Presentation on theme: "Teachers and Machines The Classroom Use of Technology Since 1920 - Larry Cuban Presented by Jose A. Saldivar."— Presentation transcript:
Teachers and Machines The Classroom Use of Technology Since 1920 - Larry Cuban Presented by Jose A. Saldivar
Top Down Implementation Most if not all initiatives to introduce new technology into the classroom are proposed by enthusiasts, such as reformers, foundation executives, education administrators, and wholesalers. Teachers were the last asked and/or the least likely to have any input into the implementation of the technologies.
Driven by Efficiency Within Classrooms The reasons for adding new technologies are varied, but the central theme is that of efficiency - teaching more students at the same time, teaching the same material better, teaching at a set pace, etc. Technology would replace teachers or supplement the lack of teachers. Improving test scores is the ultimate goal, as well as saving money, if possible.
Films In Schools Early use in schools, 1920’s, then decreasing usage over the passing years. Not much success for many reasons - lack of skills by teachers in using the equipment, cost of films, equipment not readily available, few good educational films, etc.
Radio at the Start “Textbooks of The Air”- to bring the world into the classroom. Benjamin Darrow was an early major proponent of radio. Educational programming, available through private and commercial venues, increased up to the late 1940’s. The problems experienced with equipment eventually went away.
Radio Usage Surveys Surveys were often overstated by counting the number of students in the school, not how many actually listened to the radio. Superintendents or other administrators were the ones usually targeted for information about the radio programs. Teachers were very rarely asked about the programs - how they used radio, and how often. Those who did respond were few in number.
Television Killed the Radio Show Some success was achieved in promoting music appreciation and the arts. At some of the schools, the radio exposure to the arts was all that the students would have, as there were no classes for music appreciation and/or arts of any kind. Classroom radio promoters blamed the teachers for being indifferent, ‘lethargic’, and even antagonistic. Commercial radio networks abandoned their school broadcasts. Instructional television stepped in and took over the imaginations of policy makers and educators.
Television in Schools
Television Funding/Push Ford Foundation donates millions of dollars - reason: shortage of teachers. NDEA (National Defense Education Act) in 1958 gets into television. John F. Kennedy promotes funding for the U.S. Office of Education, and Congress approves millions of dollars. By 1971, over $100 million was spent on television for education.
Overview of Patterns in Television Instruction Total instructional program is presented by television teachers - teacher/adult in the room is a supervisor only. Supplemented television instruction - teachers prepare classes for the video lesson and follow up with in-class discussions and assignments. Television as a teaching aid - teacher has more control of the content, also when and how to use this medium. This appears to be the dominant method of use of television. ______________________________________ Samoa is the only case of an educational setting with total instructional television.
Possible Success of Television Hagerstown, Maryland, used closed circuit television to meet the needs of overcrowded schools during the 1950’s. Over a five year period, they reported increases in standardized tests scores in arithmetic, science, reading, advanced math and other high school subjects. Television was used only as supplement, not as a replacement, unless you count the lack of hiring any music or art teachers in secondary school, in which case it was a replacement.
The Teacher’s Role in Implementation of Television Teachers are not asked, they are forced to implement tv usage Important key points are accessibility, purpose, and the use of technology How many sets are available, who sets up the station, how easy it is to view the television in the classroom Which basic curriculum is covered, which subjects are enriched through television How often is the television watched, how many hours, how many programs
Summary of Television Usage in Schools Instructional television has limited use and continues to be used as an accessory, rather than the primary vehicle, for basic instruction. Only a few teachers use it willingly, consistently, and with enthusiasm. Teacher use of television occurs more in elementary schools, less in secondary. More usage occurs in the afternoon than in the morning.
Implementation Defined Implementation Defined Implemented (defined) - n. something used or needed in a given activity, especially an instrument, tool, utensil, vessel, or the like. t.v. 1. to carry into effect; to fulfill; accomplish 2. to provide with the means for carrying into effect or fulfillment, to give practical effect to. 3. to provide with implements. Implementation - implementing or being implemented.
Flaws of Implementation Top to bottom is faster in getting the technology into the classroom - there is no deliberation by principals or teachers, which can take much time. Teachers are forced to do and use the technology, they have no say, which leads to “token compliance” by them. They say, “Yes, I will use it”, while thinking to themselves... but watch how I use it... I will use it only when you watch me or remind me! Schools are not military in structure, and some teachers buck the system. It is not so easy to start a program and not experience troubles or ‘glitches’. With only limited time to teach and get results, the ‘tried and proven’ ways are always there to fall back on.
Analyzing Teacher Use of Machines Cuban puts forth his explanation of how teachers choose, “situationally constrained choice”, which is school and classroom structure and the culture of teaching. If the technology reinforces the control teachers have and improves their teaching, they will use it. Teacher constructed criteria range, but are not limited to, the ease of use, the degree of use, the versatility, the simplicity, the return in worth if much energy is expended, etc.
The Paradoxes of Teaching - found on page 2 of textbook Socialize all children, yet nourish each child’s individual creativity. The reality: teach to the TAKS (or current standardized test) - passing the test is important and that is enough, forget about creativity or the arts. Teach the best that the past has to offer, but insure that each child possesses practical skills marketable in the community. The reality: skills are ‘outsource’-able or found elsewhere, business will not let you use them, even if you have them.
Teachers Must Cope Practical use of time Classroom management is the key Accountability for achievement is critical, and prevents teachers from experimenting or deviating from the norm.
C is for Computers Are computers the same as film, radio, television? Will they face the same or similar problems experienced with these other technologies? Are computers good for children? How much is too much?
A is for Accountability As stated by Cuban on page 86, “Converting teaching into a science historically has driven many reformers, researchers, and policy-makers toward embracing numerous innovations that have promised precision harnessed to efficiency.” “The surge of popular interest in making schools productive and accountable spurred efforts to train teachers to write precise objectives aimed at producing student results.” States mandated testing programs that required teachers to concentrate on the skills that legislators believed were important.
Questions to Aid the Implementation of Technology What is the nature of the innovation? How is it being introduced? Who are the users, and how much are the machines used? Should computers be used in classrooms?