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Government of India Department of Ocean Development Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate, Chennai... ICMAM-PD MenuNextExit.

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Presentation on theme: "Government of India Department of Ocean Development Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate, Chennai... ICMAM-PD MenuNextExit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Government of India Department of Ocean Development Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate, Chennai... ICMAM-PD MenuNextExit

2 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit About us About us ICZM - An Overview ICZM - An Overview Critical Habitats Critical Habitats Mangroves Mangroves Coral Reefs Coral Reefs Seagrass Seagrass Nesting Grounds Nesting Grounds Critical Habitat Information System (CHIS) Critical Habitat Information System (CHIS) Objectives Objectives Components of CHIS Components of CHIS CHIS for Mangroves ecosystems (Sundarbans, Coringa, Pichavaram, Gulf of Khambat) Mangroves ecosystems (Sundarbans, Coringa, Pichavaram, Gulf of Khambat) Coral Reefs and seagrass (Gulf of Mannar, Kadmat, Malvan, Gulf of Kachchh) Coral Reefs and seagrass (Gulf of Mannar, Kadmat, Malvan, Gulf of Kachchh) Vantage Area of Biodiversity ( Islands off Karwar, Islands off Cochin) Vantage Area of Biodiversity ( Islands off Karwar, Islands off Cochin) Turtle Nesting Grounds (Gahirmatha) Turtle Nesting Grounds (Gahirmatha)Conclusion...

3 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit The Department of Ocean Development (DOD) has initiated a programme namely, Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) with the objective applying the scientific tools and techniques for the best long-term and sustainable use of coastal natural resources and its natural environment. As a part of this World Bank assisted programme, the task of development of Critical habitat Information System (CHIS) for critical habitats like coral reefs, mangroves, etc, was undertaken. DOD established a Project Directorate during at Chennai to implement this programme....

4 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management - an overview Is a planning and coordinated process, which deals with development and management of coastal marine resources and areas. Provides an opportunity to allow policy orientation and development of management strategies to address the issue of resource use conflicts and to manage the impacts of human intervention on the environment by incorporating human and social concerns in the planning process. Provides institutional and legal framework, focuses on environmental planning and management, coordinates various agencies concerned to work together towards a common objective. One particular coastal natural resource or activity can not be managed in isolation as it has impact on others or affected by others - therefore, activities have to be managed in unison to sustain them. Ideal way to sustain any resource or activity is adoption of concept of Integrated Management. SALIENT FEATURES OF ICMAM...

5 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit...

6 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Critical habitats are identified as areas, which are vital to the survival of the species at some phase of its life cycle or to the survival of the community, because of the ecological processes, which occur within it (IUCN, 1976). Critical habitats include feeding, nesting, breeding and nursery areas of estuarine and marine animals; major sources of food and nutrients for feeding areas else where (e.g. mangroves); or areas that are particularly rich in species (e.g. coral reef); or highly productive areas (e.g. seagrass); or areas of special scientific interest. Mangroves Coral Reefs Seagrass Nesting Grounds for Turtles CRITICAL HABITATS...

7 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit the years....

8 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit SALIENT FEATURES OF THE MANGROVE ECOSYSTEMSALIENT FEATURES OF THE MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM Provides a valuable physical habitat for a variety of flora and fauna. Organic matter exported from mangrove habitat - utilized as a food source by innumerable organisms. Mangroves act as a buffer against storm-surges. Stabilize coastal shorelines and prevent erosion and loss of land. Mangroves are trees and shrubs that grow in tropical and subtropical tidelands in areas that are frequently inundated with salt water due to tidal activity of gulfs, seas and oceans. Mangroves are able to thrive salt water inundation because of specialized rooting structures (such as prop roots and pneumatophores), specialized reproduction (vivipary or live birth) and the ability to exclude or excrete salt....

9 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Mangrove ecosystem are subjected to undue stress due to : Antropogenic activities such as use of mangroves for fuel, cattle grazing etc Reclamation of land for activities such as aquaculture and other developmental purposes Pollution...

10 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit The mangrove areas in India are generally categorized as deltaic, estuarine, backwater, sheltered and insular bay. The total area of mangroves in India is estimated at 6740 sq. km. This covers about 7% of the world's mangroves. The World's total mangroves span over 30 countries with a total area of 99,300 sq. km. Distribution of mangroves in India S.No. State/Union Territory Area in Sq.km 1.West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar islands Maharashtra Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Goa Orissa Tamil Nadu Karnataka Kerala Coast 30 TOTAL 6740 Source: (MoEF, 1989)...

11 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Coral reefs are the most productive ecosystem in the world. SALIENT FEATURES OF THE CORAL ECOSYSTEM : Occur along shallow, tropical coastlines where the marine waters are clean, clear and warm Contribute to fisheries, as approximately one third of world’s fish species are reported to be living here Support tourism industries Serve as natural protective barriers, deterring beach erosion, retarding storm surges etc....

