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C ARBOHYDRATES. L EARNING OUTCOME 3.1.2 The digestive system provides an interface with the environment. Digestion involves enzymic hydrolysis producing.

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Presentation on theme: "C ARBOHYDRATES. L EARNING OUTCOME 3.1.2 The digestive system provides an interface with the environment. Digestion involves enzymic hydrolysis producing."— Presentation transcript:

1 C ARBOHYDRATES

2 L EARNING OUTCOME The digestive system provides an interface with the environment. Digestion involves enzymic hydrolysis producing smaller molecules that can be absorbed and assimilated.

3 Y OU SHOULD KNOW : That the basic carbohydrate units are monosaccharides The monosaccharides act as monomers and link to form disaccharides and polysaccharides The structure of a -glucose. About linking of a-glucose by glycosidic bonds formed by condensation reactions to form maltose and starch. Disaccharides, sucrose and lactose. About lactose intolerance. Biochemical tests for reducing sugars, non reducing sugars and starch

4 C ARBOHYDRATES - SUGARS AND STARCHES C H 2 O Hydrates of carbon Functions Fuel for cell activity food reserve (starch) structural part of DNA and RNA (deoxyribose and ribose)

5 B UILDING LARGER CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are made up of chains of individual monomer components joined together to form a polymer. Single monomer = monosaccharide. 2 monosaccharides joined = disaccharide. 3 or more = polysaccharide.

6 M ONOSACCHARIDES - SIMPLE SUGARS Contain from 3 to 7 carbons Trioses3 carbons Tetroses4 carbons Pentoses5 carbons Hexoses6 carbons Heptoses7 carbons

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8 Beta-glucose. The hydroxyl group on carbon number 1 is UP. The hydroxyls alternate “up and down” around the molecule. β-glucose

9 D ISACCHARIDES - 2 MONOSACCHARIDES Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose Glucose + Galactose = Lactose Glucose + Glucose = Maltose

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11 The bond between sugars is a glycosidic bond

12 P OLYSACCHARIDES - A CHAIN OF MONOSACCHARIDES 1. Glycogen- a storage compound in animals. We store glycogen in liver and muscle cells. The monomer unit is α gluclose. 2. Starch-a storage compound in plants. We eat this in foods such as bread and potatoes. Also chains of α gluclose. 3. Cellulose – makes plant cell walls. When we eat fruit / vegetables we eat this. It forms fibre/roughage in our diet. It consists of chains of β glucose

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14 amylose

15 Starch - storage form of glucose in plants-amylopectin

16 G LYCOGEN

17 w 3. Cellulose - main structural component of plant cell walls

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20 B ENEDICT ’ S TEST FOR A REDUCING SUGAR. Theory Need to know this for practical exam and written exams. All monosaccharides and some disaccharides, (like maltose) are reducing sugars. Receiving an electron is reduction. A reducing sugar is a sugar that can donate an electron to (or reduce), another chemical, in this case Benedict’s reagent. Benedict’s contains Copper II sulphate and is alkaline. Cu 2+ ions from the copper sulphate are reduced by the – CHO Aldose or C=O Ketone groups in reducing sugars to form Cu + ions. When heated with a reducing sugar pale blue Benedict’s solution forms an insoluble red precipitate of Copper I oxide.

21 T EST FOR N ON -R EDUCING S UGARS Some disaccharides such as sucrose are non- reducing sugars. This means they do not change the colour of Benedict’s when heated. To test a non-reducing sugar it must be broken down into its monosaccharide components by hydrolysis. These monosaccharides can then be tested with Benedicts as a reducing sugar.

22 M ETHOD The non-reducing sugar is first hydrolysed by boiling with hydrochloric acid so that it will be broken down into its monosaccharides. These can then reduce Benedict’s reagent in the normal way. So a non-reducing sugar is identified by a negative reaction to Benedict’s before hydrolysis and a positive result after hydrolysis.

23 M ETHOD Carry out the reducing sugar test. If negative then in a boiling tube, add 2cm 3 of dilute hydrochloric acid, to a sample to be tested, mix the solution and heat in a hot water bath for 2-3 mins Then add sodium hydroxide, to the boiling tube until the solution is neutral, Add until the fizzing stops. (This is important because Benedict’s is not effective in acid conditions). Carry out the reducing sugar test again. This time it will be positive


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