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Computer Science Graduate School Presented by Kevin Skadron.

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1 Computer Science Graduate School Presented by Kevin Skadron

2 Outline of Discussion What is graduate school like? Is graduate school for me? What schools should I consider? How do I apply? How will they evaluate me? Question and Answer What is graduate school like? Is graduate school for me? What schools should I consider? How do I apply? How will they evaluate me? Question and Answer Slides mostly courtesy of Dave Brogan

3 Grad school is not for everyone Plenty of smart people go right to industryPlenty of smart people go right to industry –Learn on the job –Advance within company or hop jobs –Entrepreneurs cannot afford to wait For some, grad school providesFor some, grad school provides –A way to one-up UVa on the resume (degree as status symbol) –A fast track to a job (faster than working your way up) –Unique opportunities (no other way to be professor) –A great opportunity to focus and/or pursue your interests Plenty of smart people go right to industryPlenty of smart people go right to industry –Learn on the job –Advance within company or hop jobs –Entrepreneurs cannot afford to wait For some, grad school providesFor some, grad school provides –A way to one-up UVa on the resume (degree as status symbol) –A fast track to a job (faster than working your way up) –Unique opportunities (no other way to be professor) –A great opportunity to focus and/or pursue your interests

4 What is Graduate School Like? A professor’s perspective… Intellectual entrepreneurs: Every professor runs a small companyIntellectual entrepreneurs: Every professor runs a small company –Product: Invents and develops long-range research –Customer: typically Federal Government (National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency – DARPA) and other academics –Annual Revenue: $300,000 - $1,000,000 –Employees: Grad students (you) A professor’s perspective… Intellectual entrepreneurs: Every professor runs a small companyIntellectual entrepreneurs: Every professor runs a small company –Product: Invents and develops long-range research –Customer: typically Federal Government (National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency – DARPA) and other academics –Annual Revenue: $300,000 - $1,000,000 –Employees: Grad students (you)

5 What is Graduate School Like? M.S. Degree years years Coursework similar to senior-level undergraduate coursesCoursework similar to senior-level undergraduate courses Usually provided an opportunity to specializeUsually provided an opportunity to specialize –Can easily start degree without selecting area of focus –Good schools provide opportunity to take many focused courses in your favorite area Research (in form of thesis) may be requiredResearch (in form of thesis) may be required Tuition and stipend are possible – this varies from school to schoolTuition and stipend are possible – this varies from school to school –(full tuition + $16k / 9 mos + summer job) M.S. Degree years years Coursework similar to senior-level undergraduate coursesCoursework similar to senior-level undergraduate courses Usually provided an opportunity to specializeUsually provided an opportunity to specialize –Can easily start degree without selecting area of focus –Good schools provide opportunity to take many focused courses in your favorite area Research (in form of thesis) may be requiredResearch (in form of thesis) may be required Tuition and stipend are possible – this varies from school to schoolTuition and stipend are possible – this varies from school to school –(full tuition + $16k / 9 mos + summer job)

6 What is Graduate School Like? Ph.D. Degree years4 - 7 years Similar coursework to Master’s Degree plus seminars and courses related to researchSimilar coursework to Master’s Degree plus seminars and courses related to research Research requiredResearch required Tuition and stipend scholarships are standardTuition and stipend scholarships are standard –($16k / 9 mos + some summer jobs) Required to specializeRequired to specialize –Helpful to know research interests from day one to expedite selection of research focus –Many select research focus after starting school Ph.D. Degree years4 - 7 years Similar coursework to Master’s Degree plus seminars and courses related to researchSimilar coursework to Master’s Degree plus seminars and courses related to research Research requiredResearch required Tuition and stipend scholarships are standardTuition and stipend scholarships are standard –($16k / 9 mos + some summer jobs) Required to specializeRequired to specialize –Helpful to know research interests from day one to expedite selection of research focus –Many select research focus after starting school

7 Is Graduate School for You? What are your career goals? Sick and tired of schoolSick and tired of school Learn on the job (job hopping)Learn on the job (job hopping) EntrepreneurEntrepreneur Technology management (manage engineers)Technology management (manage engineers) ProfessorProfessor Don’t know what you want to doDon’t know what you want to do What are your career goals? Sick and tired of schoolSick and tired of school Learn on the job (job hopping)Learn on the job (job hopping) EntrepreneurEntrepreneur Technology management (manage engineers)Technology management (manage engineers) ProfessorProfessor Don’t know what you want to doDon’t know what you want to do