12 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Erosion and sedimentation Coral bleaching Predation of Crown-of-thorns (star fish) and sponge infestations Coral mining Dynamiting and indiscriminate fishing activities Derdging activities Unplanned and unregulated tourism activity Coral reefs all over the world are subjected to undue stress due to......

13 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit In India, the Coral reefs occur principally in the Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kachchh, Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar group of islands. Coral species diversity in India Totally 214 species of corals have been identified along the Indian coast. The species diversity of corals in India is given below: Name of the AreaGeneraSpecies 1.Gulf of Kachchh Gulf of Mannar & Palk bay Lakshadweep islands Andaman & Nicobar islands West coast patches

14 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Seagrasses are marine plants belonging to monocotyledonous families, i.e, Hydrocharitaceae, Cymodoceaceae and Potamogetonaceae. SALIENT FEATURES OF THE SEAGRASS ECOSYSTEMSALIENT FEATURES OF THE SEAGRASS ECOSYSTEM Normally found in shallow areas where photosynthesis occurs Seagrass beds are highly productive and act as breeding and nursery grounds for many epiphytic fauna and feeding grounds for important marine mammals (Dugong dugong) and turtles. Seagrass roots bind sediments and prevent erosion. Play important role in providing nourishment, nutrients to the habitat...

15 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Seagrass beds are damaged by unfavourable conditions such as excessive siltation, turbidity, pollution, etc.  Extensive areas of seagrass beds are being disturbed by indiscriminate fishing activities such as stake net fishing and intensive trawling operations....

16 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Seagrass species diversity in India Totally 14 species of seagrass have been identified along the Indian coast. The species diversity of Seagrass in India is given below: Name of the Area Species 1.Gulf of Mannar 12 2.Lakshadweep islands 7...

17 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit The coast of Orissa is the most important sea turtle nesting area in India, and possibly the most important Olive ridley nesting site in the world. The nesting area includes Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary, which are of International repute. About 0.2 to 0.7 million olive ridley turtles visit this beach during December - April for mass nesting every year. Five of the seven species of endangered sea turtles live in Indian waters. These species are the Olive ridley, green, hawksbill, leatherback, and loggerhead turtles....

18 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit One of the activities identified for capacity building under ICMAM is “Development of Critical Habitat Information System (CHIS) using GIS”. An expert committee identified about 32 sites along the Indian coastline as “critical habitats” that need protection and conservation. During the IX five year plan 11 critical habitats were taken up for study and Critical Habitat Information System has been developed. The 11 critical habitats fall under are the following ecosystems namely Mangroves ecosystems Coral Reefs and Seagrass ecosystems Vantage Area of Biodiversity Turtle Nesting Grounds...

19 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit to provide a baseline data and information on the present status of the area concerned  to analyse changes that have occurred over the years, comparing the past data, wherever possible,  to provide suitable measures including management actions for prevention of degradation, if any, based on the factors that might have caused the changes. The major objectives for the development of the critical habitat information system are :...

20 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit CHIS Satellite data and Field data were selected as primary sources of information and GIS and RDBMS were used to analyse and develop the complete information system. Image processing, GIS and database softwares were used for the development of CHIS for all the eleven habitats....

21 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Remote Sensing is defined as the measurement of object properties on the earth's surface using data acquired from aircraft and satellites. It is therefore an attempt to measure objects at a distance rather than in situ. These systems provide repetitive coverage of the earth, which provides periodical monitoring of earth and effects of human / natural activities on it. Thematic maps such as landuse/landcover, geomorphology etc for various critical habitats were generated by analysing the satellite data. As per requirement IRS 1A, 1C, ID and Landsat -TM were generally used and analysed to extract the required thematic maps using ERDAS-IMAGINE 8.4 image processing software. Kakinada Bay Coringa mangroves Bay of Bengal Gautami Godavari river Mangrove unchanged Mangrove to other categories Other categories to mangroves...

22 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit It is the primary source of collection of data about the habitat. Detailed survey was undertaken in almost all the critical habitat under study using Differential Global Positioning System(DGPS), Scuba and Skin diving. Underwater images of the ecosystem were recorded using Remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The ground/Sea truth data so collected was later used to classify the remote sensing data. A number of organisations were involved in the collection of data on various parameters of interest including the biodiversity of the critical habitats during the years

23 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit RDBMS is the acronoym for “Relational Database Management Systems” and is essentially a set of collected data stored in the form of tables and a set of programs to access it. The field data collected from various sources were stored as separate tables in the Oracle database and were linked using a common-id identifier. Tables were created to hold information on Physio-chemical data on water quality Biological data Microbiological data Socio-economics...

