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Geographic Information Systems for Business Applications Brian E. Mennecke Iowa State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Geographic Information Systems for Business Applications Brian E. Mennecke Iowa State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geographic Information Systems for Business Applications Brian E. Mennecke Iowa State University

2 "If you will have a young man to put his travel into a little room, and in short time to gather much, this you must do;... let him carry with him also some map or book describing the country where he travelleth, which will be a good key to his inquiry..." (Sir Frances Bacon, Essay #18, Of Travel, 1625).

3 What is a GIS A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based information system that provides tools to collect, integrate, manage, analyze, model, and display data that is referenced to an accurate cartographic representation of objects in space. (Mennecke, Dangermond, Santoro, Darling, & Crossland, 1995).

4 The Objectives for this Presentation For you to –understand what a GIS is and what it can do; –understand how a GIS can be used to analyze and interpret data so that YOU can identify applications for this technology; –understand the underlying cartographic principles that make a GIS work; and –understand issues associated with locating, preparing, and importing map and attribute data.

5 Cartographic Terminology and Principles Types of Maps GIS Data Layering Coordinates Projections Scale

6 Types of GIS Data Attribute Data –Stored in dBase Tables (e.g., *.DBF ) Map Data –Stored in Shape files (e.g., *.SHP) Areas Lines Points

7 Types of Maps A Range-Filled Thematic Map

8 Types of Maps A Dot Density Thematic Map

9 Types of Maps A Bivariate Thematic Map

10 GIS Layers Data

11 Coordinates The Cartesian coordinate system

12 Coordinates The Cartegraphic System for the Earth –Lines of Latitude (running east-west; app. 69 miles ) –Lines of Longitude (running north-south)

13 Projections Projections are methods by which features on a sphere (the earth) can be represented on a flat surface (a paper map)

14 Types of Projections The Robinson Projection

15 Types of Projections The Mercatur Projection

16 Types of Projections The Albers Conformal Projection

17 What About Scale? Scale is the ratio of the distances of objects represented on the map to the actual distances of these objects on the earth’s surface

18 Small Scale Maps Smaller scale maps represent the map objects with a larger ratio (1:250,000)

19 Large Scale Maps Large scale maps represent the map objects with a smaller ratio (e.g., 1:10,000)

20 GIS: Start to Finish Step 1: Define Your Objectives Step 2: Acquire the Required Data Step 3: Preprocess Data Step 4: Data Management and Analysis Step 5: Generate Output

21 Defining Your Objectives Identify who your user is Identify her needs Defines goals and objectives based on user needs

22 Acquire the Required Data Acquire Attribute Data –In house –From Vendors Acquire Map Data –In House Digitize Maps Create Maps using GPS –From Vendors –Census data (e.g., Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing or TIGER Files)

23 What is TIGER? Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System TIGER Content –Streets and their names –Lakes, streams, and their names –Railroads –Geographic entity boundaries and names (governments, census tracts, census blocks, etc.) –Housing unit locations –Key geographic locations (airports, schools, etc.) –ZIP Codes and address ranges for city-style addresses

24 The Digitizing Process A GPS System

25 Preprocess Data Import Data –For example, TIGER line files may need to be converted into TIGER Boundary Files –Data from a spreadsheet needs to be imported into ArcView’s table format Correct Errors Build Custom Areas/Features Geocode Data

26 Data Management and Analysis Manage the Data –Work with table elements –Consider the data in light of the organizational data schema –Consult with other users Analyze the Data –Redefine existing features –Examine relationships

27 Generate Output Print paper maps Export map images to other applications Export map or table data to other data management applications Build interactive web maps

28 GIS Software Vendors Environmental Systems Research Institute (ArcGIS)ArcGIS InterGraph Corporation (GeoMedia)GeoMedia MapInfo Corporation (MapInfo)MapInfo Microsoft (MapPoint2004)MapPoint2004

29 GIS Applications Map Creation Report Preparation Facilities Management Analysis of Employer/Employee Demographics Transportation Issues Strategic Planning Decision Making

30 Location Based Services Location-based services incorporate information about the user's location into the provision of products or services. These include… –Locator services (e.g., where’s the closest ATM?) –Navigation systems (e.g., in the car or on your PC) –M-commerce applications (e.g., proximity alerts, closest service, mobile advertizing)

31 So, Why Use SL for Education? Theoretical and Practical Considerations –A spatial domain Space as an organizing principal Spatial exploration Build and design objects and actions –The domain of the Avatar Interactions with avatars create a rich communication and collaborative experience Avatars and the extended self

32 A Look Ahead 3-D Content is everywhere –Millsberry, Webkinz, Clubpenguin, VMK, and other kid-focused MUVEs abound Richer, natural forms of collaboration in 3-D spaces are coming –Google StreetviewStreetview

33 Potential GIS Benefits Improved Decision Making Reduced Errors Reduced Risks Improved Management and Control Improved Service to Clients

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