Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "TOPICS IN (NANO) BIOTECHNOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:

Enzyme sensors 30th June PhD Course

2 Communication between redoxenzyme and electrode



5 Electron transfer in biosensors
First generation Second generation Third generation An enzyme can communicate with the electrode in different ways In the 1st generation of biosensors oxidases were trapped at the electrode surface and the enz reaction was monitored by measuring the consumption of oxygen or production of hydrogenperoxide by direct measurements thus at a low or high potential respectively in 2nd generation biosensors an artificial mediator molecule shuttles the electrons between the enz and the electrode In the third generation are based on enzymes that can exchange electrons directly with the electrode



8 Major groups of redox enzymes used in biosensor work



11 Electron transfer in biosensors
First generation Second generation Third generation

12 First generation biosensors
at conventional electrodes electrochemical oxidation of H2O2 occurs at ≥ mV vs. Ag|AgCl › the system is open for interfering reactions › the response is unstable with time

13 Ways to reduce the potential for electrochemical conversion of H2O2 i noble metal deposition on carbon electrodes i Prussian Blue deposition on conventional electrodes i peroxidase modified electrodes i other catalysts e.g. iron phthalocyanine

14 noble metal (Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh) deposition on carbon electrodes lack of selectivity - future????
A carbon electrode sputtered with palladium and gold for the amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. Gorton, L. Anal. Chim. Acta (1985), 178(2), Catalytic Materials, Membranes, and Fabrication Technologies Suitable for the Construction of Amperometric Biosensors. Newman, J. D.; White, S. F.; Tothill, I. E.; Turner, A. P. F. Anal. Chem. (1995), 67(24), Remarkably selective metalized-carbon amperometric biosensors. Wang, J; Lu, F; Angnes, L; Liu, J; Sakslund, H; Chen, Q; Pedrero, M; Chen, L; Hammerich, O. Anal. Chim. Acta (1995), 305(1-3), Electrochemical metalization of carbon electrodes. O'Connell, P. J.; O'Sullivan, C. K.; Guilbault, G. G. Anal. Chim. Acta (1998), 373(2-3),

15 deposition of Prussian Blue and related catalysts on conventional electrodes + selective electroreduction of H2O2 at around 0 mV vs. Ag|AgCl - lack of long term stability at pH > 7.5 Prussian Blue and its analogues: electrochemistry and analytical applications. Karyakin, A. A.. Electroanalysis (2001), 13(10), Metal-hexacyanoferrate films: A tool in analytical chemistry. de Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz; Gorton, Lo. Quimica Nova (2001), 24(2),

16 peroxidase modified electrodes of great bioelectrochemical interest practical applications???
Peroxidase-modified electrodes: fundamentals and application. Ruzgas, T; Csöregi, E; Emnéus, J; Gorton, L; Marko-Varga, G. Anal. Chim. Acta (1996), 330(2-3)

17 Advantages with coimmobilising H2O2 producing oxidases with peroxidases ¸ general approach for all H2O2 producing oxidases ¸ allows the oxidase to use its natural reoxidising agent (electron-proton acceptor), molecular oxygen (O2) › no competition between artificial mediator and O2 ¸ some oxidases have no or very low reaction rates with artificial mediators ¸ allows the use of an applied potential within the "optimal potential range" (≈ mV vs. SCE, pH 7) › less interfering reactions from complex matrices ¸ electron transfer between electrode and peroxidase can be either direct or mediated (control of response range and sensitivity)

18 Electron transfer in biosensors
First generation Second generation Third generation

19 Mediators in bioelectrochemistry 1 e- acceptor/donors vs
Mediators in bioelectrochemistry 1 e- acceptor/donors vs e--H+ acceptor/ donors

20 1 e- acceptor/donor. 2 e--H+ acceptor/donor +E°’ does not vary with pH
1 e- acceptor/donor e--H+ acceptor/donor +E°’ does not vary with pH -E°’ varies with pH no H+ participates H+ participate + no radical intermediates -radical intermediates stable redox reaction unstable redox reaction -low reaction rates with NADH + high reaction rates with NADH -moderate reaction rates with + high reaction rates peroxidases with peroxidases


22 Marcus equation The rate of electron transfer between two redox species is expressed by: thermodynamic driving force reorganisation energy distance


24 Example of an Os2+/3+-based redox polymer, A. Heller, J. Phys. Chem

25 formal potential (E°’) of mediator
formal potential (E°’) of mediator?????? mediators are ”general” electrocatalysts new Os2+/3+-polymer, E°’ ≈ mV vs. Ag|AgCl can it be further improved (i.e., lowered)? for E°’-values below 0 mV: risk for electrocatalytic reduction of O2

26 Which group(s) works best with mediators????

27 Dehydrogenases with bound cofactors are the ”best” to wire because: + bound cofactor (c.f. NAD dehydrogenase) + not oxygen dependent ( c.f. oxidase) but - not so many (yet) - often not so stable (c.f. GOx, HRP)