8 Is Graduate School for You? Do you enjoy learning - becoming an expert?Do you enjoy learning - becoming an expert? –PhD makes you world’s expert in foo Do you like being a big fish in a small pond?Do you like being a big fish in a small pond? –Question applies to job and school options Do you prefer constancy or change?Do you prefer constancy or change? –Higher degrees are entree to management and provide you with more control Financial situationFinancial situation Do you enjoy learning - becoming an expert?Do you enjoy learning - becoming an expert? –PhD makes you world’s expert in foo Do you like being a big fish in a small pond?Do you like being a big fish in a small pond? –Question applies to job and school options Do you prefer constancy or change?Do you prefer constancy or change? –Higher degrees are entree to management and provide you with more control Financial situationFinancial situation

9 Is Graduate School for You? Degree pros and cons Bachelor’s DegreeBachelor’s Degree –Good starting salary ($50k) but peaks early –More job openings –Opportunity to swap jobs or move to management –But many jobs are entry level –Less control of day-to-day tasks –Employer usually benefits from not promoting you –May become bored – have to hop jobs –Less job security Degree pros and cons Bachelor’s DegreeBachelor’s Degree –Good starting salary ($50k) but peaks early –More job openings –Opportunity to swap jobs or move to management –But many jobs are entry level –Less control of day-to-day tasks –Employer usually benefits from not promoting you –May become bored – have to hop jobs –Less job security

10 Show Me the Money 2004 Undergraduate Salaries Accounting $43,050 up 2.4% Economics/finance $40,719 up 0.4% Business $38,254 up 6.2% (mostly attributed to and CS $51,042 up 4.9% Information Systems / Systems $43,471 up 3.9% Chemical Eng $53,659 up 2.1% Elect Eng $51,113 up 2.4% Civil Eng $43,159 up 5.1% Pharmacist$84,000 Liberal Arts $29,060 down 3.6%

11 Show Me the Money Salaries of UVa Grads CS MedianCS Median –2003: $55,000 (max $77,000) – 18 respondents –2004: $52,000 (max $74,000) – 22 respondents –2005: $57,000 (max 70,000) – 15 respondents CPE MedianCPE Median –2003: $54,008 (max $70,000) – 9 respondents –2004: $53,000 (max $76,000) – 12 respondents –2005: $55,000 (max 64,000) – 8 responses Overall ordering at UVa: CS, EE, CPE/Sys (tied)Overall ordering at UVa: CS, EE, CPE/Sys (tied) –Hours worked is an unknown, but important additional factor Salaries of UVa Grads CS MedianCS Median –2003: $55,000 (max $77,000) – 18 respondents –2004: $52,000 (max $74,000) – 22 respondents –2005: $57,000 (max 70,000) – 15 respondents CPE MedianCPE Median –2003: $54,008 (max $70,000) – 9 respondents –2004: $53,000 (max $76,000) – 12 respondents –2005: $55,000 (max 64,000) – 8 responses Overall ordering at UVa: CS, EE, CPE/Sys (tied)Overall ordering at UVa: CS, EE, CPE/Sys (tied) –Hours worked is an unknown, but important additional factor

12 Is Graduate School for You? Master’s Degree Benefits Better starting salary ($66k)Better starting salary ($66k) Many job openingsMany job openings Potential to start at management levelPotential to start at management level Opportunity to swap jobsOpportunity to swap jobs More control of day-to-day tasksMore control of day-to-day tasks Master’s Degree Benefits Better starting salary ($66k)Better starting salary ($66k) Many job openingsMany job openings Potential to start at management levelPotential to start at management level Opportunity to swap jobsOpportunity to swap jobs More control of day-to-day tasksMore control of day-to-day tasks

13 Is Graduate School for You? Master’s Degree Cons Still not in charge of projectStill not in charge of project years of lost wages (less if paid during school) years of lost wages (less if paid during school) May become bored by repetitive tasksMay become bored by repetitive tasks May become frustrated by poor employees and lack of support from upper-level managementMay become frustrated by poor employees and lack of support from upper-level management Master’s Degree Cons Still not in charge of projectStill not in charge of project years of lost wages (less if paid during school) years of lost wages (less if paid during school) May become bored by repetitive tasksMay become bored by repetitive tasks May become frustrated by poor employees and lack of support from upper-level managementMay become frustrated by poor employees and lack of support from upper-level management

