Presentation on theme: "Enzymes What are enzymes?"— Presentation transcript:
1Enzymes What are enzymes? R Hardy 2007What are enzymes?Enzymes are biological catalysts that can change the rate of chemical reactions.
2Enzymes as organic catalysts The lowering of activation energy.Mechanism of enzyme action: lock and key hypothesis.The properties of enzymes.
3The lowering of activation energy Enzymes can accelerate reaction rate by lowering activation energy of the substrate. The amount of energy needs to bring one mole of a substance to the activated state at a given temperature termed activation energy.
4Characteristics of enzymes: protein in natureremain unchanged at the end of reactiondenatured by high temperaturework best at a particular pH mediumspecific in natureCatalytic function of enzymesSpecific active site of enzyme for specific substrate molecule to combine with.
5Examples of enzymatic reactions Sucrose + water glucose + fructoseFats + water fatty acids + glycerol
6Lock and key mechanism The substrate acts as ________. (lock / key) The enzyme acts as _________.Enzyme + Substrate [Enzyme-substrate-complex] Enzyme + Product
7Lock and key hypothesis The enzyme molecule has a specific region termed active site to combine with the substrate molecules, , substrate molecules which have a shape fitting the active site bind to the enzyme (seem a lock and key) in the enzyme-substrate complex. The substrate is activated and reactions occur readily between substrate molecules changing them into the product molecule which no longer fit into the active site and escape into the surrounded medium.
11TemperatureAt high temperature, heat can denature the protein structure of enzyme and then change the active site , hence it will prevent the substrate from binding on the enzyme and decrease the reaction rate.And the low temperature will curb the activity of the enzyme.
12Effect of temperature on the rate of an enzymatic reaction
13pH valueExtreme pH change can affect the ionic state of functional groups within the active site.
15Graph to show the effect of pH on the rate of reaction of four different enzymes 7
16Substrate concentrate Increasing the substrate concentration at the suitable enzyme concentration, the reaction rate will be increased because of more enzyme-substrate complex formed.Over the saturation point, further increasing the substrate concentration has no effect on the reaction rate.The merely way to increase the reaction rate in this time is to raise the enzyme concentration.
17The rate of reaction vs the substrate concentration
18Graph to show the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction
19Enzyme concentrationIncreasing the enzyme concentration at the suitable substrate concentration, the reaction rate will be increased because of more enzyme-substrate complex formed.Over the saturation point, further increasing the enzyme concentration has no effect on the reaction rate.The merely way to increase the reaction rate in this time is to raise the substrate concentration.
20Graph to show the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction
21Cofactor 1The non-protein component of an enzyme which present for enzyme activity.The enzyme-cofactor complex is termed holoenzyme.The enzyme portion without cofactor is termed apoenzyme.
22Cofactor 2The cofactors may be simple inorganic ions or complex organic molecules.The cofactors can keep unchanged or be regenerated at the end of the reaction.The are stable at relatively high temperature.There are several kinds of cofactors.
23The kinds of cofactorsEnzyme activator.Coenzyme.Prosthetic group.
25Enzyme activatorIt is an inorganic ion which certainly bound to an enzyme or an substrate to increase the chance to an enzyme-substrate complex forming.e.g. copper, iron, calcium etc.
26CoenzymeIt is an organic non-protein molecule firmly associated with the enzyme and is essential for enzyme activity.It acts a carrier for transferring chemical groups or atoms from one enzyme to another.Many coenzymes are synthesized from vitamins.e.g. ATP, NADP etc.
27Prosthetic groupIt is an organic non-protein group which is tightly bound to the enzyme.It is part of enzyme and is essential for enzyme function.It can act as carriers of atoms or electrons while transferring one compound to another in an overall metabolic pathway.e.g. FAD, biotin etc.
28InhibitorThey are substances interact with an enzyme and lead to a loss in a catalytic activity of enzyme.There are reversible inhibitor and irreversible inhibitor.
30Reversible inhibitorThe activity of enzyme is restored when the inhibitor is removed.There are including competitive inhibitors and non-competitive inhibitors.
31Types of inhibitors Competitive inhibitors: compete with the substrate for the active sites of enzyme moleculesNon-competitive inhibitors:example: cyanide is a respiratory inhibitorthey attach to the enzyme and alter its shape so that the active site no longer fits the substrate
32Competitive inhibitors Substance with a similar molecular structure as the substrate, competing with the substrate for the active site on the enzyme.The degree of inhibition rely on the relative concentration of substrate and inhibitor.Competitive inhibition can be overcome by increasing the concentration of substrate due to more chance to react the active site.
36Irreversible inhibitor The inhibitor permanently attaches to the active site excluding the substrate molecule.The degree of inhibition depends completely on the inhibitor concentration and cannot be reversed by increasing substrate concentration.
37The biological importance of inhibitors They can affect the catalytic function of enzymes.They can be the end product in some metabolic pathways.