Presentation on theme: "American Regionalism, Realism, and Naturalism 1860-1920( ish ) NOTES."— Presentation transcript:
American Regionalism, Realism, and Naturalism 1860-1920( ish ) NOTES
What is Realism? O A faithful representation of reality in literature, also known as “ verisimilitude ” ( the appearance of truth, the quality of truth ) O Emphasis on development of believable characters. O Written in natural vernacular, or dialect. O Prominent from 1860- 1890.
Realism O Realism sought to portray life as faithfully and accurately as possible, focusing on ordinary people suffering the harsh realties of everyday life. It depicts ordinary people coping with everyday realities. O Authors included Mark Twain, Henry James, Edith Wharton, Willa Cather, and Dunbar O The Literature O Presented life objectively O Favored science and technology O Found meaning in the mundane O Focused on socials ills and social conflict
Elements of Realism O Rejection of the idealized, larger - than - life hero of Romantic Literature O Detailed depiction of ordinary characters and realistic events O Emphasis on characters from cities and lower classes O Avoidance of the exotic, sensational, and overly dramatic O Use of everyday speech patterns to reveal class distinctions O Focus on the ethical struggles and social issues of real - life situations O Sought to explain why ordinary people behave the way they do
Realist Writers O Mark Twain O William Dean Howells O Henry James O Edgar Lee Masters
Why did Realism develop? O The Civil War O The urbanization and industrialization of America O As a reaction to Romanticism O Increasing rates of democracy and literacy O The emerging middle class O Upheaval and social change in the latter half of the 19 th century
What is Regionalism ? O Often called “ local color.” O Focuses on characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features specific to a certain region ( eg. the South ) O Coincided with Realism and sharing many of the same traits. O Prominent from 1865- 1895.
Regionalist Writers O Kate Chopin — South O Mary E. Wilkins - Freeman — New England O Mark Twain — West O Willa Cather — Midwest
Why did Regionalism develop? O Dual influence of Romanticism and Realism O The Civil War and the building of a national identity O An outgrowth of realism with more focus on a particular setting and its influence over characters
What is Naturalism? O Applied scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to the study of human beings. O Influenced by Darwinism ( natural selection ) and psychology ( Freud ) O individuals were governed by heredity and environment. O Often depict man in conflict with nature, society, or himself. O Prominent from 1880- 1920( ish )
Naturalism - Focuses on people ’ s helplessness in the face of chance O Sought to portray ordinary people ’ s lives, but suggested that environment, heredity, and chance, or forces they could neither understand nor control, determined people ’ s fate. O Authors included Stephen Crane, Kate Chopin, Theodore Dreiser, Jack London O Man ’ s destiny was determined by heredity and natural selection, society, psychological impulses, and economic class
Naturalism O Influenced by emerging disciplines of psychology and sociology O Attempt to analyze human behavior objectively, as a scientist would O Belief that human behavior is determined by heredity and environment O Sense that human beings cannot control their own destinies O Sense of life as a losing battle against an uncaring universe
Naturalist Writers O Stephen Crane O Ambrose Bierce O Jack London O Edwin Arlingto n Robinson O Katherin e Anne Porter O Charlott e Perkins Gilman O Edith Wharton
Why did Naturalism develop? O The swell of immigrants in the latter half of the 19 th century, which led to a larger lower class and increased poverty in the cities O The prominence of psychology and the theories of Sigmund Freud O Pessimism in the wake of the Civil War and Reconstruction O Publication of Charles Darwin ’ s Origin of the Species
Points to Remember… O Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism are intertwined and connected. O Their influence has dominated most literature created since 1920, though the movement itself is dated to roughly that point. O They are truly American modes of writing.
Journal 1-4-12 Do you agree with the saying “ knowledge is power ” ? Does knowledge give you greater control over your life?
Understand this… O The artistic movement, Realism, was described in the 1850 s and while his autobiography predates the technical date of the movement, it definitely is in the spirit of it. True life accounts were one of the inspirations for realism.
Objectives O To read and analyze an excerpt from an autobiography that explores one of the major causes of the Civil War O To identify one purpose of writing an autobiography
from My Bondage and My Freedom Frederick Douglass
Questions to ponder / answer / turn in O While reading : O 1. Why do you think the mistress went beyond her husband ’ s instructions to stop teaching Douglass, trying to prohibit him from learning altogether? O 2. In the third paragraph, what argument does Douglass make against slavery? O 3. What do you learn from a recollection from his childhood? O 4. how might a young enslaved person have managed to earn money? What does his choice about how he spends his money say about Douglass? O 5. Douglass ’ s reading and rereading of this dialogue proves to be a turning point in his life. Why? O After reading : P 335- #6 ( look back at your journal ),#7 ( don ’ t chart, just explain ),#8
Journal Imagine yourself facing a frightening life - or - death situation involving, for example, a car accident or a natural disaster. What thoughts do you think might flash though your mind at such a time?
Objectives O To read a short story whose setting is the Civil War O To analyze the use of third person point of view in a short story