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The British Colonial System in the 18th Century

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1 The British Colonial System in the 18th Century
Predicting the sources of conflict between the colonists and the Crown

2 1. Internal Economy of England:
based on idea that capitalism leads to avaricious and degenerate behavior Control through monopoly and price fixing Nature of the English/colonial Economy 2. External Economy of England Mercantilism

3 Mercantilism Prevalent theory in the 16th-18th Centuries
Wealth is power National wealth depends on gold and silver.

4 Exports are better than imports
(Favorable Balance of Trade) Colonies existed to supply raw materials to the Mother Country

5 Mercantilism (con.) You then pass laws that prevent the colonists from producing certain finished goods. Questions: How does a favorable balance of trade favor the Mother Country? From the American viewpoint, what are the incentives and disincentives of Mercantilism?

6 What laws did England pass?
Navigation Acts These acts said that only British or American ships could transport goods All goods coming to America had to pass through a British Port first. WHY? Control of Industries Woolen Act of 1699 Hat Act of 1733 Iron Act of 1750

7 Effects of Mercantilism
Positive N.E Shipbuilding prospered Chesapeake tobacco had monopoly in Eng. English military forces protected colonies from potential Spanish and French attacks Negative Colonial manufacturing was limited Chesapeake farmers received low prices for their crops Colonists had to pay high prices for manufactured goods from England

8 Did the colonists always follow the Navigation Acts?
--of course not, we are Americans!!!! --did England care? NO! Why? Salutary Neglect Before the 1760s: Gains from the Navigation Acts > Costs of Salutary Neglect After 1760, the costs go up greatly – England tries to establish a monopoly over Colonial trade, but the colonies want to continue trading with other countries Before 1775 Loyalists > Patriots

9 British Political Controls
The key event is the Glorious Revolution of 1688

10 The Glorious Revolution
Change from an Absolute Monarchy to a Constitutional Monarchy Ended the Divine right of Kings which says_______ What role would Parliament have? What role would the people have?

11 Constitutional Monarchy says that the power of the Ruler is limited by
Law Parliament Ultimately than by the PEOPLE Government depends on the consent of the People Why would this be a revolutionary concept?

12 Glorious Revolution Impact
Parliament makes the law No standing army Regular elections and meetings of Parliament Yearly taxes, not at the whim of the Crown War only by the consent of parliament

13 Glorious Revolution Impact on the Colonies
America applied the ideas of the Revolution to their situation (greater impact than in England) Colonial assemblies sought to limit the authority the crown had over them They also asserted control over: taxes, appointment of local officials and setting the governor’s salary Principle of colonial autonomy is established—will eventually be a rallying cry

14 Comparing the Two British System Patronage Limited franchise Representation unrelated to population Virtual Representation North American System No patronage Unlimited franchise Representation related to population Actual Representation In what areas do you foresee problems between the colonists and the Crown?

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