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Is There “Room in it”? A Symbiotic Journey Inside The Cow By Jackie Garfield & Matt Micari.

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Presentation on theme: "Is There “Room in it”? A Symbiotic Journey Inside The Cow By Jackie Garfield & Matt Micari."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Is There “Room in it”? A Symbiotic Journey Inside The Cow By Jackie Garfield & Matt Micari

3 In the next 20 minutes, we’ll… Define Ruminant Examine digestive system of cattle Discuss the symbionts Describe the new metabolism Explain how Infection occurs

4 What is a Ruminant? Ruminant: (n.) any of the various cud-chewing mammals having a stomach divided into four compartments. Cows, sheep, moose, goats, antelope, and camels

5 Follow the food…

6 The Reticulum… Has thick walls and is puncture resistant Acts as a sieve Food is separated into layers of liquid and solid material The solids, known as cud, are regurgitated, rechewed, & reswallowed 500 times/day

7 The Rumen A Fermentation Vat Volume: L Temp: º C pH: 6.4 to 7.2

8 Rumen Microflora Unlike other symbioses, the focus is not the specificity but the variety of microbial symbionts

9 Rumen Bacteria All three types of bacteria - Cocci, Rod, & Spirllia - are present Use cellulose, hemi-cellulose, starch, sugars, intermediate acids, proteins, and lipids. They regulate overall fermentation by reducing CO 2 with H 2 gas to form methane. Attachment of rumen bacteria on rice

10 Protozoa Ingest bacteria for their protein source Control bacteria numbers in the rumen Genera of Protists Eu Eudiplodinium Ep Epidinium En Entodinium D Daystrichia O Ostracodinium El Enoplastron.

11 Rumen Fungi Degrade cellulose and xylans Aid in fiber digestion Anaeromyces

12 New Metabolism of the Ruminant Almost all glucose produced by breaking down cellulose is used by the symbiotic bacteria. Ruminants get their energy from the volatile fatty acids produced by bacteria: acetate, propionate & butyrate.

13 Interconnected environments Contents in the rumen are not homogenous New and old material are pushed by muscular contractions & settle in the different layers

14 Microbial Environments

15 Liquid Phase Free living microbes feed on soluble carbohydrates and protein 25% of microbial mass

16 Solid Phase Microbes digest insoluble polysaccharides like starch and fiber Microbes digest insoluble polysaccharides like starch and fiber 70% of microbial mass 70% of microbial mass

17 Microbial Attachment Microbes attach to rumen epithelial cells or protozoa Microbes attach to rumen epithelial cells or protozoa Ensures consistant population numbers Ensures consistant population numbers 5% of microbial mass 5% of microbial mass Bacterial attachment to the bovine rumen epithelium

18 The Omasum Only small particles of food pass into the omasum Only small particles of food pass into the omasum Also called the Butcher’s Bible Also called the Butcher’s Bible Contains many folds to increase the surface area Contains many folds to increase the surface area Water, electrolytes & more VFA’s are absorbed Water, electrolytes & more VFA’s are absorbed

19 The Abomasum The true stomach The true stomach Walls of the stomach secrete enzymes & HCl Walls of the stomach secrete enzymes & HCl pH around 2.5 pH around 2.5 Proteins from microbes and remaining feed are broken down Proteins from microbes and remaining feed are broken down

20 The Final Journey To the small and large intestines To the small and large intestines and beyond…… and beyond……

21 The next generation…. Does not have a developed rumen Becomes infected with microbes from drinking from udders of mother and grooming Rumen develops due to microbe activity as diet changes

22 In Review What are VFA’s and why are they important to the ruminant? What are VFA’s and why are they important to the ruminant? Name 2 ruminants. Name 2 ruminants. What are the four compartments of the ruminant stomach? What are the four compartments of the ruminant stomach? Antelopes, goats, sheep, camels, & moose Antelopes, goats, sheep, camels, & moose Reticulum, Rumen, Omasum, & Abomasum Volatile fatty acids / Energy source for cow

