Presentation on theme: "Ch. 18: Growth in the West Westward Expansion Native Americans Struggles."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 18: Growth in the West Westward Expansion Native Americans Struggles
A. Following the Buffalo 1. Many Plains tribes live a nomadic lifestyle; they followed the buffalo, which was central to their lives. Hunters hired by the railroads were hired to slaughter the buffalo.
How did the Plains tribes use the buffalo? KIDS Only? - Fun Stuff To Do - How Many Ways Can You Use a Buffalo?
B. Conflict 1. For years, whenever settlers moved west, Native Americans were forced onto land put aside for them called reservations. 2. Most Indians were moved to the West. 3. As settlers moved onto this land, Indians were forced to sign the First Treaty of Ft. Laramie, which allowed the gov’t. to buy back some of the land.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
4. How did some Sioux and Cheyenne resist? They preferred conflict with settlers and soldiers to reservation life. Cheyennes attacked miners and soldiers in SE Colorado.
5. In response, Col. John Chivington opened fire on a Cheyenne village killing 150. This was known as the Sand Creek Massacre. This is painted on elk hide by Northern Arapaho artist Eugene Ridgely. Soldiers attack after most of the warriors have left to go hunting (far right).The Cheyenne chief White Antelope stands by the American flag and white peace flag at the center of the camp, yelling to the soldiers that they are mistakenly attacking a peaceful camp (center), but they ignore him. Women, children and the elderly flee, pursued by the soldiers, who kill and mutilate them.
Aftermath of Sand Creek Massacre
6. To end the fighting, the gov’t. signed the Second Treaty of Ft. Laramie. This gave the Indians land in the Black Hills of South Dakota.
Sioux reservation in the Black Hills
7. What happened in the Black Hills that caused settlers to violate this treaty? In 1874, gold was discovered and thousands of miners rushed onto Sioux land.
Conflict Begins 1860’s: Armed clashes between Native Americans and settlers Sioux -Red Cloud : burned and looted settlers’ homes (Minnesota) -Crazy Horse: Army troops lured into trap and slaughtered at BOZEMAN TRAIL. (Fetterman Massacre)
Questions: Why did the gov’t break its promises not to open Indian Territory to white settlement? How did gov’t policy towards Native Americans change after the Sand Creek and Fetterman massacres?
Battle of the Little Bighorn 1.As the Sioux left their reservations, the 7 th Cavalry, led by George Custer was sent to bring them back.
Custer’s Last Stand
2. His forces were surrounded by the Sioux at the Little Bighorn River in Montana and all 211 men were wiped out. 3. What eventually happened to Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse? In 1877, Crazy Horse surrendered and Sitting Bull and his followers fled to Canada. Eventually, they were returned to the reservation.
Chiefs Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse Sitting BullCrazy Horse
Question: What were the results of efforts by the Nez Perce, Navajo, and Apache to resist removal to reservations? They resisted, but were all forced to live on reservations, which were made up of dry, barren land.
Nez Perce: gov’t forced them to sell back land & move to Idaho. Many agreed, but Chief Joseph refused. They fled to Canada, but were caught and returned to reservation. Chief Joseph Navajos : Troops burned homes and crops. Sent on “Long Walk” from AZ to NM. Hundreds died. The Long Walk The Long Walk Apaches: Group led by Geronimo escaped reservation and survived by raiding settlers’ homes. Eventually, they were caught and sent to prison. Geronimo
C. A Way of Life Ends 1. Why did the buffalo population dwindle? Click here to find out some reasons. Click here to find out how the railroad affected the buffalo population Click here to find out how the railroad affected the buffalo population
2. An Indian prophet named Wovoka urged his people to do the ghost dance to bring back the Native American way of life.
Ghost Dance: Murder of Sitting Bull
3. What did whites fear this ceremony meant? Feared a preparation for war 4. The dancers were rounded up in South Dakota. As shots were fired and the army responded,300 Native Americans were killed. This was known as the Wounded Knee Massacre.
Pine Ridge, SD: Site of the Wounded Knee Massacre
D. The Dawes Act Fails Many Americans wanted to assimilate the Indians. 2. What did the Dawes Act do? Divided reservations into plots for each family to farm. Sent children to boarding schools to “Americanize” them.
3. Why did the Act fail? a.Native Americans didn’t want to be farmers b. They lacked the tools and training c. Ended up selling land to settlers for a fraction of worth.
Plains Indians BEFOREAFTER MEETING SURVIVAL NEEDS CUSTOMS LAND USE