Presentation on theme: "Medical Terminology A Word-Building Approach"— Presentation transcript:
1Medical Terminology A Word-Building Approach Jane Rice, RN, CMA-CChapter 5 Integumentary System
2Multimedia DirectorySlide 26 Acne Video Slide 31 Skin Cancer Video Slide 34 Wound Cultures Video Slide 68 Wound Repair Animation Slide 69 Wound Care Video Slide 75 TB Testing Video Slide 85 Decubitus Ulcer Video Slide 90 Eczema Video
3Anatomy and Physiology Overview The integumentary system is composed of the skin and its accessory structures: hair, nails, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands.
5Functions of the SkinExternal covering of the body; it is the largest organ in the body and is well supplied with blood vessels and nerves.The four main functions of the skin:ProtectionRegulationSensationSecretion
6protection PROTECTS AGAINST BACTERIA PROTECTS AGAINST INJURY OF DELICATE CELSS BENEATH EPIDERMIS.INHIBITS EXCESSIVVE LOSS OF WATER AND ELECTROLYTES, AND PROVIDES A RESERVIOR FOR STORING FOOD AND WATER.GUARDS AGAINST EXCESSIVE EXPOSURE TO THE SUNPRODUCES BODY’S SUPPLY OF VITAMIN D.
7RegulationBlood vessels dilate to increase blood flow to the surface. Loose heat through Radiation.Sweat glands are secreting more sweat for cooling through Evaporation.When need to conserve heat, vessels constrict allowing more heat carrying blood to circulate to the muscles and organs.
9SecretionSudoriferous Gland (sweat gland)- millions of glands in the body.Perspiration is largely water and small amount of salt and other compounds.When left to accumulate, causes body odor, especially where it is trapped among hairsSebaceous Gland (oil glands)-Sebum-oily secretion that acts to protect the body from dehydration and possible absorption of harmful substances.
11Layers of the SkinThe two layers of the skin are the epidermis and the dermis.
12Layers of the Skin Epidermis Stratum Corneum The outermost, horny layer, consisting of dead cells filled with a protein substance called keratin. It forms the protective covering of the body that varies in thickness.
13Layers of the Skin Epidermis Stratum Lucidum A translucent layer lying directly beneath the stratum corneum.Is not seen in thin skin and is also composed of dead or dying cells.
14Layers of the Skin Epidermis Stratum Granulosum Consists of several layers of living cells that are in the process of becoming a part of the previously mentioned strata.
15Layers of the Skin Epidermis Stratum Germinativum The innermost layer is composed of several layers of living cells capable of mitosis or cell division. It is also called the mucosum or malpighii and is responsible for regeneration of the epidermis.
16Layers of the Skin Dermis Composed of connective tissue containing lymphatics, nerves and nerve endings, blood vessels, sebaceous and sweat glands, elastic fibers, and hair follicles.Attached to underlying structures by subcutaneous tissue that supports, nourishes, insulates, and cushions the skin.Also called the corium or true skin.
17Layers of the Skin Dermis Upper or Papillary Layer Arranged into parallel rows of microscopic structures called papillae. (produces ridges that are one’s fingerprints or footprints).
18Layers of the Skin Dermis Lower or Reticular Layer Composed of white fibrous tissue that supports the blood vessels.
19Accessory Structures of the Skin HairA thin, threadlike structure formed by a group of cells that develop within a hair follicle or socket.Each hair is composed of a shaft, which is the visible portion, and a root, which is embedded within the follicle.
20Accessory Structures of the Skin HairAt the base of the follicle is the:Hair papillaPilomotor muscle
21Accessory Structures of the Skin NailsHorny cell structures of the epidermis that are composed of hard keratin.Nail growth may vary with age, disease, and hormone deficiency.The crescent-shaped white area of a nail is known as the lunula.
22Accessory Structures of the Skin NailsA nail consists of three parts:BodyRootMatrix or nailbed
24Accessory Structures of the Skin Sebaceous glandsThe oil-secreting glands of the skin.The tiny ducts open into the hair follicle, and their secretion lubricates the hair and the skin.Sebum secretion, which is controlled by the endocrine system, varies with age, puberty, and pregnancy.
