2Which “Old West” and Whose? Where was the “old west” between 1865 and 1890? Can you locate it on a map? Why or why not?Who was Frederick Jackson Turner and why was he significant?How did the US deal with American Indians in the west?Is the West still appealing today? Why or why not?
3The American West played an increasing significant role in US history between 1865 and During this period, Anglo-Americans settled 430 million acres of land and overwhelmed Native Americans in the so-called Indian Wars. Furthermore, ten new states entered the Union, bringing the total number o states to 48 by Finally, over the course of just a few decades, three commercial “empires” rose and fell: mining, farming, and cattle.
7Stephen H Long, surveyed a portion of Louisiana Purchase in 1819 Coined phrase “Great American Desert” to describe land between 98th parallel to RockiesDescribed as “wholly unfit for cultivation and uninhabitable for those dependant on agriculture.”
8The Myth of the GardenWestern boosters popularized the myth of the Garden to encourage settlementClaim based on “scientific” evidenceCredibility strengthened by unusually high levels of rainfall recorded in 1870s and ‘80s.“In God we trusted, in Kansas we busted.”
10Frederick Jackson Turner “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893)Turner’s thesis, which generated tremendous interest in the fronter
11Major Points Frontier process Epic struggle explains American developmentFronteir reproduces American democracy and individualismBy 1890 frontier had closed, ending the first stage of American developmentIn sum, civilization is a process which becomes ever more complex.
12Cowboys Approximately 35,000 men between 1864 and 1884 25% black, 12% Mexican, 63% white
13American Indians Population estimated to stand at 10 million in 1600 By ,000 remained
141867 Peace CommissionEffort to “civilize” and “pacify” western Indians by moving them to reservationsReservations established in present day South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Arizona
15Indian PolicyDestruction of buffalo to weaken tribes and attract tourists1865 roughly million buffalo1885 roughly a few hundredThis led to Indian rebellion and then open warfareRed River Way – defeat of Comanche1877 – defeat of Chief Joseph and Nez Perce1886 – defeat of Geronimo and Apache– Sioux battle government
19“Ghost Dance”1880sSiouxBelief that following this faith would drive away white Americans and bring back Sioux society.
20Final BattleIn 1889, Sioux warriors, women, and children tried to flee to CanadaGovernment troops surrounded at Wounded Knee in South DakotaMachine gunsAmericans left wounded to die in the snowTwo viewsTriumph over “Indian Problem”Senseless slaughter of innocents
21Dawes Severalty Act (1887) Shaped Indian policy until 1930s Attempt to tranform Indians into independent farmersPledged to privde Indian families with 160 acres of reservation landIf accept grant, Indians become full citizensGovernment act as trustee to “protect” Indians from “unscrupulous” whites.
22Good intentioned but impossible to enforce 1880s-1930s, Indians sold or lost 2/3 of total land (approx. 86 million acres)Land that remained was not good for agricultural development
24“Old West” didn’t last long Industrialized transformed economics, politics, and society.Politicians and leaders began looking for gold in factories where Americans had once searched for gold in the frontier lands