14 Is Graduate School for You? Ph.D. Degree Benefits Better starting salary ($115k)Better starting salary ($115k) Large amount of control over workLarge amount of control over work Long hoursLong hours Opportunity to teach in universityOpportunity to teach in university Management skills assumedManagement skills assumed You’ll be the world’s expert in ________You’ll be the world’s expert in ________ 30% go off to teach and 30% go to industry30% go off to teach and 30% go to industry Ph.D. Degree Benefits Better starting salary ($115k)Better starting salary ($115k) Large amount of control over workLarge amount of control over work Long hoursLong hours Opportunity to teach in universityOpportunity to teach in university Management skills assumedManagement skills assumed You’ll be the world’s expert in ________You’ll be the world’s expert in ________ 30% go off to teach and 30% go to industry30% go off to teach and 30% go to industry

15 Is Graduate School for You? Ph.D. Degree Cons years of income beyond the masters is lost3 - 4 years of income beyond the masters is lost Overqualified to make large jumps between fieldsOverqualified to make large jumps between fields It’s a lot of hard work with few clear pathsIt’s a lot of hard work with few clear paths Ph.D. Degree Cons years of income beyond the masters is lost3 - 4 years of income beyond the masters is lost Overqualified to make large jumps between fieldsOverqualified to make large jumps between fields It’s a lot of hard work with few clear pathsIt’s a lot of hard work with few clear paths

16 Faculty vs. Industry Very different lifestyles Both are intense Professor: tenure & funding struggles vs. tenure security and more control over activitiesProfessor: tenure & funding struggles vs. tenure security and more control over activities Industry: survive in an era of constant downsizing and project shakeups/cancellations, product focusIndustry: survive in an era of constant downsizing and project shakeups/cancellations, product focus Very different lifestyles Both are intense Professor: tenure & funding struggles vs. tenure security and more control over activitiesProfessor: tenure & funding struggles vs. tenure security and more control over activities Industry: survive in an era of constant downsizing and project shakeups/cancellations, product focusIndustry: survive in an era of constant downsizing and project shakeups/cancellations, product focus

17 UVa students and grad school 2004 UVa-CS Survey 94 responding (26 CPE/47 CS)94 responding (26 CPE/47 CS) –16 (22.5%) going to grad school  VaTech, MIT, UVa, UT-Austin, GaTech, UC-Riverside, GWU  2 lawyers  1 business  1 biomed –50% work in NoVa (egad) 2004 UVa-CS Survey 94 responding (26 CPE/47 CS)94 responding (26 CPE/47 CS) –16 (22.5%) going to grad school  VaTech, MIT, UVa, UT-Austin, GaTech, UC-Riverside, GWU  2 lawyers  1 business  1 biomed –50% work in NoVa (egad)

18 How Do I Apply? Application packet consists of the following TranscriptTranscript –Important, but not much you can do about this now… Letters of RecommendationLetters of Recommendation –Important – make or break marginal cases –Establish relationships with 3 UVa profs now! Personal StatementPersonal Statement –Somewhat important – think about what you like GREsGREs –Sanity check only. Subject test is hard, but many do poorly. Application packet consists of the following TranscriptTranscript –Important, but not much you can do about this now… Letters of RecommendationLetters of Recommendation –Important – make or break marginal cases –Establish relationships with 3 UVa profs now! Personal StatementPersonal Statement –Somewhat important – think about what you like GREsGREs –Sanity check only. Subject test is hard, but many do poorly.

19 How Do I Apply? Transcript Your school’s reputation,Your school’s reputation, your gradesyour grades and your courses will speak for themselvesand your courses will speak for themselves Schools are sympathetic to GPAs that improve over time and weaknesses in outside areasSchools are sympathetic to GPAs that improve over time and weaknesses in outside areasTranscript Your school’s reputation,Your school’s reputation, your gradesyour grades and your courses will speak for themselvesand your courses will speak for themselves Schools are sympathetic to GPAs that improve over time and weaknesses in outside areasSchools are sympathetic to GPAs that improve over time and weaknesses in outside areas

