2Segregation of chromosomes during meiosis causes predictable patterns of inheritance. REVIEW: During Meiosis, segregation of maternal and paternal chromosomes is random.Because segregation of chromosomes is random, inheritance of single genes follows the rules of probability.
3Simple Example: Single celled eukaryote with diploid number 2. One homologous pair of chromosomesGene for Protein X.There are two variants of protein X (small differences in the DNA coding for protein X)One variant is functional (X+)The other variant is non-functional (X-)If an individual has both alleles it will express the functional protein.X-X+
4Crossing individuals with different genotypes: Parent one is homozygous for the functional alleleThis is how we denote the genotype of parent one :X+X+Parent two is homozygous for the non-functional allele: X-X-
5First: predict the possible gametes that each individual will produce Meiosis produces haploid gametes.Parent One Parent TwoX-X-X+X+X+X-
6What are the possible genotypes of the offspring produced by parent one and two? Fertilization:Genotype of offspring: X+X-Phenotype of offspring: All will express functional protein X
7What if two heterozygotes are crossed? What are the possible gametes that can be produced by a heterozygous individual?X+ or X- X+ or X-
8Fertilization Possible offspring genotypes: X+X+, X+X-, X+X-, X-X- Parent 1 gametesParent 2 gametesX+X-X+X-Possible offspring genotypes: X+X+, X+X-, X+X-, X-X-What are the proportions of each phenotype?¾ or 75% will express the functional protein¼ or 25% will express the non-functional protein
9Gregor Mendel observed these patterns when he performed test crosses with Pea Plants. Mendel was able to discover some important features of inheritance- not knowing about DNA, chromosomes, or meiosisHOW?He used mathematical analysis to show that inheritance patterns followed rules of probability.He deduced features of chromosomal and genetic inheritance using the proportions he observed
10Lived from 1822 to 1884“In this generation, along with the dominating traits, the recessive ones also reappear, their individuality fully revealed, and they do so in the decisively expressed average proportion of 3:1, so that among each four plants of this generation three receive the dominating one and one the recessive characteristic.”
11Significant and enduring understanding from Mendel’s work Traits are inherited as discrete units “genes”Traits are not blended; genes remain distinct unitsMendel's Law of SegregationMendel’s Law of Independent Assortment
12Mendel’s Law of Segregation: Individuals have two of each geneIndividuals pass only version of each gene to their offspringWhat is the basis for this law in terms of chromosomes and the process of Meiosis?Most Eukaryotes are Diploid; they have a pair of homologous chromosomes with the same genes on them.Meiosis produces haploid gametes with one of each type of chromosome.
13Mendel discovered the Law of Independent assortment by studying inheritance patterns of dihybrid crosses. -Patterns of inheritance of two separate single gene traits.
14Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment: Genes assort independentlyFor genes located on different chromosomes: the inheritance of one gene does not influence the inheritance of another gene.What is the basis for this law in terms of chromosomes and the process of meiosis?
15Basic Rules of Probability For two independent events (a and b), the probability that two events will occur at the same time is:The and rule:Probability of a and b= P(a) x P (b)The probability of a or b (exclusive) occurring is:The or ruleProbability of a or b = P(a) + P(b)
16Rules of probability can be applied to analyze the passage of single genes traits from parent to offspringWhat is the probability of a heterozygous individual (genotype Aa) producing a gamete with the A allele?What is the probability of a heterozygous individual (Aa) producing a gamete with A or a alleles?
17More application of probability What is the probability of two heterozygous individuals (Aa) producing offspring with the genotype aa?
18What is the probability of a homozygous recessive and heterozygote producing offspring with the dominant phenotype
19Two gene inheritance and probability Use the probability rules to predict the outcome of inheritance of two genes located on different chromosomes.Parents: YyGg x YyGgWhat are the possible offspring genotypes and phenotypesWhat will be the proportion of each genotype and phenotype?
20What were the genotypes of the parents? A scientist crossed two parents with unknown genotypes and observed the following phenotypes in the offspring:75 white flowers225 Purple flowersWhich trait is dominant, which trait is recessive?What were the genotypes of the parents?
21What was the genotype and phenotype of the parents? Two parents of unknown genotype were crossed. The following phenotypes were observed:30 Yellow and Wrinkled seed coat10 Green and Wrinkled seed coat90 Yellow and Round seed coat30 Green and Round seed coat
22Sex linked traits are traits that are inherited via the X or Y chromosome. Sexual dimorphism: characteristic that differ between genders.Example: In placental mammals and marsupials the SRY gene determines development of testes.SRY is located on the Y chromosomeThe SRY gene codes for a transcription factor that binds Regulatory DNA and influences what proteins the cells will makeIf SRY gene is non functional, XY Female develops (Swyer Syndrome)Translocation of the SRY gene to the X chromosome (due to incorrect crossing over event between X and Y) causes XX male to develop.
23Sex-linked inheritance patters Example: hemophilia is an X linked recessive disorderConventions:XH (normal functional allele)Xh (non functional allele –causes hemophilia)The following parents are expecting a daughter: XHXh and XHY. What is the probability that she will have hemophilia?If the same couple is expecting a son, what is the probability he will have hemophilia?
24Gene linkageGenes on different chromosomes follow the rules of segregation and independent assortment.Genes located on the same chromosome tend to assort together to a certain extent.The closer two genes are on the same chromosome, the more likely they will be inherited together.This is called gene linkage
25Data of parent and offspring inheritance can be used to predict whether genes are linked. Possibilities: monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, sex-linked trait, genes linked on same homolgous chromosome.
26Monohybrid crossDihybrid crossSex-linked traitsLinked genesGenetic diseasesPredict the pattern of inheritance based on parent and offspring genotype and phenotype