Presentation on theme: "American Regionalism, Realism, and Naturalism 1860-1920’s."— Presentation transcript:
American Regionalism, Realism, and Naturalism 1860-1920’s
What is Realism? A faithful representation of reality in literature, also known as “verisimilitude.” Emphasis on development of believable characters. Written in natural vernacular, or dialect. Prominent from 1860-1890.
Realist Writers Mark Twain William Dean Howells Henry James
Why did Realism develop? The Civil War The urbanization and industrialization of America As a reaction to Romanticism Increasing rates of democracy and literacy The emerging middle class Upheaval and social change in the latter half of the 19 th century
Nineteenth-century Definitions of Romance Romance focuses “upon the extraordinary, the mysterious, the imaginary.” –Bliss Perry (1903) Nathaniel Hawthorne: the romance “has fairly a right to present that truth under circumstances, to a great extent, of the writer’s own choosing or creation” (Preface to The House of the Seven Gables)
Romance and Realism: Taste and Class Romance Aspired to the ideal Thought to be more genteel since it did not show the vulgar details of life Realism Thought to be more democratic Critics stressed the potential for vulgarity and its emphasis on the commonplace Potential “poison” for the pure of mind
What is Regionalism? Often called “local color.” Focuses on characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features specific to a certain region (eg. the South) Coincided with Realism and sharing many of the same traits. Prominent from 1865-1895.
Regionalist Writers Kate Chopin— South Mary E. Wilkins- Freeman—New England Mark Twain—West Willa Cather— Midwest
Why did Regionalism develop? Dual influence of Romanticism and Realism The Civil War and the building of a national identity An outgrowth of realism with more focus on a particular setting and its influence over characters
What is Naturalism? Applied scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to the study of human beings. Influenced by Darwinism (natural selection) and psychology (Freud) Posited that men were governed by heredity and environment. Often depict man in conflict with nature, society, or himself. Prominent from 1880-1920s
Naturalist Writers Stephen Crane Ambrose Bierce Jack London Edwin Arlington Robinson Katherine Anne Porter Charlotte Perkins Gilman Edith Wharton
Why did Naturalism develop? The swell of immigrants in the latter half of the 19 th century, which led to a larger lower class and increased poverty in the cities The prominence of psychology and the theories of Sigmund Freud Pessimism in the wake of the Civil War and Reconstruction Publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of the Species
Points to Remember… Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism are intertwined and connected. Their influence has dominated most literature created since 1920, though the movement itself is dated to roughly that point. They are truly American modes of writing.
Works Cited www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/powerpoint/realismmedium.ppt www.huffenglish.com/powerpoints/American%20Regionalis m,%20Realism,%20and%20Naturalism.ppt