2Biosensors are actively used in science Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose with Glucose Sensor has a market (8.8 Billion Dollars in 2008)Biosensor :
3Aim: Understand the parts of biosensors How they work To be able to discriminate biosensors according to their qualityTo be able to design new biosensorsTo be able to discuss the papers about biosensorsTo be able to improve biosensorsTo be able to classify results of sensors.
4Contents Introduction to Sensors Transduction Elements Sensing ElementsPerformance FactorsElectrochemical Sensors and BiosensorsPhotometric ApplicationsMass-Sensitive and Thermal SensorsSpecific Applications
9Types Physical sensors: measure Chemical sensors: measure DistanceMasTemperaturePressureChemical sensors: measureChemical substrances by chemical or physical responseBiosensors: measureChemical substrances by using a biological sensing element.All of them connected to a transducer visible response occurs
10Chemical Sensors and biosensors detect chemicals called analyte. If analyte is a biomolecule, the device can be called biosensorRecognation element
11Types of transducer Electrochemical biosensor: mostly used Optical Potentiometric: measure potentialVoltammetric : an increasing (decreasing) potential is applied to the cell until Ox. (re.) of the substrance to be analysed occure and a sharp rise (fall) in the current to give a peak.ConductometricFET basedOpticalPiezo electricThermal
15Biosensor: Biorecognation Unit (Sensing Element; biologic detection unit)
16Sensing ElementsIt is concerned with various ways in which a sensor can recognize an analyte.specific for that analyte alone,Selective ;responding to the required analyte more than to other species.Types of Sensing Elementsİonic (chemical sensors)Molecular (chemical sensor and biosensor)Biological (biosensor)
17A- Ionic Recognation: Ion-Selective Electrodes Possible to be used in biosensors.Example: urea ammoniaThey are based on the principle of the emf of a concentration cell.A potentiometric device in which the change in emf is proportional to the logarithm of the analyte concentration.The selectivity by the membrane separating the analyte solution from the internal reference solution.0.50.0
18The level of interference is measured by the selectivity coefficient InterferencesSensors respond to one ion more than to others, although there is often a small response to unwanted ions. This is known as interference.For example,a fluoride ISE responds to hydroxide at one tenth of the response level (to fluoride) for equal concentrations of the ions.The level of interference is measured by the selectivity coefficientkij=the selectivity coefficient.0.10.50.0ISAB (ionic-strength adjustment buffer): [OH] declined to 10-9M pOH:9 . it is lower than detection limit for OH
19A- Ionic Recognation: Conducting Devices ionsconductor for electreictyquantity measurementresistance (1/conductivity)conductance depends on…..;degree of ionization (storng or weak)charge of ionnumber of ionsmobility of ions (related to size, smallfastermore conductive)conductivity not used aloneion chromography (extensivily)
20A- Ionic Recognation: Modified electrodes selectivityimportantelectrodes not selective aloneto gain a selectivitymodify themtwo waysmodify themselvesmodify its surface coated with polymersbest exampleCPE(Carbon paste electrode) suitable electrodegraphite powder with Nugola stiff paste mix with a modified component (electroactive;such as ferrocene) or a complexing agent extracting electroactive analyte into the surface of the paste
21A- Ionic Recognation: Modified electrodes modify electrode surface by coating with different types of polymersMainly 3 typesconducting polymersion-exchange polymersredox polymersa) Conducting polymersmost studied ones: polyacetylene, polypyrrole, polyaniline and polythiopheneeasy to polymerize: electrochemically oxidizing the substrade on the electrode.solvents and counter ions effect on the polymer
22B- Molecular Recognition: 1. Chemical Recognition Agents Thermodynamiclyrxn to be controlledM= analyte L=Recognition AgentM-L complex, or M or L respond to a particular transducer (optical, electrochemical etc)Optical response: an absorption or fluorescence change to the analytePVC (polyvintylchloride) successfully used for such biosensor (ion- selective electrodes also)Potentiometic e. (used)
