian Edition Prepared by: Tracy Vaillancourt, Ph.D. Chapter 11 Schizophrenia.

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Presentation on theme: "Abnormal PSYCHOLOGY Third Canadian Edition Prepared by: Tracy Vaillancourt, Ph.D. Chapter 11 Schizophrenia."— Presentation transcript:

1 abnormal PSYCHOLOGY Third Canadian Edition Prepared by: Tracy Vaillancourt, Ph.D. Chapter 11 Schizophrenia

2 Psychotic disorder characterized by major disturbances in thought, emotion, and behaviour –disordered thinking in which ideas are not logically related –faulty perception and attention –flat or inappropriate affect –bizarre disturbances in motor activity

3 Prevalence and Comorbidity Prevalence = 1% of general population –usually appears in late adolescence or early adulthood –appears earlier for men than for women Comorbid Conditions –substance abuse (70%) –depression (40%) –anxiety disorders

4 Clinical Symptoms Positive Symptoms Excesses or distortions Delusions Hallucinations Negative Symptoms Behavioural deficits

5 Positive Symptoms Excesses or distortions –Disorganized speech problems in organizing ideas and in speaking so that a listener can understand loose associations derailment Delusions Hallucinations

6 Negative Symptoms Behavioural deficits –Avolition lack of energy –Alogia poverty of speech, amount of speech, poverty of content of speech etc. –Anhedonia lack of interest in recreational activities, relationships with others and sex –Flat affect –Asociality few friends, poor social skills, and little interest in being with others

7 Other Symptoms Catatonia –catatonic immobility –waxy flexibility Inappropriate affect

8 Summary

9 Early Descriptions of Schizophrenia Concept formulated by Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler Kraepelin first presented his notion of dementia praecox –differentiated two groups of endogenous psychoses manic-depressive illness dementia praecox –dementia paranoides, catatonia, and hebephrenia Bleuler broke with Kraepelin on 2 major points: –did not believe in early onset –did not believe in inevitably progress toward dementia proposed own term— schizophrenia

10 Categories of Schizophrenia Disorganized schizophrenia Catatonic schizophrenia Paranoid schizophrenia –grandiose delusions –delusional jealousy –ideas of reference Undifferentiated schizophrenia –person does not meet the criteria for any of the above types Residual schizophrenia –no longer meets full criteria for schizophrenia but still shows some signs of illness

11 Etiology: Genetic Data

12 Etiology: Molecular Genetics Not likely transmitted by a single gene Now using “endophenotypic strategy” –Endophenotypes – characteristics that reflect actions of genes predisposing individual to a disorder, even in the absence of diagnosable pathology (Turetsky et al., 2007,p. 69) assumed to be determined by fewer genes than the more complex schizophrenia phenotype –Some examples: serotonin type 2A receptor (5—HT2a) gene dopamine D3 receptor gene chromosomal regions on chromosomes 6, 8, 13, and 22, microdeletion on chromosome 22ql1

13 The Genain Quadruplets

14 Dopamine Theory Schizophrenia thought to be related to > activity of dopamine –drugs effective in treating schizophrenia  dopamine activity –also produce side effects similar to Parkinson’s disease which is caused in part by  dopamine –other clues provided by amphetamine psychosis closely resembles paranoid schizophrenia and can exacerbate symptoms of schizophrenia amphetamines cause release of norepinephrine and dopamine –dopamine thought to be the culprit of the symptoms

15 Brain Structure and Function Enlarged Ventricles –enlarged ventricles which implies a loss of subcortical brain cells Structural problems –in subcortical temporal-limbic areas, such as hippocampus and basal ganglia, and prefrontal and temporal cortex Prefrontal cortex –known to play a role in behaviours such as speech, decision- making, and willed action all of which are disrupted in schizophrenia Note. MRI studies have shown reductions in grey matter in the prefrontal cortex

16 Other Etiologies Psychological Stress –  in life stress  the likelihood of a relapse Social class and schizophrenia –  t rates of schizophrenia found in central city areas inhabited by people in the → socio-economic class sociogenic hypothesis social-selection theory Family and Schizophrenia –Schizophrenogenic mother

17 Biological Treatments Shock and Psychosurgery –prefrontal lobotomy Drug Therapies –Antipsychotic drugs (aka neuroleptics) First Generation (Conventional) Antipsychotic Drugs –primarily target D2 receptors Second Generation (Atypical) Antipsychotics –primarily target D3 and D4 receptors

18 Summary of Major Drugs

19 Psychological Treatments Social Skills Training Family Therapy and Reducing Expressed Emotions Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Personal Therapy Treatment Focus on Basic Cognitive Functions –cognitive enhancement therapy

20 Other Issues Homelessness Employment and Housing Substance Abuse –Note. Lifetime prevalence rate for substance abuse among people with schizophrenia is 50% Stigmatization

21 Copyright Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (The Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

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