Presentation on theme: "The Netherlands: The “Low Country” 17c: The “Dutch” Century It was a political Republic: no monarchy. A radical attitude towards religion in the country."— Presentation transcript:
The Netherlands: The “Low Country”
17c: The “Dutch” Century It was a political Republic: no monarchy. A radical attitude towards religion in the country. A certain level of religious toleration. Stable, thriving economy. “Golden Age” of artists and thinkers. Religion and everyday life were recurring themes in their art.
The Netherlands (1609)
Political Independence Each of the 7 Dutch provinces was politically independent. The Dutch were not governed by an absolute ruler. Political power passed into the hands of wealth merchants.
Political Independence Each province elected a stadtholder (governor) and military leader. During times of crisis, all seven provinces would elect the same stadtholder, usually from the House of Orange.
The Dutch Federation REGENTS - provincial level - held virtually all the power - strong advocates of local independence STADTHOLDER - States General representative from each province - responsible for defense and order STATES GENERAL - federal assembly - foreign affairs (war) - all issues had to be referred to the local Estates
Dutch Royal Palace, Amsterdam 1648-1665
Religious Toleration Calvinism was the dominant religion. Lutherans, Anabaptists, Catholics, and Jews all enjoyed religious freedom. Religious toleration helped create a cosmopolitan society tat promoted commerce.
Dutch Society Cities of Amsterdam & Rotterdam: granaries with enough surplus for one year. Generally higher salaries than in any other parts of W. Europe. Even women had higher wages. “Protestant work ethic.” Thrift and frugality. Had the highest standard of living in Europe!
The Dutch Economy Dried fish and grains were important. Exported diamonds, linens, pottery, spices, and flowers (tulips). Not much inflation. Great Dutch land reclamation project was accelerated during this time. Masters of the “carrying trade” (lowest shipping rates in Europe).
The Dutch Economy Dutch Republic was Europe’s leading commercial power during most of the 17 th century. Amsterdam remained Europe’s financial center until the French Revolution- 1789. The Dutch fleet of 10,000 ships was the largest in the world. Played a key role in the Dutch economy.
The Dutch Economy As trade shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, Dutch replaced Italians as the bankers of Europe. Dutch East India Company displaced the Portuguese and gained control of the spice trade in the East Indies.
17c Dutch Global Commerce
Dutch East India Company, 1602
Dutch West India Company, 1621 Netherland Antilles
Fort Orange (Albany, NY) in New Netherlands
New Amsterdam (NYC) Settled in 1624. Official Flag of the NYC Seal of the City of NY. Official Flag of the NYC Seal of the City of NY.
Dutch East India Ship, mid- 17c
Return of the Dutch East India Fleet, 1599
Dutch Delftware English Delftware
18c Delftware Tobacco Jars
Economic Decline Costly with England and France damaged the Dutch Republic England and France became the dominant European powers William of Orange, strong Dutch Stadtholder, becomes King in England as a result of the Glorious Revolution.
Anglo-Dutch Wars First Anglo-Dutch War: 1660-1665 Second Anglo-Dutch War: 1665-1667 Third Anglo-Dutch War: 1674-1678 King William III Queen Mary II ascend the throne of England in 1689 after the Glorious Revolution. King William III Queen Mary II ascend the throne of England in 1689 after the Glorious Revolution.
Dutch Art Artists focused on painting individual and group portraits, landscapes, and scenes of every day life. Rembrandt and Vermeer were the greatest artists of this time period.
The Night Watch – Rembrandt, 1642
Anatomy Lecture of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp – Rembrandt, 1632
(detail) Anatomy Lecture of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp – Rembrandt, 1632
Portrait of an Old Jewish Man Rembrandt, 1654
Sampling Officials of the Drapers Guild – Rembrandt - 1662
The Leiden Baker & His Wife Jan Steen
The Lace Maker Nicolaes Maes
A Young Woman with a Water Jug - Jan Vermeer, 1662
Girl with a Pearl Earring Jan Vermeer, 1665
The Lace Maker Jan Vermeer, 1669-1670
A Woman Holding a Balance Jan Vermeer, 1662
The Astronomer Jan Vermeer, 1668
The Geographer Jan Vermeer, 1668-1669
Girl Reading a Letter with the Window Open - Jan Vermeer, 1657