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Weber Health Assessment in Nursing

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Presentation on theme: "Weber Health Assessment in Nursing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Weber Health Assessment in Nursing
Chapter 14: Assessing Skin, Hair, and Nails

2 Structure and Function of Skin
The skin is a physical barrier that protects the underlying tissues and structures from microorganisms, physical trauma, ultraviolet radiation, and dehydration. Vital role in temperature maintenance, fluid and electrolyte balance, absorption, excretion, sensation, immunity, and vitamin D synthesis.

3 Skin, Hair and Nails Skin- epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous layers Hair- vellus, terminal Nails- hard, transparent plates of keratinized epidermal cells

4 Question Is the following statement True or False? Sebum has some fungicidal and bactericidal effects.

5 Answer True. Sebum has some fungicidal and bactericidal effects.

6 Question Is the following statement True or False? Asians and Native Americans have strong body odor.

7 Answer False. Asians and Native Americans have mild to no body odor because of decreased sweat production. Caucasians and African Americans tend to have a strong body odor.

8 Skin Cancer Most common of cancers Three types: melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma Asians are less susceptible

9 Risk Factors of Skin Cancer
Sun exposure Nonsolar sources of ultraviolet radiation Medical therapies Family history and genetic susceptibility Moles Pigmentation irregularities Fair skin that burns and freckles easily; light hair Age

10 Risk Factors of Skin Cancer (Cont’d)
Male gender Chemical exposure Human papillomavirus Xerodrem pigmentosum Long-term skin inflammation or injury Alcohol intake; smoking Inadequate niacin in diet

11 Risk Reduction in Skin Cancer
Reduce skin exposure Always use sunscreen when sun exposure is anticipated Wear long-sleeve shirts and wide-brimmed hats Avoid sunburns Understand the link between sun exposure and skin cancer and the accumulating effects of sun exposure on developing cancers Have annual skin cancer screenings

12 Risk Reduction in Skin Cancer
Ensure diet is adequate in vitamin B3 Examine the skin for suspected lesions Use the ABCDE mnemonic to assess suspicious lesions: Asymmetry Border Color Diameter Elevation

13 Question Which skin disorder may be caused by exposure to the sun? a. Acne b. Cancer c. Vitiligo d. Warts

14 Answer b. Cancer. Rationale: Skin cancer may be caused by exposure to the sun. Acne, vitiligo, and warts are not caused by sun exposure.

15 Cultural Variations in Skin Cancer
Lowest rates: Asians Highest rates: white Australians Most susceptible are people with pale white, freckled skin and red hair

Assess for hospital-acquired MRSA risk factors: Having an invasive medical device Residing in a long-term care facility

Assess for community-acquired MRSA risk factors: Participating in contact sports Sharing personal items such as towels or razors Suppression of the immune system function (e.g. HIV, cancer, or chemotherapy) Residing in unsanitary or crowded living conditions (dormitories or military barracks)

Working in the health-care industry Receiving antibiotics within the past 3 to 6 months Young or advanced age Men having sex with men

19 Measures to Reduce Risk Factors
Keep wounds covered. Do not share personal items. Avoid unsanitary or unsafe nail care practices. If treatment has been started, do not stop until recovery is complete. Use universal precautions when touching others to avoid contact with contaminated body fluids. Wash your hands. Clean sports equipment between uses to avoid spread of infection.

20 Nursing History: Present Health Concern
Body odor problems Skin problems (rashes, lesions, dryness, oiliness, drainage, bruising, swelling, pigmentation) Changes in lesion appearance Feeling changes (pain, pressure, itch, tingling) Hair loss or changes Nail changes

21 Nursing History (cont.)
Personal health history Family history Lifestyle and health practices Exposure to sun or chemicals Daily care of skin, hairs, nails Usual diet and exercise patterns

22 Client Preparation Ask the client to remove all clothing and jewelry Have the client sit comfortably Ensure privacy Maintain comfortable room temperature

23 Equipment Gloves Examination light and penlight Magnifying glass Centimeter ruler Wood’s light Examination gown or drape

24 Skin Assessment: Inspection
Note any distinctive odor Generalized color variations Skin breakdown Primary, secondary, or vascular lesions

25 Skin Assessment: Palpation
Lesions Texture Temperature and moisture Thickness of skin Mobility and turgor Edema

26 Pressure Ulcer Risk Factors
Perception Mobility Moisture Nutrition Friction or shear against surfaces Tissue tolerance decreased

27 Pressure Ulcer Risk Reduction
Inspect the skin at least daily and more often if at greater risk using risk assessment tool (such as Braden Scale or PUSH tool) and keep flow chart to document. Bathe with mild soap or other agent; limit friction; use warm not hot water; set bath schedule that is individualized. For dry skin: use moisturizers; avoid low humidity and cold air. Avoid vigorous massage.

28 Pressure Ulcer Reduction (cont.)
Use careful positioning, turning, and transferring techniques to avoid shear and friction or prolonged pressure on any point. Refer nutritional supplementation needs to primary care provider or dietitian, especially if protein deficient. Refer incontinence condition to primary care provider. Use incontinence skin cleansing methods as needed: frequency and methods of cleaning, avoiding dryness with protective barrier products.

29 Scalp and Hair Inspection and palpation General color and condition, cleanliness, dryness or oiliness, parasites, and lesions Amount and distribution of scalp, body, axillae, and pubic hair

30 Nail Assessment Nails Inspection: Nail grooming and cleanliness, nail color and markings, shape of nails, Palpation: Texture, assess texture and consistency, capillary refill

31 Nails Risk Factors Nails in moist environment, especially walking in damp public locales or continuously wearing closed shoes; excessive perspiration. Nail injury, trauma, or irritation Immune system disorders such as diabetes mellitus and AIDS or on immunosuppressive medications. Skin conditions such as psoriasis or lichen. Some trades or professions Contagion from one digit to another or one person to another. Possibly family predisposition.

32 Nails Risk Reduction Tips
Wear leather shoes except for sports. Avoid wearing closed shoes all the time. Wear socks that wick away moisture. Avoid going barefoot in damp public areas. Avoid too much perspiration or water (wear gloves for hands). Avoid trauma to nails. Avoid unsanitary or unsafe nail care practices If treatment is started, do not stop until recovery is complete.

33 Physical Assessment (cont.)
Capillary refill Hair color and texture Individuals of black American descent often have very dry scalps and dry, fragile hair.

34 Self-Assessment Skin, Hair, Nails
Refer to Box 14.1 Self Assessment: How to Examine Your Own Skin

35 Normal and Abnormal Findings
Share outcomes of assessment with peers

36 Pressure Ulcer Stages Stage One Stage Two Stage Three Stage Four

37 Primary Skin Lesions Macule and Patch Papule and Plaque
Nodule and Tumor Vesicle and Bulla Wheal Pustule Cyst

38 Secondary Skin Lesions
Erosion Ulcer Sacr Fissure

39 Vascular Skin Lesions Petechia Ecchymosis Hematoma Cherry Angioma
Spider Angioma Telangiectasis

40 Common Nail Disorders Longitudinal ridging Half and half nails Pitting
Koilonychia Yellow nail syndrome Paronychia

41 Common Changes Aging Skin Pale Skin lesions Dry Loses turgor
Hair: Thinner Nails: Thickened, yellow, brittle

42 Validating and Documenting Findings
Health promotion diagnoses Risk diagnoses Actual diagnoses Collaborative problems Medical problems

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