24 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit GIS is an excellent tool to store, manipulate, analyse, retrieve and to present the data in a geographical and spatial manner. It can hold both spatial and non-spatial data. GIS allows holding various information as separate themes. Overlay facility in GIS enables analysis of relationship and changes between different themes. At present, GIS is used for wide range of applications including planning, landuse and geomorphology of land and coastal areas....

25 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit SUNDARBANS, West Bengal SUNDARBANS, West Bengal Largest mangroves formation in India and over 35 species are known to occur here. In the present study the total area under mangrove vegetation alone in the Sundarbans Tiger Reserve area and D.F.O 24 Parganas (South) was calculated using Remote Sensing data and was found to be 1737 sq.km Sundarbans, Pichavaram, Coringa and Gulf of Khambat are the four critical habitats studied with respect to their mangrove ecosystems. CORINGA, Andhra Pradesh CORINGA, Andhra Pradesh Coringa is the second largest mangrove formation along east coast, next to Sundarbans. 15 species of mangroves have been recorded in this region. In the present study it has been observed that there has been significant reduction in mangrove cover over the decade between 1988 and 1998 wherein mangrove area has reduced from to ha. PICHAVARAM, Tamil Nadu PICHAVARAM, Tamil Nadu In the Pichavaram mangrove forest 10 species of mangroves have been recorded. In the present study it has been observed that there is a marginal gain in mangrove area between 1987 and 1998 which is mainly attributed to the afforesatation work carried out here. Gulf of Khambat, Gujarat Mangroves are found growing on the intertidal mudflats and occupy an area of about 54sq.km Click here for CHIS Click here for CHIS for Mangrove Habitats for Mangrove Habitats...

26 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Mangroves ecosystems Sundarbans,West Bengal Coringa, Andhra Pradesh Pichavaram, Tamil Nadu Gulf of Khambat, Gujarat Click the white dots on the map to open the relevant CHIS... Sundarbans Coringa Pichavaram Gulf of Khambat

27 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu Gulf of Mannar is India’s first Marine Biosphere Reserve and 128 species of corals have been recorded from this area in the past. In , 46 species of corals have been recorded with less percentage of live coral coverage and extensive areas of dead corals. The coral reef and seagrass areas around the islands of Gulf of Mannar were calculated and were found to be 100 and 85.5 sq.km respectively based on 1998 IRS 1D satellite data. Of the 11 critical habitats selected for study, 4 areas have been exclusively choosen for their coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. They are Kadmat, Lakshdweep The reef zonation of the Kadmat island has reef flat, reef slope and lagoon and 45 species of corals have been recorded in the past, However, in the present study only 9 species of live corals have been recorded and the live coral coverage was less than 1%. Malvan, Maharashtra Corals are found attached on rocky substratum in inter-tidal and sub- tidal regions. Only hermotypic corals were found in this region. Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat Stony corals of Gulf of Kachchh form the coral area in the North- West coast of Arabian Sea. Diversity of living corals in the Gulf of Kachchh is poor with 39 species under 24 genera. Click here to open CHIS for Coral Habitats...

28 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Coral reefs & seagrass ecosystems Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu Malvan, Maharastra Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat Kadmat, Lakshadweep Click the blue dots on the map to open the relevant CHIS... Gulf of Mannar Kadmat Malvan Gulf of Kachchh Click the white dots on the map to open the relevant CHIS

29 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExit Cochin Backwaters Cochin Backwaters has been experiencing high level of anthropogenic pressure during the last five decades. The present study shows that there is a decline in the Backwater area and floral and faunal diversity due to anthropogenic activities. The area of backwaters in 1912 was 315 sq. km which has shrunk to 157 sq. km by 1989 and to 132 sq. km. Islands off Karwar The Karwar group of islands are rocky with sandy shore and proximal to intertidal, estuarine region forming an ideal location for diverse marine organisms characteristic of rocky, sandy inter-tidal and estuarine regions. The presesnt study indicates that Karwar is a pristine environment with rich floral and faunal diversity. Click the white dots on the map to open the relevant CHIS Cochin Karwar...

30 ICMAM-PD MenuNextBackExitGahirmatha Gahirmatha beach located in the Bhirtarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary supports the largest known nesting ground of olive ridley turtle in the world. About 0.2 to 0.7 million olive ridley turtles visit this beach during December - April for mass nesting every year. However, in the last 20 years, large scale mortality and shifting of nesting is being observed. The present study deals with the shifting of the mass nesting site and the major threats faced by the nesting turtles. Click the white dot on the map to open CHIS for Gahirmatha...

31 Application of GIS for management depends upon sound scientific understanding of the governing processes and integration of spatial and attribute data of concern to that critical habitat. The Critical Habitat Information System developed using remote sensing and GIS has demonstrated that these tools could be effectively used for monitoring and managing critical habitats under threat... ICMAM-PD MenuBackExit


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