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2 CURRENT EVENTS tipping-point/?ss=pharma-healthcare (David Yum) tipping-point/?ss=pharma-healthcare Best motivation is “nagging” Sovaldi ~ $96,000 per course of treatment (Pricey new pill: approves-pricey-pill-against-hepatitis-c-210744696.html )(Fola) approves-pricey-pill-against-hepatitis-c-210744696.html I need my meds now… (Rachel) I need my meds now… Medisafe (Amanda Wolfe – FYOS) Question: What should a pharmacist say if a patient says he/she does not know what the medication is for, especially if its for a sensitive drug like an antipsychotic? (Annie) Democrats more likely than republicans to believe in paranormal…(Kelsey) Democrats more likely than republicans to believe in paranormal Ultimate in adherence…stem cells? (Cindy) Ultimate in adherence…stem cells? Pharmacists and corporate greed... (Melody Pharmacists and corporate greed...

3 SOME COMMON PROBLEMS Colds, Sinus and Ear Infections Folk remedies Antibiotics are now the mainstay Cost $4 to hundreds for common infections Problem with resistance Flu Those most at risk were infants, the elderly and those with chronic diseases, especially asthma and decreased immune systems Mortality rates were very high as there were not treatments Annual flu shot Cost of flu shot is about $25

4 LESS COMMON MEDICAL CONDITIONS Arthritis Past: few effective tx’s Patients suffered with this deforming and debilitating disease Now have “TNF” inhibitors and anti-inflammatory drugs $4 for generic Ibuprofen to $1,000 a month for new injectable TNF therapy Many Cancers Surgery if possible ( $$$ with uncertain outcome) Modern imaging technology have made early detection and prevention key – MRI is about $1-2,000 Better chemo drugs but still very toxic Cost of chemo can be $$$ per treatment

5 OSTEOPOROSIS 40% white women, 15% white men over 50 Age, gender and race as risk factors for low bone mineral density There are good screening techniques (ultrasound, DEXA) Forearm, hip, spine fractures 20% -40% of those with a hip fracture expire within 6 months High medical costs to treat, increases in nursing home admissions Boniva, Actonel, Fosamax – increase density but also cause other problems such as GI irritation, possibly more brittle bones

6 SCHIZOPHRENIA 1-2% of all adults What is it? Positive and Negative sx 50% become permanently disabled Drugs to treat can offer some relief Zyprexa, Risperdal, Seroquel, Abilify, Mellaril, Haldol, Thorazine, and others Side effects are problematic: metabolic, parkinson- like symptoms, drooling, somnolence, excitement, etc. Modern drugs cost $300-$800 per month compared to $4-50 for older therapies

7 STOMACH ULCERS Duodenal and Peptic ulcers We used to treat by regulating the stomach acid which was sometimes counterproductive Surgery was an option that in the past was widely accepted (thousands, including hospital stays) H2s and PPIs as well as recognition there was a bacterial cause of ulcers as well Tagament, Zantac, Axid, Pepsid, Prevacid, Prilosec, etc. at a cost of $4-100 a month

8 HEART DISEASE Causes can include family history, sedintary lifestyle, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol to name a few Drugs to treat all these conditions Each of the previous examples showed how drugs can be used to treat - in this case the root cause treatment may be to increase cardiovascular fitness through diet and exercise - - weight loss Literally hundreds of drugs you may have heard of like Lipitor, Crestor, various insulin, Ally, Zocor, Norvasc, Inderal, and lots and lots of others Costs are all over the board from $4 to many hundreds per month

9 SUMMARY Drugs are an important part of medical care, representing about 15% of each health care dollar Over time, drugs reduce the total cost of care, even when these drugs become very expensive Modern medicine has made great advances – more is needed (e.g. Schizophrenia) BUT: What happens when people don’t take their medications?

10 OUTCOMES Economic increased cost of medications lower total health care costs Clinical better control of disease, symptoms Humanistic patient satisfaction with therapy

11 WHEN PATIENTS DO NOT TAKE THEIR MEDICATIONS CORRECTLY: they may not get better conditions can worsen patients relapse

12 THE COSTS OF NONCOMPLIANCE: The stats: ~290 billion dollars annually in unnecessary costs (almost triple 10 years ago) 125,000 unnecessary deaths (relatively constant) 10% (more than 1,000,000) of all hospitalizations may be due to noncompliance 50% of all medication use is non-compliant Fung, B. The $289 Billion Cost of Medication Noncompliance, and What to Do About It. The Atlantic. billion-cost-of-medication-noncompliance-and-what-to-do-about- it/262222/ billion-cost-of-medication-noncompliance-and-what-to-do-about- it/262222/

13 HEALTH EFFECTS increased morbidity treatment failures exacerbation of disease more frequent physician visits increased hospitalizations death

14 ECONOMIC EFFECTS: increased absenteeism lost productivity at work lost revenues to pharmacies lost revenues to pharmaceutical manufacturers