28 NAD-dependent dehydrogenase

29 Electrocatalytic oxidation of NAD(P)H on mediator- modified electrodes
Electrocatalytic oxidation of NAD(P)H on mediator- modified electrodes obstacles to solve to make electrochemical sensors based on these enzymes: 1. both NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H suffer from severe electrochemical irreversibility 2. enzyme depends on a soluble cofactor 3. the equilibrium of the reaction for most substrates favours the substrate NOT the product side NAD+ has a LOW oxidising power (E°'pH 7 = -560 mV vs. SCE)

30 Dehydrogenase with bound cofactor, e.g., glucose PQQ-dehydrogenase

31 Engineered new enzymes tailormade for biosensor applications
i GDH-PQQ membrane bound enzyme i PQQ loosely bound to the enzyme i Different GDH-PQQ have different selectivities i Different GDH-PQQ have different pH optima => through genetic engineering combine the ”best” properties of each of several GDH-PQQs and produce a new ”optimal” glucose oxidising enzyme

32 Bioengineered (new) enzymes Construction of multi-chimeric pyrroloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase with improved enzymatic properties and application in glucose monitoring. Yoshida, H; Iguchi, T; Sode, K. Biotechnology Letters (2000), 22(18), Secretion of water soluble pyrroloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase by recombinant Pichia pastoris. Yoshida, H; Araki, N; Tomisaka, A; Sode, K. Enzyme Microb. Technol. (2002), 30(3),

33 New electrode materials
Walcarius, Alain. Electrochemical Applications of Silica-Based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials. Chemistry of Materials (2001), 13(10), Walcarius, Alain. Electroanalysis with pure, chemically modified, and sol-gel-derived silica-based materials. Electroanalysis (2001), 13(8-9), Walcarius, Alain. Zeolite-modified electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry. Anal. Chim. Acta (1999), 384(1), 1-16. Walcarius, Alain. Analytical applications of silica-modified electrodes. A comprehensive review. Electroanalysis (1998),10(18),

34 Electron transfer in biosensors
First generation Second generation Third generation



37 L.-H. Guo and H. A. O. Hill, Adv. Inorg. Chem., 36 (1991) 341-373


39 Random adsorption/orientation on carbon < 100% of enzyme molecules in direct ET contact with the electrode

40 ordered orientation on thiol modified gold high % (≈ 100%) of enzyme molecules in DET contact with the electrode

41 Self-assembled monolayers as an orientation tool - Reconstitution
+ apo-HRP + hemin (and EDC) + diaminoalkane Formation of a mixed monolayer with suitable dilution of activated headgroups addition of diaminoalkanes coupling of hemin groups to the amino group by carbodiimide addition of apoHRP and reconstitution mixed SAM e.g., GOx, GDH-PQQ H. Zimmermann, A. Lindgren, W. Schuhmann, L. Gorton, Chem. Eur. J. 6 (2000)

42 Peroxidase Peroxidases are found in Cofactor  heme Plants Bacteria
Structure of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) C Peroxidases are found in Plants Bacteria Fungi Animal tissues Cofactor  heme The first is peroxidase which is a common enzyme in biotechnology, it is often used as an label in immunoassays and is also commonly used in biosensors. POD is found in ….. most common POD is HRP (this short will be used from now on), which structure is shown with glukans M. Gajhede,, Nature Structural Biology, 4 (1997) 1032.

43 Structural Models of Recombinant (left) and Native Glycosylated (right) Horseradish Peroxidase C
Hydrophobic residues are coloured in red and hydrophilic in blue

44 Structural Model of Recombinant Horseradish Peroxidase C with a His-tag located at either the C- or the N-terminus

45 ket and % in DET between HRP and electrode native HRP/graphite ≈ 2 s-1 (50% DET) rec HRP/graphite ≈ 8 s-1 (65%) rec HRP/gold ≈ 18 s-1 (60%) CHisrec HRP/gold ≈ 35 s-1 (75%) NHisrec HRP/gold ≈ 30 s-1 (65%)

46 Direct electron transfer
In the presence of enzyme substrate In the absence of enzyme substrate I want to specify that I will be distinguish between two ways of observing direct ET In the presence of substrate- electrocatalytic current In the absence of substrate observed as an redox-wave seen for fewer enzymes

47 Direct electron transfer of CDH
Cyclic voltammetry of CDH Electrocatalytic current Current/µA + 3.8 mM cellobiose pH 4.4, scanrate 50 mV/s Current/µA E°’=-41±3 mV This can be exemplified with CDH show a very nice redox wave of the enzyme in the absence of substrate and clear catalytic current by addition of substrate (starting at the potential of the redox wave) CDH trapped under a membrane at a gold electrode (modified with cystamine) in 50 mM Ac-buffer, pH 5.1. A. Lindgren, T. Larsson, T. Ruzgas, L. Gorton, J. Electroanal. Chem., 494 (2000)

48 Electrocatalysis at the CDH electrode
Electrocatalytic current was observed in the presence of the enzyme substrate, cellobiose. At high pH the internal ET is decreased Low pH High pH pH 3.6 pH 4.4 Current/µA pH 5.1 pH 6.0 Current/µA With 3.8 mM cellobiose, without cellobiose 50 mM Ac-buffer, scan rate 50 mV s-1.


Similar presentations

Ads by Google