20 How Do I Apply? Letters of Recommendation These carry a great amount of weightThese carry a great amount of weight Help your letter writer by reminding him/her of significant interactions you have hadHelp your letter writer by reminding him/her of significant interactions you have had Help your letter writer by sharing your research interests so he/she may find ways to write a letter that complements your personal statementHelp your letter writer by sharing your research interests so he/she may find ways to write a letter that complements your personal statement Letters of Recommendation These carry a great amount of weightThese carry a great amount of weight Help your letter writer by reminding him/her of significant interactions you have hadHelp your letter writer by reminding him/her of significant interactions you have had Help your letter writer by sharing your research interests so he/she may find ways to write a letter that complements your personal statementHelp your letter writer by sharing your research interests so he/she may find ways to write a letter that complements your personal statement

21 How Do I Apply? Contact person at other school This is very difficultThis is very difficult Strike up an conversation with prof from another schoolStrike up an conversation with prof from another school US profs get many such s from Chinese and Indian studentsUS profs get many such s from Chinese and Indian students –Don’t sound desperate –Ask a reasonable question about the professor’s research – showcase your qualifications –Read their web pages! Contact person at other school This is very difficultThis is very difficult Strike up an conversation with prof from another schoolStrike up an conversation with prof from another school US profs get many such s from Chinese and Indian studentsUS profs get many such s from Chinese and Indian students –Don’t sound desperate –Ask a reasonable question about the professor’s research – showcase your qualifications –Read their web pages!

22 How Do I Apply? Personal Statement This is a great opportunity to stand outThis is a great opportunity to stand out Research the schools in which you are interestedResearch the schools in which you are interested Ask professors to explain research areasAsk professors to explain research areas Try to sound like a student with experience, focus, and initiativeTry to sound like a student with experience, focus, and initiative Don’t limit your choices by writing something that makes you sound too focused (unless you are)Don’t limit your choices by writing something that makes you sound too focused (unless you are) Avoid platitudesAvoid platitudes Personal Statement This is a great opportunity to stand outThis is a great opportunity to stand out Research the schools in which you are interestedResearch the schools in which you are interested Ask professors to explain research areasAsk professors to explain research areas Try to sound like a student with experience, focus, and initiativeTry to sound like a student with experience, focus, and initiative Don’t limit your choices by writing something that makes you sound too focused (unless you are)Don’t limit your choices by writing something that makes you sound too focused (unless you are) Avoid platitudesAvoid platitudes

23 How Do I Apply? GREs General test always requiredGeneral test always required –General test is like SATs but slightly harder –New for 2002 – Writing Component (true for SATs too!)  Used to be called analytical section (multiple choice) Subject test sometimes requiredSubject test sometimes required –Subject test is very detail oriented Study! Purchase old tests for practice!Study! Purchase old tests for practice!GREs General test always requiredGeneral test always required –General test is like SATs but slightly harder –New for 2002 – Writing Component (true for SATs too!)  Used to be called analytical section (multiple choice) Subject test sometimes requiredSubject test sometimes required –Subject test is very detail oriented Study! Purchase old tests for practice!Study! Purchase old tests for practice!

24 Where Do I Apply US News and World Report top 20 Try to upgradeTry to upgrade –UVa grad school is good, but you can probably do better. Exposure to new school (breadth) is encouraged unless you’re part of a special project here already that will make your graduate experience really valuable here Try not to worry about the moneyTry not to worry about the money –Most schools have similar packages for their students. Those who want funding can usually find it. US News and World Report top 20 Try to upgradeTry to upgrade –UVa grad school is good, but you can probably do better. Exposure to new school (breadth) is encouraged unless you’re part of a special project here already that will make your graduate experience really valuable here Try not to worry about the moneyTry not to worry about the money –Most schools have similar packages for their students. Those who want funding can usually find it.

