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Darwin Presents His Case Section 15-3 This section explains the concepts of artificial selection, natural selection, and fitness. It also describes evidence.

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Presentation on theme: "Darwin Presents His Case Section 15-3 This section explains the concepts of artificial selection, natural selection, and fitness. It also describes evidence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Darwin Presents His Case Section 15-3 This section explains the concepts of artificial selection, natural selection, and fitness. It also describes evidence for evolution.

2 Publication of On the Origin of Species Is the following sentence true or false? Is the following sentence true or false? When Darwin returned to England, he rushed to publish his thoughts about evolution. When Darwin returned to England, he rushed to publish his thoughts about evolution. False False

3 Publication of On the Origin of Species Publication of On the Origin of Species The naturalist whose essay gave Darwin an incentive to publish his own work was. Alfred Russel Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace

4 Publication of On the Origin of Species Publication of On the Origin of Species Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about Darwin’s book, On the Origin of Species. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about Darwin’s book, On the Origin of Species. It contained evidence for evolution. It contained evidence for evolution. It described natural selection. It described natural selection.

5 Inherited Variation and Artificial Selection Differences among individuals of a species are referred to as __________. Differences among individuals of a species are referred to as __________. variation variation

6 Inherited Variation and Artificial Selection Is the following sentence true or false? Is the following sentence true or false? Genetic variation is found only in wild organisms in nature. Genetic variation is found only in wild organisms in nature.false

7 Inherited Variation and Artificial Selection Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about artificial selection. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about artificial selection. It is also called selective breeding. It is also called selective breeding. It occurs when humans select natural variations they find useful. It occurs when humans select natural variations they find useful. It produces organisms that look very different from their ancestors. It produces organisms that look very different from their ancestors.

8 Evolution by Natural Selection What was Darwin’s greatest contribution? What was Darwin’s greatest contribution? His greatest contribution was developing a scientific hypothesis to explain how evolution occurs. His greatest contribution was developing a scientific hypothesis to explain how evolution occurs.

9 Evolution by Natural Selection What does the phrase struggle for existence mean? It means that members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space, and other necessities of life. It means that members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space, and other necessities of life.

10 Evolution by Natural Selection Fitness - The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment Fitness - The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment Adaptation - Any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival Adaptation - Any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival Natural selection - Survival of the fittest Natural selection - Survival of the fittest

11 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Is the following sentence true or false? Is the following sentence true or false? Adaptations can be physical characteristics but not more complex features such as behavior. Adaptations can be physical characteristics but not more complex features such as behavior. False False

12 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Explain what Darwin meant by the phrase survival of the fittest. Explain what Darwin meant by the phrase survival of the fittest. Individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully.

13 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about natural selection. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about natural selection. It selects traits that increase fitness. It selects traits that increase fitness. It takes place without human control. It takes place without human control.

14 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Darwin’s Theory of Evolution The principle that living species descend, with changes, from other species over time is referred to as_______. The principle that living species descend, with changes, from other species over time is referred to as_______. Descent with modification Descent with modification

15 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution The principle that all species were derived from common ancestors is known as ________. The principle that all species were derived from common ancestors is known as ________. Common Descent Common Descent

16 Evidence of Evolution Is the following sentence true or false? Darwin argued that living things have been evolving on Earth for thousands of years. Darwin argued that living things have been evolving on Earth for thousands of years. false false

17 Complete the concept map. Complete the concept map.

18 How do fossils that formed in different rock layers provide evidence of evolution? They document the fact that life on Earth has changed over time. They document the fact that life on Earth has changed over time.

19 Circle the letter of the way Darwin explained the distribution of finch species on the Galápagos Islands. Circle the letter of the way Darwin explained the distribution of finch species on the Galápagos Islands. They had descended with modification from a common mainland ancestor. They had descended with modification from a common mainland ancestor.

20 How did Darwin explain the existence of similar but unrelated species? How did Darwin explain the existence of similar but unrelated species? Darwin thought that such species evolved features in common because they were exposed to similar pressures of natural selection. Darwin thought that such species evolved features in common because they were exposed to similar pressures of natural selection.

21 Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues are called. Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues are called. HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES

22 Is the following sentence true or false? Homologous structures provide strong evidence that all four-limbed vertebrates have descended, with modifications, from common ancestors. Homologous structures provide strong evidence that all four-limbed vertebrates have descended, with modifications, from common ancestors. TRUE TRUE

23 Organs that are so reduced in size that they are just vestiges, or traces, of homologous organs in other species are called. Organs that are so reduced in size that they are just vestiges, or traces, of homologous organs in other species are called. VESTIGAL ORGANS VESTIGAL ORGANS

24 Summary of Darwin’s Theory Circle the letter of each idea that is part of Darwin’s theory of evolution. Circle the letter of each idea that is part of Darwin’s theory of evolution. There is variation in nature. There is variation in nature. Fewer organisms are produced than can survive. Fewer organisms are produced than can survive. Species change over time. Species change over time.

25 Summary of Darwin’s Theory According to Darwin’s theory, what happens to individuals whose characteristics are not well suited to their environment? Such individuals die or leave fewer offspring. Such individuals die or leave fewer offspring.

26 Summary of Darwin’s Theory Darwin believed that all organisms on Earth are united into a single tree of life by Darwin believed that all organisms on Earth are united into a single tree of life by Descent with modification Descent with modification

27 Evolutionary Theory Since Darwin What is the status of Darwin’s hypotheses today? What is the status of Darwin’s hypotheses today? They have been confirmed and expanded by scientific advances in biology, geology, and physics They have been confirmed and expanded by scientific advances in biology, geology, and physics

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