Presentation on theme: "Absolute Monarchies in Europe"— Presentation transcript:
1Absolute Monarchies in Europe Chapter 21World History
2BIG IDEADuring a time of religious and economic instability, Philip II ruled Spain with a strong hand.
3Charles V A king from the Hapsburg family of Austria He ruled a huge amount of land in Europe and the Americas:Spain and their Colonial EmpireParts of ItalyLands in AustriaAnd the NetherlandsHe was elected Holy Roman Emperor and ran most of Germany
4Charles V… Retires?After agreeing to the Peace of Augsburg, which stopped the 30 years war, he retiredHe split his lands:To his brother Ferdinand he gave Austria and the Holy Roman EmpireTo his son, Philip II, he gave Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italian lands, and the Spanish American Colonies.
6Philip II’s World Empire …but wait! There’s more!!!
7Philip Seizes Portugal Philip above being religious and deeply suspicious, was very aggressive to add more land to his EmpireIn 1580, the king of Portugal diesBecause Philip was the king’s nephew, he seizes the Portuguese throne, land, and colonial empire.
9Philip’s Empire Brings Gold Philip ‘s Empire brought him incredible wealth:By 1600, Spanish mines in the New World supplied Spain with 339,000 pounds of GoldFrom , the Spanish mined 16,000 tons of silverThe “Royal Share” of each shipload was 1/4th to 1/5th
10Philip as the Defender of Catholicism Philip being deeply loyal to the Catholic Church refused to let Protestantism into his empireHe fights a war against the Ottoman Empire for the PopeHe was also the king that launched the Spanish Armada against Elizabeth I of England.
11“Golden Age” of SpainEven though Philip was busy fighting wars in Europe, Spain enjoyed a Golden Age in Art and Literature as well…Artists such as El Greco and Velazquez painted fantastic portraits and scenes in brilliant colors with lifelike featuresThe literary masterpiece of “Don Quixote” was written by Miguel de Cervantes was written in this era as well
12El GrecoEl Greco was born in Crete, but lived in Spain for much of his adult life, specifically in Toledo, Spain
13Diego VelazquezVelazquez was the official court painter of the royal family, but often painted his self portrait and scenes of everyday life as well.
14Miguel de Cervantes Cervantes wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha This was a book about a poor noble who goes crazy after reading too many books on historic knightsSome critics contend Cervantes was making fun of chivalry, others say Don Quixote is about frustration in a materialistic world.
15The Spanish Empire Weakens Too much gold meant Spain endured severe inflationInflation is when the value of money declines while the price of goods and services risesSpain’s inflation was caused by two reasons: gold and silver’s value was low and merchants raises prices
16The Spanish Empire Weakens Other reasons for Spain’s decline:Guilds still ran Spain’s craft industrySpanish Merchants traded with French, English, and Dutch craftsmen rather then Spain’sSpanish nobles did not have to pay taxesA Spanish middle class never developsSpanish kings borrowed money from German and Italian banks to fight wars, where even Philip II had to declare Spain was “bankrupt” 3 times!
17Trouble in the Netherlands In the “Spanish Netherlands” Philip needed to keep an army to control the DutchThe main issue was Spain was Catholic and the Dutch were protestant
18The Foundation of the Netherlands After 11 years of fighting, the 7 northern provinces became the “United Provinces of the Netherlands”The 10 Southern provinces stayed with Spain and later became modern-day Belgium.
19The Independent Dutch Prosper The United Provinces of the Netherlands were a very different country in Europe:They practiced religious toleration (Even the Pilgrims came there before Massachusetts)They were not a kingdom but a republicEach province elected a governorThey began a golden age of art and trading after they left Spain
20Dutch ArtThe Netherlands become the 1600’s version of Florence during the Renaissance.Artists such as Rembrandt van Rijn and Jan Vermeer painted subjects from kings to every day people using:Brilliant colorsTechniquesAnd the use of light and dark shadowing.
21Dutch Trading EmpireThe stability of the government of the Netherlands meant the Dutch people could focus on economic growthFor example: the Dutch found ways to make incredible profits on even farm goods items such as grain and tulip bulbs.The Dutch build the largest fleet of ships in the world, 4,800 ships by 1636.These ships helped the Dutch East India Company dominate the spice trade, and thus replacing Italians as the bankers of Europe.
22Absolutism in EuropeLike Philip II of Spain, all European kings and queens of this era strived to be Absolute Monarchs.Absolute Monarchs were kings and queens who held ALL of the power within their states’ boundariesAbsolute monarchs also believed in Divine Right which was the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch was God’s representative on earth.
23Absolutism in the Past… Augustus CaesarRamses IIGenghis Khan
24Absolutism in the Age of Absolutism Philip II of SpainLouis XIV of FranceFrederick II (The Great) of Prussia
25Growing Power of European Monarchs The power Monarchs of Europe grew in this for the following reasons:The decline of Feudalism and growth of citiesThe growing middle class supported monarchs because they promised peace which was helpful for businessThe wealth of the colonies paid for monarchs’ ambitionsChurch authority broke down because of the ReformationCrises in Europe…
26Crises Leads to Absolutism The 1600’s was a period of great upheavalContinuous warfare over land and territory in EuropeThis warfare meant armies needed to be builtThese Armies meant more taxesThese taxes meant unrest and even, sometimes, revolt!The 1700’s meant monarchs would impose their ruleSome regulated religious worship and social gatheringsSome created new government agencies to control the economyMost wanted to gain more power away from their people’s government such as parliamentAll of these monarchs strived to live like Louis XIV of France