Presentation on theme: "I. I.Monohybrid Crosses A. A.Simple cross Cross two individuals with different alleles at a particular locus Individual may have one or two copies of allele."— Presentation transcript:
I. I.Monohybrid Crosses A. A.Simple cross Cross two individuals with different alleles at a particular locus Individual may have one or two copies of allele Both copies identical = homozygous Different copies = heterozygous One allele may be dominant, the other recessive
I. I.Monohybrid Crosses B. B.Testcross Individual with known phenotype but unknown genotype Ex: Pea with purple flowers – homozygous or heterozygous? Cross with known homozygous recessive
II. II.Dihybrid Crosses Cross two individuals with different alleles at two loci If alleles at different loci on non-homologous chromosomes, traits should assort independently
Fig Why not exactly 9:3:3:1?
II. II.Dihybrid Crosses Law of Independent Assortment Pairs of alleles segregate independently of other pairs of alleles during gamete formation Understanding principles of inheritance permits prediction of cross outcomes
III. III.Probability A. A.Product Rule Predicts combined probability of independent events Probability of multiple independent events all occurring is product of probabilities for each B. B.Sum Rule Predicts combined probability of mutually exclusive events Probability of multiple exclusive events all occurring is sum of probabilities for each
III. III.Probability C. C.Examples Eye color in humans determined by one gene with two alleles – B (Brown) & b (blue) Two parents with brown eyes are heterozygous for eye color (Bb) Four children 1. 1.Probability of a child having blue eyes? 2. 2.Probability of child #4 having blue eyes? 3. 3.Probability of all four children having blue eyes? 4. 4.Probability of at least one child having blue eyes?
II. II.Inheritance Relationship between genotype and phenotype may be simple or complex 1) 1)Single pair of alleles may regulate single trait 2) 2)Single pair of alleles may regulate multiple traits 3) 3)Multiple alleles collectively may regulate single trait 4) 4)Multiple alleles collectively may regulate multiple traits Phenotype also may be influenced by environment A. A.Complete Dominance B. B.Codominance Both alleles expressed independently Ex: Reddish-coated stallion x white-coated mare Roan C. C.Incomplete Dominance Intermediate phenotype
IV. IV.Inheritance D. D.Multiple Alleles Single individual has two alleles for each locus Population may contain more than two alleles at a locus Three+ alleles at a locus = multiple alleles Ex: Blood type (three alleles) – I A, I B, i
IV. IV.Inheritance E. E.Pleiotropy Single gene may affect multiple traits Single gene products may affect many cells or cell types in different ways Ex: Cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease F. F.Epistasis Presence of certain alleles at one locus can alter expression of alleles at different locus Ex: Coat color in dogs Color regulated by one allele pair (B = Black, b = brown) Second allele pair (E = active, e = inactive) regulates deposition of color in hair EE and Ee dogs are pigmented, ee dogs are yellow Gene for pigment deposition is epistatic to gene that codes for Black or brown pigment