25Accessory Structures of the Skin Sweat (sudoriferous) glandsThe approximately 2 million sweat glands are coiled and tubular in structure.They are distributed over the entire surface of the body with the exception of the margin of the lips, glans penis, and the inner surface of the prepuce.The sweat glands secrete sweat or perspiration, which:Helps to cool the body by evaporation.Rids the body of waste through the pores of the skin.
26Life Span Considerations: The Child In the fetus, the skin is transparent and blood vessels are clearly visible.Vernix caseosa (a cheeselike substance) covers the fetus until birth.At approximately weeks, lanugo hair develops, and at weeks, the skin is reddish and wrinkled.
28Life Span Considerations: The Child Newborns are more sensitive to heat and cold because of a lack of subcutaneous fat.Skin conditions can be acute or chronic, local, systemic, or congenital.The hair of a child will vary in texture, quality, and distribution. It can become dry and brittle due to improper nutrition and lose color due to severe illness.
29Life Span Considerations: The Child Age-associated disorders of the skin may include:MiliaWhite pinhead-size pimples that appear on the face and sometimes the trunk of a newborn.AcneAlso known as pimples, is an inflammatory condition of sebaceous glands and hair follicles.
31Life Span Considerations: The Older Adult The skin becomes looser (due to dermal papilla growing less dense).Collagen and elastic fibers of the upper dermis decrease, skin loses its elastic tone, and skin wrinkles more easily.The hair of older adults becomes somewhat gray, with scalp hair thinning, and becomes dry and brittle in both men and women.
32Life Span Considerations: The Older Adult Older women have an increase in facial hair, and men have an increased growth of the hair of the nares, eyebrows, or helix of the ears.The nails flatten and become discolored, dry, and brittle.
33Life Span Considerations: The Older Adult Skin conditions common to older adults include:XerosisDrynessPruritusItchingPremalignant/malignant skin lesionsCarcinomas frequently appear on the nose, eyelid, or cheek.Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of skin cancers in the older adult.
70Wound Repair Animation Click here to view an animation on the topic of wound repair.Back to Directory
71Click here to view a video on the topic of wound care. Wound Care VideoClick here to view a video on the topic of wound care.Back to Directory
72Drug Highlights Emollients Keratolytics Local anesthetic agents Substances that are oily in nature.KeratolyticsPromote loosening of the horny (keratin) layers of the skin.Local anesthetic agentsInhibit the conduction of nerve impulses from sensory nerves and thereby reduce pain and discomfort.Antipruritic agentsPrevent or relieve itching.
73Drug Highlights Antihistamine agents Antibiotic agents Act to prevent the action of histamine.Antibiotic agentsDestroy or stop the growth of microorganisms.Antifungal agentsDestroy or inhibit the growth of fungi and yeast.Antiviral agentsAgents that combat specific viral diseases.
74Drug Highlights Anti-inflammatory agents Relieve the swelling, tenderness, redness, and pain of inflammation.Consist of:Topical corticosteroids.Treat dermatitis and psoriasis.Oral corticosteroidsUsed when symptoms are severe.Treats contact dermatitis, such as poison ivy.
75Drug Highlights Antiseptic agents Other Drugs Prevent or inhibit the growth of pathogens.Other DrugsRetin-A (tretinoin)Used to treat acne vulgaris.Rogaine (minoxidil)Used to stimulate hair growth.Botulinum Toxin Type A (Botox Cosmetic)Approved by the FDA to temporarily improve the appearance of moderate to severe frown lines between the eyebrows.
76Diagnostic and Lab Tests Tuberculosis Skin TestTest performed to identify the presence of the Tubercle bacilli.The tine, Heaf, or Mantoux test may be used.
77Click here to view a video on the topic of TB testing. TB Testing VideoClick here to view a video on the topic of TB testing.Back to Directory
78Diagnostic and Lab Tests Scratch (epicutaneous) or prick TestTest involves the placement of a suspected allergen in the uppermost layers of the epidermis, usually on the skin of the forearm or back.Redness or swelling at the scratch site within 10 minutes indicates allergy to the substance, rendering a positive test result.If no reaction occurs, the test result is negative.Sweat Test (chloride)Test performed on sweat to determine the level of chloride concentration on the skin. In cystic fibrosis there is an increase in skin chloride.