23 The End

24 Works Cited 29 Oct Oct "Cow Rumen." Microbe Zoo: Animal Pavilion. Michigan State University. 05 Oct "Cow Rumen." Microbe Zoo: Animal Pavilion. Michigan State University. 05 Oct Fincannon, Karen. Folk Sheep. Art Works. 29 Oct Fincannon, Karen. Folk Sheep. Art Works. 29 Oct "Focus on Milk: Rumen management is just as crucial at grazing." CMP Information Ltd Farmers Gardian 29 Apr. 2005: 82. Lexis Nexis. Boston University Mugar Library, Boston. 05 Oct Keyword: rumen microflora. "Focus on Milk: Rumen management is just as crucial at grazing." CMP Information Ltd Farmers Gardian 29 Apr. 2005: 82. Lexis Nexis. Boston University Mugar Library, Boston. 05 Oct Keyword: rumen microflora. Frankenberg, C., J. F. Meirink, M. Van Weele, U. Platt, and T. Wagner. "Assessing Methane Emissions from Global Space-Borne Observations." Science 308 (2005): Oct Frankenberg, C., J. F. Meirink, M. Van Weele, U. Platt, and T. Wagner. "Assessing Methane Emissions from Global Space-Borne Observations." Science 308 (2005): Oct Hooper, Lora V., Melissa H. Wong, Anders Thelin, Lennart Hansson, Per G. Falk, and Jeffrey I. Gordon. "Molecular Analysis of Commensal Host-Microbial Relationships in the Intestine." Science 291 (2001): Oct Hooper, Lora V., Melissa H. Wong, Anders Thelin, Lennart Hansson, Per G. Falk, and Jeffrey I. Gordon. "Molecular Analysis of Commensal Host-Microbial Relationships in the Intestine." Science 291 (2001): Oct

25 Ishler, Virginia, Jud Heinrichs, and Gabriella Varga, comps. "From Feed to Milk: Understanding Rumen Funtion." McGill University. 05 Oct Ishler, Virginia, Jud Heinrichs, and Gabriella Varga, comps. "From Feed to Milk: Understanding Rumen Funtion." McGill University. 05 Oct Khalil, Mohammad. Omasum. 29 Oct Khalil, Mohammad. Omasum. 29 Oct Ed Mackie, Roderick I., and Bryan A. White. Gastrointestinal Microbiology. Chapman and Hall: New York Ch 3, 10, & 11. Ed Mackie, Roderick I., and Bryan A. White. Gastrointestinal Microbiology. Chapman and Hall: New York Ch 3, 10, & 11. McNaught, Megan. "First weeks are critical." Nationwide News Pty Limited Weekly Times (Australia) 27 July 2005, sec. Dairy: 105. Lexis Nexis. Boston University Mugar Library, Boston. 05 Oct Keyword: rumen microflora. McNaught, Megan. "First weeks are critical." Nationwide News Pty Limited Weekly Times (Australia) 27 July 2005, sec. Dairy: 105. Lexis Nexis. Boston University Mugar Library, Boston. 05 Oct Keyword: rumen microflora. Pigden, W. J., and F. Bender. "Utilization of lignocellulose by ruminants." World Animal Review (1978). 05 Oct Pigden, W. J., and F. Bender. "Utilization of lignocellulose by ruminants." World Animal Review (1978). 05 Oct Russell, James B., and Jennifer L. Rychlik. "Factors that Alter Rumen Microbial Ecology." Science 292 (2001): Oct Russell, James B., and Jennifer L. Rychlik. "Factors that Alter Rumen Microbial Ecology." Science 292 (2001): Oct Stallings, Charles C. "Rumen Degradable Protein (RDP)." Virginia Cooperative Extension: Knowledge for the Commonwealth. Jan Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 05 Oct Stallings, Charles C. "Rumen Degradable Protein (RDP)." Virginia Cooperative Extension: Knowledge for the Commonwealth. Jan Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 05 Oct Yokoyama, Mel. Numbers of Different Rumen Microbes. Microbe Zoo. 05 Oct Yokoyama, Mel. Numbers of Different Rumen Microbes. Microbe Zoo. 05 Oct


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