Presentation on theme: "Change as a Process ECT 757 Educational Technology and Change, Spring 2005 Dr. Brown."— Presentation transcript:
Change as a Process ECT 757 Educational Technology and Change, Spring 2005 Dr. Brown
While there may be a back-and-forth rhythm to the pendulum of education practices, we believe there also is a spiral. A change is adopted, tried out, and subsequently rejected – only to cycle around and be readopted some years later in a new and improved form. There is growth and new understanding reflected in each swing of the pendulum. Hall and Hord
Educational Movements Behavioral Perspective: development of curricular programs and instructional processes. 1970s Cognitive Perspective: the need to learn to use, process, and apply knowledge in meaningful ways. Development of constructivism. 1980s Socially Responsible Perspective: focus on caring environments, appreciating diverse cultures, and providing community service.
Educational Fixes Quick cosmetic fixes: shifting schedules, increasing graduation requirements. Classroom practices: curriculum and instructional strategies to increase student achievement. Restructing of schools: schools are failing because of the bureaucratic structure. School Improvement Teams. 1990s Fix the system: No Child Left Behind.
Change Principle 1 Change is a Process, Not an Event In the past, change has been treated as an event. Policy-makers are driven to insist on change based upon election cycles. Leads to not time to learn about and to understand the new way. No time to grieve the loss of the old way. We may like what we were doing before.
Change Principle 1 Change is a Process, Not an Event Change in education takes at least 3 to 5 years to implement at a high level. For each new adopting unit, the clock is reset to 3 to 5 years. There are few shortcuts. Failure to address key aspects of the change process can either add years or prevent the change from occurring.
Change Principle 2: There are significant difference in what is entailed in development and implementation of an innovation. Development is all the steps and actions involved in creating, testing, and packaging an innovation. Implementation is the steps and actions involved in learning how to use the innovation. Often more money is invested in the development side as compared to the implementation.
Change Principle 2: There are significant difference in what is entailed in development and implementation of an innovation. Leaders on the development side (policy makers) often lose interest once the development is done. Change facilitators of the implementation side must be patient and persistent.
Change Principle 3: An organization does not change until the individuals within it change. Successful change starts at the individual level. The rate of change at the individual level is varied depending on how quickly the individual embraces change. Change should be targeted at two levels: the organizational level and the individual level.
Change Principle 4: Innovations come in different sizes. Innovations can be products, processes, or ideas. Innovations can be around a single innovation or a bundle of innovations. Some innovations are small (using the electronic grade book) to large scale innovation requiring system changes (state wide testing systems).
Change Principle 5: Interventions are the actions and events that are key to the success of the change process. Interventions are actions taken by change facilitators to encourage the acceptance and adoption of interventions. Examples: workshops, trainings, and conversations.
Change Principle 6: Although both top-down and bottom-up change can work a horizontal perspective is best. Most change is initiated from the top with policies and mandates from government, superintendents, and principals. These often do not filter down to the classroom. Bottom-up change often does not work because –Top rarely releases control, –The people do not have the ideas, –The people do have the time to initiate change, –The top does not support the change.
Change Principle 6: Although both top-down and bottom-up change can work a horizontal perspective is best. For change to be successful it must –Have buy in from all the participants –Have trust in the system, –People at the bottom do not recognized the work required at the top. People at the top do not recognize the efforts of the people at the bottom.
Change Principle 7: Administrator leadership is essential to long-term change success. Do we need to say more!
Change Principle 8: Mandates can work. Mandates are an intervention strategy. The priority is clear, Expectation the mandate will be carried out. The change process is supported. Should be backed up with communication, training, on-site coaching, and time for implementation.
Change Principle 9: The school is the primary unit for change. School staff will make or break any change effort. Schools often need outside support.
Change Principle 10: Facilitating change is a team effort. Involves all the stakeholders: –Administration, –Teachers, –Parents, –Children, and –Change facilitator.
Change Principle 11: Appropriate interventions reduce the challenges of change. Well plan process of change can reduce stress and anxiety related to the change.
Change Principle 12: The context of the school influences the process of change. The physical features: size and arrangement. People factors: attitudes, beliefs, and values. Workplace culture.