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Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Lecture 18: Data Input: Geocoding and Digitizing By Austin Troy University of Vermont NR 143
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 1.Geocoding
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 What is Geocoding? Convert lists/spreadsheets to geographical features Needs a mechanism to calculate the geographic coordinate for the address Address matching: uses street address database, created from a streets layer.
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Address Matching Geocoding Two inputs: –1) a DBF or text table with the address records to be geocoded and –2) a geographic reference layer, like streets Output: a point file, where each point represents an address record
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 How are addresses matched? Common method: matching address to street ranges. Urban areas: usually each street segment (arc) corresponds to a block. Each segment has attributes for the left from and to and right from and to addresses. Computer knows topological left and right for each street segment Step 1: Computer looks for segment with correct name and address range Step 2: Computer interpolates the position of the address point on segment
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding example: 1060 Main Street Point is placed on even (upper) side of street Position of 1060 is interpolated Main St 1000 1100 10011101 L-F-ADDR L-T-ADDR R-F-ADDR R-T-ADDR It looks for Main street, then for the 1000-1100 block direction 1060 Main St
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 First create an address locator in ArcCatalog Defines reference layer Also where you specify information about your reference layer that ArcGIS might not know, allowing for more efficient geocoding Many “styles” to choose from in for address locators Address Matching in ArcGIS
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding Service Geocoding styles are necessary because –Reference layers come in many forms and formats. For instance, a reference layer may have the from right address attribute as fr_rt_add or add_rt_frm) –There are other types of geocoding, besides address geocoding, like geocoding points to the center of zip codes, and there are other types of address geocoding besides street address geocoding, like using a property parcel layer as reference.
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding in ArcGIS In geocoding style interface: choose your reference file and then specify which attributes in the reference layer correspond with the inputs that ArcGIS needs to do geocoding. It also asks for some information about what to expect in your geocoding table (what the required attribute headings are called) and how sensitive to be to things like spelling differences
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Specify reference file Specify address range attributes Specify rules for address list Specify zone
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding in ArcGIS Now, in Arc Map we go to Tools>>Geocode Addresses and we add the geocoding service we want to use This brings up the geocoding interface where we specify which field holds the address and which holds the zone Also specify an output shapefile or geodatabase and geocoding sensitivity
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding in ArcGIS After geocoding, it reports how many were successfully matched and how many were either totally unmatchable or potentially matchable We can interactively match the potential ones if we want
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding and Error Your Geocoding result is only as good as your reference data. If your streets layer is accurate only to 200 meters, then your geocoded points will be no better If your streets are consistently 100 meters to the north, then your points will be the same too Some roads layers may have better attributes than others.
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding and Error Here’s an example where the same address list was geocoded with two different street layers. Note here how the same house is 100 m off between the two geocoding attempts 100 m
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding and Error Here we see that many points were coded for Napa1 that were not coded for Napa2 possibly because Napa1’s street reference layer is newer, and has more streets
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding and Error This error is due to an attribute error in one of the layers which puts that address in the wrong street segment 100 m 300 m
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding and Error A rural area with a long road segment: very imprecise An urban road segment: smaller, more precise Rural street segments are also more subject to greater error because longer street segments means more interpolation
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Geocoding in Action Mapping hazard zone properties in L.A. to see effects on property values
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 XY Geocoding We can also create points from a table by their latitude and longitude Do this by clicking: CA hazardous waste sites Then we specify the lat and long fields as well as the spatial reference system Lat and Long should be in decimal degrees
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 2. Digitizing
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Digitizing This is generally the process of converting data from analog to digital with a device, such as a digitizing tablet or mouse, to create new vector features User defines features by pointing and clicking. Table digitizing involves use of a digitizing tablet or table A digitizing table is a big table with an electronic mesh that can sense the position of a digitizing cursor Transmits x and y coordinates of each mouse/cursor click to the computer and usually joins those with lines
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Digitizing Notice how map is attached with tape Source: http://ndis.nrel.colostate.edu/ndis/riparian/Tablet.jpg If the paper map moves, the digital map will be inaccurate, because the tablet is recording position relative to the tablet surface (mesh), not the map
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Digitizing Snapping: Any unsnapped lines or polygons are snapped closed, and dangling lines are clipped off, based on user-defined tolerances Snap tolerance: won’t snap together Snap tolerance: will snap together Dangling arc Snapped to other arc
Fundamentals of GIS Materials by Austin Troy © 2008 Digitizing Digitizing on a tablet requires defining “control points” which allow the conversion of the digitized map to real world coordinates. Usually, a map corner point of known geographic location is digitized first and its coordinates are assigned in some sort of header file “Heads up” digitizing involves scanning a paper map to a digital file, or otherwise obtaining a digital raster map/ image and digitizing “on top” of it on computer
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