79Diagnostic and Lab Tests Tzanck TestMicroscopic examination of a small piece of tissue that has been surgically scraped from a pustule to identify type of viral infection.Wound CultureTest done on wound exudates to determine the presence of microorganisms.Biopsy (skin)Small piece of living tissue from any skin lesion that exhibits signs or characteristics of malignancy is examined microscopically to establish a diagnosis.
81Decubitus UlcerAn area of skin and tissue that becomes injured or broken down.The word decubitus, which means lying down, indicates the cause of pressure ulcers.When a person sits or lies in a position too long, without shifting his or her weight, the constant pressure causes a decrease of blood supply to the area.Without blood, the tissue dies and infection may occur, leading to systemic problems.
82Decubitus Ulcer The ulcers are staged as follows: Stage I Stage II Stage IIIStage IV
87Click here to view a video on the topic of decubitus ulcers. Decubitus Ulcer VideoClick here to view a video on the topic of decubitus ulcers.Back to Directory
88EczemaA chronic skin disorder characterized by scaly and itching rashes.It is most common in infants, and usually a chronic condition in adults.Is also called atopic or contact dermatitis.
89Eczema Medical treatment is stage dependent: Weepy lesions Treated with moisturizers, mild soap, or wet dressings.Dry scaly lesionsTreated with mild anti-itch lotions or low-potency topical corticosteroids.
90Eczema Medical treatment is stage dependent: Chronic dry, thickened lesionsTreated with ointments or creams that contain tar compounds, medium to very high potency corticosteroids, and ingredients that lubricate and soften the skin.Severe casesSystemic corticosteroids to reduce inflammation.
91EczemaThe latest eczema treatment is a new class of nonsteroidal skin medications called topical immunomodulators (TIMS).
92Click here to view a video on the topic of eczema. Eczema VideoClick here to view a video on the topic of eczema.Back to Directory
93PsoriasisCommon skin condition characterized by frequent episodes of redness, itching, and thick, dry scales on the skin.Commonly begins in individuals between the ages of 15 and 35.Thought to be an inherited, autoimmune disease.
94PsoriasisThe disease presents with a buildup of dead skin cells and the formation of thick scales within a few days versus the normal one-month period of time that it takes new skin cells to move up from lower layers to the surface.
95PsoriasisTreatment varies with the extent and severity of the disorder:Severe or resistant cases can require hospitalization.Mild cases treated with topical medications.Other treatments include nonpharmacologic and phototherapy.
97Skin CancerDisease in which malignant cells are found in the epidermis.Three types of skin cells include squamous cells (flat, scaly cells on the surface), basal cells (round cells), and melanocytes (give skin its color).Basal cell and squamous cell cancersMelanoma
98Skin CancerThe ABCDs of melanoma describe the changes that occur in moles and include:AsymmetryBorderColorDiameter
102Burns First-Degree (superficial) When only the outer layer of the skin is burned. The skin is red with some degree of swelling and painCool the burn with running water or cold compresses to reduce swelling by conducting heat away from the skin.DO NOT USE ICECover the burn with clean gauze to keep air off the burned skin, reduce pain, and protect blistered skin.
103Burns Second-Degree (partial thickness) The second layer of skin is burned. Blisters develop and the skin takes on an intensely reddened, splotchy appearance that presents with severe pain and swelling.CALL 911 for emergency assistance if necessary:Remove the victim from contact with smoldering materials or exposure to smoke and heat, however DO NOT REMOVE BURNT CLOTHING.
104Burns Second-Degree (partial thickness) Don’t immerse severe large burns in cold water because this could cause the victim to go into shock.Check for signs of circulation and if indicated, start cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).Cover the area of the burn with cool, moist, sterile bandages, clean, moist cloth or moist towels.
105Burns Third-Degree (full thickness) Burns involve all three layers of skin, usually destroying the sweat glands, hair follicles, and nerve endings.Areas involved are generally charred black or appear dry and white.Since the nerve endings have been burned, there is usually no pain involved.
106BurnsThe Rule of Nines estimates the extent of burns received by the patient.It is expressed as a percentage of body surface area.The body is divided into either sections, multiples, or divisions of 9 percent to accurately estimate the extent of the burns for fluid replacement therapy.