Presentation on theme: "Social Development and Human Resources"— Presentation transcript:
1Social Development and Human Resources Ida BastiaensColin ClarkeBokgyo Jeong (Jonathan)
2Summary of this Week The focus of this week are as follows: What kinds of alternative approaches we can take as counter-arguments of existing main stream development models (economic growth or dependency models) ?Does the social development approach combined with human resource development provide a substantially different and meaningful answer to the previous question?
3Summary of this Week (Cont.) As alternative approaches, we canturn to the social development going beyond the narrow focus of economic growth and political democratization (Martinussen, 1997; Isbister, 1993; Staudt, 1991);take a look at different dimensions of poverty like basic needs (Martinussen, 1997; Leys, 1996; Goulet and Wilber) or gender (Martinussen, 1997; Staudt, 1991; Edward and Hulme, 1997);reframe development from the practical management perspective (Edward and Hulme, 1997; Staudt, 1991);uncover the significant role of the civil society and NGOs (Edward and Hulme, 1992; Bendix, ; Staudt, 1991);analyze various environmental factors in order to comprehend and make sense of the development contexts of developing countries ( Edward Hulme, 1997; Staudt, 1991)
4Take-away Points by each author Theories and approaches using the state and market are incomplete in development studies. Instead, multiple strategies and perspectives are necessary to truly capture the broad and complex elements of development (Martinussen, 1997).Understanding poverty and providing social development requires theoretical lenses that emphasize several dimensions of poverty like basic needs, gender, and societal studies (Martinussen, 1997).
5Take-away Points by each author (Cont.) Different development languages provide a multitude of development definitions. For that reason, where development management fit into between state and society has to be one of the main focus in development studies and practices (Staudt, 1991).Making sense of the environment through embracing all environmental factors is essential in addressing the development management in developing countries (Turner and Hulme, 1997).
6Take-away Points by each author Evolution of administrative elite role to economic development can be understand through the exploration of the process of role definitions, socialization and recruitment (Armstrong, 1973).Both development and underdevelopment have costs, but the cost of underdevelopment is greater (Goulet and Wilber).Poverty, or the inability to make choices, occurs at the micro and macro level and is perpetuated by our globalized and urbanized society. (Isbister)
7Take-away Points by each author The formation of civil society is based upon social rights, citizenship, the trappings of bureaucracy and the formation of interest groups. This process occurs at varying levels and to varying extents in different countries, but is nevertheless an essential component of development. (Leys, Bendix, Edwards & Hulme)
8Social Development and Human Resources Golden Oldies
9Armstrong (1973), The European Administrative Elite. Main topic of this bookHow we understand the European administrative systemThe main theories and framework to comprehend the European administrative system: role theory and theories of socialization and recruitmentExploration of the “process by which role definitions are acquired” (p.3).Evolution of administrative elite role to economic development, defined as growth in industrial outputWhat are factors that produced positive definitions of the administrative role in relation to economic development?Intermediate variable: recruitment/ socializationDependent variable: role definition
10Armstrong (1973), Continued. Assumption of this bookElite as a “set of roles” (p. 14); Elite refers to the “process”, especially education, which affects elite roles in a differential manner.Socialization as the “link between societal expectations and norms and administrators’ role perceptions.” (p. 15).Method: Comparative analysisCross-national comparison: British, France, Germany, and RussiaLongitudinal comparison: Four periods (Preindustrial, take-off, industrial, and postindustrial)
11Armstrong (1973), Continued. Diffusion of development doctrinesDevelopmentNon-developmentNon-interventionistLaissez FaireCalvinismTraditional ChristianityBenthamismListismKeynesianismRathenauismSaint-SimonismMarxist EconomismMercantilismCameralismLeninismInterventionistSource: Armstrong (1973:71)
12Armstrong (1973), Continued. The model of recruitment of European administrative elitesAscription: Upper class as the main source of recruitsClass as a stratification concept and a matter of societal consensusPrussian: accommodation of aristocratic and administrators’ values; “accommodated men of aristocratic and bourgeois origins by stressing its own distinctiveness” (p.82)French: dominance of bourgeois values in the French administrative roleBritain: aristocratic values without a strong noble reference group
13Nation Building & Citizenship (Bendix) Ch.3- Transformations of W. European Societies Since 18th c.Individualistic authority relationships: what is the responsibility of the upper-class to the poor?Democratization and industrialization are two processesWhether and to what extent social protest would be accommodated through the extension of citizenship to the lower classes?