25 Where Do I Apply (US News 2002) 1. Carnegie Mellon University 2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3. Stanford University 4. U. of California–Berkeley 5. U. of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign 6. Cornell 7. U. of Texas – Austin U. of Washington 9. Princeton University 1. Carnegie Mellon University 2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3. Stanford University 4. U. of California–Berkeley 5. U. of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign 6. Cornell 7. U. of Texas – Austin U. of Washington 9. Princeton University 10. Cal Tech U. of Wisconsin - Madison 12. Maryland, Georgia Tech 14. Brown University, UCLA, Michigan 17. Rice University, UNC, Penn 20. Columbia, Duke, Harvard, Purdue, UCSD 25. UMass – Amherst, Yale 27. U. of Southern Cal, U. of Virginia 29. Hopkins, NYU, Rutgers, SUNY- Stony Brook, UC-Irvine, Utah

26 Where do I apply NSF rankings 1-12: Stanford, MIT, Berkeley, CMU, Cornell, Princeton, Texas, University of Illinois, Washington, Wisconsin, Harvard, and Cal Tech1-12: Stanford, MIT, Berkeley, CMU, Cornell, Princeton, Texas, University of Illinois, Washington, Wisconsin, Harvard, and Cal Tech 13-24: Brown, Yale, UCLA, UMd, NYU, UMass, Rice, USC, Michigan, UCSD, Columbia, and Penn13-24: Brown, Yale, UCLA, UMd, NYU, UMass, Rice, USC, Michigan, UCSD, Columbia, and Penn 24-36: University of Chicago, Purdue, Rutgers, Duke, UNC, University of Rochester, SUNY (Stony Brook), GaTech, Arizona, UCalifornia (Irvine), UVa, and Indiana24-36: University of Chicago, Purdue, Rutgers, Duke, UNC, University of Rochester, SUNY (Stony Brook), GaTech, Arizona, UCalifornia (Irvine), UVa, and Indiana NSF rankings 1-12: Stanford, MIT, Berkeley, CMU, Cornell, Princeton, Texas, University of Illinois, Washington, Wisconsin, Harvard, and Cal Tech1-12: Stanford, MIT, Berkeley, CMU, Cornell, Princeton, Texas, University of Illinois, Washington, Wisconsin, Harvard, and Cal Tech 13-24: Brown, Yale, UCLA, UMd, NYU, UMass, Rice, USC, Michigan, UCSD, Columbia, and Penn13-24: Brown, Yale, UCLA, UMd, NYU, UMass, Rice, USC, Michigan, UCSD, Columbia, and Penn 24-36: University of Chicago, Purdue, Rutgers, Duke, UNC, University of Rochester, SUNY (Stony Brook), GaTech, Arizona, UCalifornia (Irvine), UVa, and Indiana24-36: University of Chicago, Purdue, Rutgers, Duke, UNC, University of Rochester, SUNY (Stony Brook), GaTech, Arizona, UCalifornia (Irvine), UVa, and Indiana

27 Soapbox (My Opinion) Get a Master’s Degree If you can stomach it and do wellIf you can stomach it and do well You’ll have more control over your day to day tasks and have a leg up in managementYou’ll have more control over your day to day tasks and have a leg up in management Only get the Ph.D. if you are strongly compelled to get what it provides You are not just limited to faculty jobsYou are not just limited to faculty jobs It’s risky to go to work and think you’ll come back to school – it’s very hard You make lifestyle commitments that aren’t very compatible with student lifeYou make lifestyle commitments that aren’t very compatible with student life But a boring entry-level job can really help you focusBut a boring entry-level job can really help you focus Always remember to consider cost of living adjustments when comparing salaries Silicon Valley is expensiveSilicon Valley is expensive Get a Master’s Degree If you can stomach it and do wellIf you can stomach it and do well You’ll have more control over your day to day tasks and have a leg up in managementYou’ll have more control over your day to day tasks and have a leg up in management Only get the Ph.D. if you are strongly compelled to get what it provides You are not just limited to faculty jobsYou are not just limited to faculty jobs It’s risky to go to work and think you’ll come back to school – it’s very hard You make lifestyle commitments that aren’t very compatible with student lifeYou make lifestyle commitments that aren’t very compatible with student life But a boring entry-level job can really help you focusBut a boring entry-level job can really help you focus Always remember to consider cost of living adjustments when comparing salaries Silicon Valley is expensiveSilicon Valley is expensive

28 Special Case Get employer-paid M.S. while working Consider quality of school (in NoVa GMU and GWU)Consider quality of school (in NoVa GMU and GWU) –If you weren’t working, a better school is possible –A MS degree from GMU might not be worth much to you if you are capable of CMU (won’t open doors) Difficult to work and study – but you’re young and might not have time commitmentsDifficult to work and study – but you’re young and might not have time commitments Consider that school will likely pay you tooConsider that school will likely pay you too Get employer-paid M.S. while working Consider quality of school (in NoVa GMU and GWU)Consider quality of school (in NoVa GMU and GWU) –If you weren’t working, a better school is possible –A MS degree from GMU might not be worth much to you if you are capable of CMU (won’t open doors) Difficult to work and study – but you’re young and might not have time commitmentsDifficult to work and study – but you’re young and might not have time commitments Consider that school will likely pay you tooConsider that school will likely pay you too