23Some Application with such recognitin agents Analyte: Iron (II)Recognation Agent: 2,2’-bipyridyl in a poly (vinyl pyridine) (PVP) membrane.Method: iron(II) oxidized by linear-sweep voltametry.Complexation rxn (M-L) accumulation of ironİndicators can be used to analyze the analytes.Optodes: Optical biosensors (colorimeter or spectrophotometer)…. Used to detect the colour change
24Molecular Size:If the analyte is smaller than the others in the sample, size is selective and molecular sieves are used as recognition agent.Examples:The antibiotic, valinomycin is a neutral ionophoreMaking complex with potassium ions selectivelyK fits into its cavityValionmycin used as a recognition reagent to detect K
25B- Molecular Recognition: 2. Biological Recognition Agents Biological systemsthe major selective elementsThey must attach themselves to one particular substrate, but not to others.EnzymesAntibodiesNucleic acidsReceptorsAffinity biosensors: Sensors with antibodies of receptors as Recognition Elements
31Advantages and Disadvantages of using Enzymes in sensors Highly selectiveCatalytically active improve sensitivityFairly fast-actingOne of the most known biological componentsExpensiveA loss activity when immobilized on a transducerTending to lose activity after a relatively short period time
32Tissue multiplicity of enzymes B. Tissue Materials:Tissue multiplicity of enzymesThus, not selective as purified enzymesBut, longer life protected (in its environ.)Response slow (diffusion)CheaperExample: Banana tissue sensor:[Eggins (1997)] Banana biosensor
33İts derivatives: flavanols found in beers and wine enzymesFor dopamine, a catcholamine found in brain containing a complex of polyphenolases which catalyse the oxidation of polyphenolic compoundsİts derivatives: flavanols found in beers and winePolyphenol oxidase catalyse the rxn.İt is found in banana
34Advantages: Disadvantages: Enzyme in natural environment enzymesAdvantages:Enzyme in natural environmentActivity stableLess expensiveThey sometimes work when purified enzymes failDisadvantages:Loss selectivityDiffusion problems
35C. Microorganisms: They play important role in enzymesC. Microorganisms:They play important role inBrewingPharmaceutical synthesisFood manufactureWaste-water treatmentEnergy productionMO immobilized to transducer directlyMO can …..Assimilate organic compoundsProduce electroactive metabolites
36Advantages: Disadvantages: Cheaper enzymesAdvantages:CheaperLess sensitive to inhibiton by solutes, more tolerant to pH & temperatureLonger lifetimesDisadvantages:Longer response timeLonger recovery activity timesMany enzymes and less selectivity
37D. Mitochondria (organelles) enzymesD. Mitochondria (organelles)Sub-cellular multi-enzyme particelscatalyze an analyte
38Versitile (large spectrum) Possible to develope for any antigen antibodies2. Antibodies:Versitile (large spectrum)Possible to develope for any antigenİts function: to bind an invading antigen and remove it from harm
40Labelling Ab Mass change etc also can be seen Radioisotopes Enzymes antibodiesLabelling AbRadioisotopesEnzymesRed cells (RBC)Fluorescent probesChemiluminescent probesMetal tagsMass change etc also can be seen
41Advantages: Disadvantages. High selectivity Ultra sensitive antibodiesAdvantages:High selectivityUltra sensitiveBind very powerfullTNT also can be detected by antibodiesR.D. Shankaran, K.V. Gobi, K. Matsumoto, T. Imato, K. Toko and N. Miura, Highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for parts-per-trillion level detection of 2,4,6- trinitrophenol, Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 100 (2004), pp. 425– 430.Disadvantages.No catalytical
42DNA assays can involve the addition of labelled DNA to the system nucleic acids3. Nucleic Acids:like antibodiesDNA probesused to detect genetic diseases, cancers and viral infectionsDNA assays can involve the addition of labelled DNA to the systemRadioactivePhotometricEnzymicElectroactive
43Examples to NA biosensor nucleic acidsExamples to NA biosensor
44The response may be either … 4. Receptors:A receptor is a structure in a cell, which can trigger an amplified physiological response when it is bound to a particular ligand (an agonist).An agonist a chemical binding to a receptor and triggers a response by the cell. An agonist often mimics the action of a naturally occurring substance. An agonist produces an action. An antagonist blocks an action of an agonist.The response may be either …ion-channel opening,production of second messenger systems, oractivation of enzymes.