14Bendix Ch.3 (cont.)In England, lower-class protests are aimed at establishing citizenship and thus a voice in the society to which they contributeFunctional representation vs. plebiscitarian principle (group versus individual)Social rights as an element of citizenship (education)
15Chapter 4: Administrative Authority in the Nation-State (Bendix) In the modern nation-state, the link between governmental authority and inherited privilege is severedDistinguishes between the nature of authority over an administrative staff and the organizational conditioning of the staff which affects its implementation of commandsFocuses on the example of the evolution of bureaucracy in Prussia/Germany- curb arbitrary rule of royal autocrat
16Chapter 4: Administrative Authority in the Nation-State (Bendix) (cont Modern Western societies exemplify the duality between government and societyGovernmental activities which develop in response to public demands encourage the formation of groups based on the principles of common interestIncreasing access to public employment and to influence upon the administrative implementation of policies are a counterpart to the extension of citizenship
17Social Development and Human Resources Literary Map
18Martinussen Ch 20: Dimensions of Alternative Development Focus on civil society, poverty, inequality, basic needs, human developmentNeed dialogue between approachesAlternative Development:Origins: Mill, SeersRedefinition of Development GoalsSen, Seers, Streeten, HaqTheories of Civil SocietyRoots: Hettne (utopian socialism), Hegel, Marx, Polanyi, HydenFriedman (social practice and institutionalization)AdvancementsUNEP and UNCTADIFDA
19Social Development and Human Resources Synthesis
20Synthesis Alternative approach to development Social development Civil society and NGOsPoverty alleviationGender and developmentBasic needsDevelopment managementSocietal development and environmental analysis
21Martinussen Ch 21: Poverty and Social Development Since 1960 poverty and inequality more importantRelationship to growth and savingsShifts in Perception and StrategyPassive to active, macro to microPoverty and Basic NeedsChenery 1974: target poor in growth strategyHunt, Streeten: Basic Needs (necessities, public services, political participation)Lipton, Maxwell: Poverty Eradication (labor intensive, access to services, safety net)
22Martinussen Ch 21 cont’dSocial Welfare and Sustainable Human DevelopmentHaq: 1990 HDR, enlarge choices/opportunities (to life, knowledge, resources)Unobserved Poverty (Chambers)Challenge for policy makers to see poorSpatial, seasonal, diplomatic, professional biasesGender and DevelopmentWomen in DevelopmentRathgeberExclusion, inferiority… want to mainstream, integrateYoungGender relations, public and private spheres, structure, process
23Isbister Ch 2: A World of Poverty Poverty “is the inability to make choices”Micro and macro level (excluded from power or benefits of society)Third World: excluded, nonaligned, disenfranchisedPoverty is INSECURITYToday’s poor “connected to changing world”Recent poverty not traditional– urban slumsResponsibility to helpHow does rich policies and progress affect 3rd world
24Goulet and Wilber The Human Dilemma of Development Cost of DevelopmentIndustrialization: change social structure, new values and institutions, need to increase capital may decrease consumption (painful!)Cost of UnderdevelopmentMalthusian trap- death, diseaseEconomic Development as War on PovertyCost of development is less than cost of underdevelopment
25Making sense of the environment Elements of the environment Turner and Hulme, 1997, Governance, Administration & Development Ch.2 Organizational EnvironmentsMaking sense of the environmentElements of the environmentEconomic factors: Gross national product, Structure of production, Labor, Domestic capital, Foreign exchange, Foreign aid and debt, Infrastructure, Technology, Poverty and inequality, and Informal sectorCultural factors: Ethnicity, Family and kinship, Values and norms, Gender, and History
26Elements of the environment (Continued) Turner and Hulme, 1997, Governance, Administration & Development Ch.2 Organizational Environments (Continued)Elements of the environment (Continued)Demographic: Population growth, Age structure, Urbanization and migration, and HealthPolitical: State-society relations, Legitimacy, Regime type, Ideology, Elites and classes, International links, and InstitutionsPublic sector and its environmentDistinctiveness, diversity, turbulence, opportunities and constraints, competing perceptions, cause and effect, and foreign models and third world realities.
27Staudt, 1991, Managing Development Ch Staudt, 1991, Managing Development Ch.2 Development: Conception From About People at the GrassrootsMain topic: Locating “development management” between state and society, by investigating development language.Displaying “power realities” (p.29)Revealing “people’s voices” (p.30)Reviewing definitions of developmentDiscourse and images:“Language creates a reality all its own (p.11).”Underdeveloped, developed, and developingFirst world, second world, and a third worldMaps on flat surfaces distort a global worldThe Mercator projection exaggerates land masses near poles, and shrinks land masses near the equator (p.14)The “North” 18.9 million square miles, looks larger than the “South” with 38.6 million square miles (p.14)
28Historical and contemporary perspectives Staudt, 1991, Managing Development Ch.2 Development: Conception From About People at the GrassrootsHistorical and contemporary perspectives“The overall result of changes in agriculture was that most Mexicans were eating less while some were exporting more (p.25)” => Is this development?Implication: Where does development management fit?“In the state”: debates between reformers and structural transformers“In society”: people’s organizations and their relationships with the state; effectiveness depends on their managerial capability
29Reinhard Bendix, Nation Building & Citizenship Transformation of society and the processes that ultimately lead to nation building and citizenship- Industrialization in England- Democratization in FranceLower social classes finding a voice through protest and becoming involved in political life of the stateGroup versus Individual- early seeds of civil society
30Edwards and Hulme, Making a Difference The role of NGOs and development in a complex and constantly changing worldImplications of poverty alleviation and the concept of “scaling up” at the NGO levelConcerned with practicality; issues including sustainability, cost-effectiveness, types of benefits and their distribution throughout society
31Colin Leys, Rise and Fall of Development Theory The state & the crisis of simple commodity productionWhat is the role of the state versus the individual or family farm?Growing risk of a new form of colonization which includes a chronic dependence on food aid and/or budgetary support from abroad
32ReferencesMartinussen, John. Society, State and Market: A Guide to Competing Theories of Development. (London: Zed Press, 1997). Chapter 20-21IsbisterJohn. Promises not Kept: The Betrayal of Social Change in the Third World. (West Hartford: Kumarian, 1993). Chapter 2Goulet, Denis and Wilber, Charles K. “The Human Dilemma of Development.” in Jameson and Wilber, Political Economy of Development.Staudt, Kathleen. Managing Development: State, Society, and International Contexts. (Newbury Park: SAGE Publication, 1991). Chapter 2Turner, Mark and David Hulme. Governance, Administration & Development. (West Hartford: Kumarian Press, 1997). Chapter 2
33References (cont.)Leys,Colin, The Rise and Fall of Development Theory (Bloomington, IN.: Indiana University Press, 1996).Edwards, Michael and David Hulme, Making a Difference: NGOs and Development in a Changing World (London: Earthscan, 1992)Bendix, Reinhard, Nation Building and Citizenship (New Jersey: Transaction, 1996)