29 Q&A

30 Show Me the Money 2001 Undergraduate Salaries Econ/Finance$40,577 Commerce$38,449 MIS$45,585 CS$52,723 Information Science $45,182 Computer Eng $53,924 EE$52,910 Petroleum$53,878 English$31,501 Sociology$28,812 Psychology$30,338 History$30,375 Political Science $32,744

31 Show Me the Money Accounting $40,293 up 3.2% Marketing $35,374 up 1% Business $35,209 down 7.1% (14% - > 1% consultants) CS $50,352 down 3.6 (most sought-after grads) Software Eng $54,922 Information Systems $41,414 down 7.4% Chemical Eng $51,254 steady Elect Eng $ down 3.5% Civil Eng $40,848 down 1% Mechanical Eng $48,654 steady Liberal Arts $28,667 down 5.6% 2002 Undergraduate Salaries

32 Show Me the Money Accounting $41,360 up 2.6% Economics/finance $40,764 up 1.8% Business $36,515 up 3.7% (mostly sales and mgmt trainee) CS $46,536 down 7.6% (sixth consecutive drop) Information Systems / Systems $39,800 down 3.8% Chemical Eng $52,169 up 1.8% Elect Eng $50,566 steady Civil Eng $41,067 up 0.5% Mechanical Eng $48,659 steady Liberal Arts $29,543 up 3.1% 2003 Undergraduate Salaries

33 Show Me the Money 2004 Undergraduate Salaries Accounting $43,050 up 2.4% Economics/finance $40,719 up 0.4% Business $38,254 up 6.2% (mostly attributed to and CS $51,042 up 4.9% Information Systems / Systems $43,471 up 3.9% Chemical Eng $53,659 up 2.1% Elect Eng $51,113 up 2.4% Civil Eng $43,159 up 5.1% Pharmacist$84,000 Liberal Arts $29,060 down 3.6%

34 Total numbers in grad school Year 2004 Data From: 20,971 BS degrees in CS/CPE produced 17% women, 3.4% African American, 3.9% Hispanic17% women, 3.4% African American, 3.9% Hispanic Year 2004 Data From: 20,971 BS degrees in CS/CPE produced 17% women, 3.4% African American, 3.9% Hispanic17% women, 3.4% African American, 3.9% Hispanic

35 Total numbers in grad school 9,141 MS degrees produced 25% women, 1.5% African American, 1.1% Hispanic25% women, 1.5% African American, 1.1% Hispanic New master’s students decreased 17% after having dropped 8% the previous yearNew master’s students decreased 17% after having dropped 8% the previous year 9,141 MS degrees produced 25% women, 1.5% African American, 1.1% Hispanic25% women, 1.5% African American, 1.1% Hispanic New master’s students decreased 17% after having dropped 8% the previous yearNew master’s students decreased 17% after having dropped 8% the previous year

36 Total numbers in grad school 877 PhDs produced in US New enrollments down 8% last year and down 5% the year beforeNew enrollments down 8% last year and down 5% the year before Total PhD enrollment is going up by 20% each year (they’re not graduating)!Total PhD enrollment is going up by 20% each year (they’re not graduating)! 18% were women18% were women Only 13 were African American (1.5%)Only 13 were African American (1.5%) Only 10 were Hispanic (1.1%)Only 10 were Hispanic (1.1%) 48% were international students (May drop fast)48% were international students (May drop fast) 877 PhDs produced in US New enrollments down 8% last year and down 5% the year beforeNew enrollments down 8% last year and down 5% the year before Total PhD enrollment is going up by 20% each year (they’re not graduating)!Total PhD enrollment is going up by 20% each year (they’re not graduating)! 18% were women18% were women Only 13 were African American (1.5%)Only 13 were African American (1.5%) Only 10 were Hispanic (1.1%)Only 10 were Hispanic (1.1%) 48% were international students (May drop fast)48% were international students (May drop fast)


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