15 BENCHMARK COMPLIANCE RATES: Disease Epilepsy Arthritis Hypertension Diabetes Oral contraceptives HRT Asthma Rates of noncompliance 30% to 50% 50% to 71% 40% (average) 40% to 50% 8% 57% 20%

16 DIMENSIONS OF COMPLIANCE Initial noncompliance or defaulting 2% - 20%, possibly as high as 50% average 8.7% Refill compliance or persistence Improper medication use rational noncompliance

17 PERSISTENCE Product persistency curves after 1 year as much as a 50 percent decline after 5 years, compliance as low as 29% to 33% greatest declines in first six months

18 IMPROPER MEDICATION USE: Over or under use, wrong time Taking the wrong medicine Not finishing medication Administration errors Using another persons medication Using old, possibly expired medication

19 THE PRESENT SITUATION Measuring compliance patient reports, clinical outcomes, pill counts, refill records, biological and chemical markers, monitors MPR: medication possession ratio We need to be able to distinguish between patients not responding and patients not complying. Should recognize noncompliance cuts across drugs, diseases, prognosis, and symptoms.

20 THE PRESENT SITUATION Current research most studies aimed at measuring, understanding or improving compliance most are single interventions; few multifaceted interventions have been studied more studies have begun to focus on changes in economic, clinical and humanistic outcomes resulting from compliance interventions Some studies with asthma, CHD, HTN, diabetes and others

21 STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE COMPLIANCE multimedia educational campaigns patient education, counseling, written information, special labels teaching methods for self monitoring contracts with patients devices, reminders (mail, telephone), special packaging follow-up

22 THE “RIM” TECHNIQUE Recognize using objective and subjective evidence, the pharmacist can determine if the patient may have an existing compliance problem Identify determine the causes of noncompliance with supportive probing questions, empathic responses, and other universal statements Manage develop partnerships with patients

23 IDENTIFYING NON COMPLIANCE information from the patient patient comments, concerns, questions certain clinical outcomes non response to treatment information from refill records

24 PATIENT CONSIDERATIONS Factors believed to affect compliance patient knowledge prior compliance behavior ability to integrate into daily life health beliefs and perceptions of possible benefits of treatment social support (including practitioner relationships) complexity of regimen

25 PATIENT CONSIDERATIONS Factors which are not believed to be associated with compliance age, race, gender, income or education patient intelligence actual seriousness of the disease or the efficacy of the treatment

26 PATIENTS AT HIGHER RISK: Asymptomatic conditions hypertension Chronic conditions hypertension, arthritis diabetes Cognitive impairment dementia, Alzheimers Complex regimens Irregular dosing protocols Multiple daily dosing qd < bid < tid, < qid Patient perceptions effectiveness, side effects, cost Poor communication patient practitioner rapport Psychiatric illness less likely to comply

27 PATIENT CONSIDERATIONS Patient skills needed for behavior modification problem solving self monitoring develop systems for reminders enlisting social support identify positive and negative compliance behaviors

28 ACTIONS NEEDED More fully implement the pharmacy care model Challenges: pharmacist commitment to pharmacy care enhance the key skills necessary for patient care develop partnerships with physicians, MCO’s and patients integrate, coordinate and manage drug use

29 THE COSTS Financial training, experience, cost of interventions Time pharmacy management Commitment pharmacists, physicians, health administrators, patients

30 THE PHARMACY CARE PROCESS Collect and utilize patient information (build rapport) Identify patients’ drug related problems Develop solutions Select and recommend therapies Follow up to assess outcomes

31 THE VISION The modern pharmacy practitioner will partner with patients, physicians (medical home) and managed care to facilitate achievement of desired health outcomes. (MI?) Managing medication compliance is a primary means to successful pharmacy care and better outcomes for patients. The issue of compliance is complex, but, has important implications for health practitioners.

32 VISION / CHALLENGE As pharmacists work to improve compliance, pharmacy care activities must also increase. Better compliance may result in improved outcomes, but, it may also mean more drug related problems. over users who take less medication may experience increased symptoms under users who take more doses may experience more side effects

33 GOALS FOR RESEARCHERS AND PRACTITIONERS: What is the net impact of pharmacy care on medication compliance? Recommendations: Better packaging (blister packs, compliance packaging, “counter caps”, etc.) Case management (medical home, gatekeeper, managed care, etc.) Educational behavioral support (e.g., MI, Pharmacists and others) Access to compliance data (its in there!) Make drugs cheaper (when cost is a driver of non-compliance)

34 SUMMARY: THE CHALLENGE OF COMPLIANCE AND OUTCOMES Pharmacists will partner with patients, physicians and MCO’s to ensure desired health outcomes are achieved. Working to improve compliance means pharmacy care activities must also increase to ensure safety with the use of “strong medicine”. Then, better compliance will result in improved outcomes.

35 BENEFITS OF IMPROVED COMPLIANCE: Patients - better outcomes and quality of life Practitioners - healthier more loyal patients MCO’s - lower total HC expenditures Pharmaceutical Industry - increased sales


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