45Recepors tend to have an affinity for a range of structural related compounds. Like others, also they are labelledExamples:Biosensor for Anaestherics
50metal (such as silver) is placed in a solution containing ions (such as silver ions), there is a charge separation across the boundary between the metal and the solution.an electron pressure, usually termed a porential.It cannot be measured directly, and requirestwo such electrode-electrolyte combinations. Each of these is called a half-cell. Such a combination is called an electrochemical cell
51Half cells conntected by two ways internally by means of an electrically conducting bridge or membrane.Externally by a potential measuring device, such as a digital voltmeter (DVM).Wire has a very high internal impedance, such that very little current will flow through it. The electrical circuit is now complete and the emf of the cell can be measured.This value is the difference between the electrode potentials of the two half-cells.Depends on a number of factors,(i) the nature of the electrodes,(ii) the nature and concentrations of the solutions in each half-cell,(iii) the liquid junction potential across the membrane (or salt bridge).
53Other Reference Electrodes SHE is a reference electrode (RE) to which other electrodes may be referred.While it is not difficult to set up an SHE in the laboratory, it is not very convenient for routine measurements as such an electrode involves flowing hydrogen gas, which is potentially explosive.Other secondary reference electrodes are therefore usedEasy set upNon-polarizableReproducable electrode potentialMany varieties, 2 are in common
54Silver chloride soluble İt consists of a silver wire coated with silver chloride dipping into a solution of sodium chlorideCalomel means mercurous chloride (Hg2Cl2).A mercury pool in contact with a paste made by mixing mercury chloride powder and saturated potassium chloride
56ion-selective electrodes (ISE) left test solution (a reference electrode dipped into).The ion-selective membrane is in the middle (dividing the test solution from the standard solution, with a fixed concentration of the ions being measured. A second reference electrode is dipped into standard solution is placed.The two reference electrodes are connected through a high impedance voltmeter - usually a digital voltmeter.The electrode system is then usually calibrated with standard solutions in one of a number of ways, as to be described..
58An ISE is an ion-selective electrode, designed to respond to one particular ion more than others. A potentiometric device: the potential of the electrode (measured against an appropriate reference electrode) is proportional to the logarithm of the activity (or concentration) of the ion being tested.Such a device usually responds rapidly, with a linear range of about 10-6 to 1 M for most ISEs.It operates on the principle of a concentration cell, in that it contains a selective membrane which develops a potential if there is a concentration difference across the membrane of the ion being tested.
59Precautions for ISE İonic strengtconstant pH controlled Add components to Minimize or eliminate interfering ions.ISA (ionic strength adjusters) or TISABs (total- ionic-strength adjustment buffers) present
60Measurement and Calibration Calibration Graphs and Direct ReadPreapare a series of standardsRead themRead the sampleMake a plot (log[concentration] versus potential)Estimate
61Measurement and Calibration 2. Standard Addition: Prepare a standard whose concentreation is probabily 10 times higher than sampleRead sampleAdd stanadrd to sample and read itUse the following formula to estimate the concentration
62Measurement and Calibration 3. Gran plot:Similar to standard addition methodSeries of standard preparedAdd them to sample and read
682. Linear Sweep Voltammetry Voltammetry:information about an analyte is obtained by measuring the current as the potential is varied. 1) linearly varying potential between a working electrode and a reference electrode in 2) an electrochemical cell containing a high concentration of an indifferent electrolyte to make the solution conduct - called the supporting electrolyte and 3) an oxidizable or reducible species - the electroactive species. Current monitored Potential against currentploted =voltammogram This techniqulinear sweep voltammetry (LSV) LSV is a voltammetric method where the current at a working electrode is measured while the potential between the working electrode and a reference electrode is swept linearly in time.Auxillary (supporting) electrodeReference electrodeworking electrode
69A :current very smallA-B: becouse of impurities (background current)B: potenital approaches the reduction potential of the oxidized species.B-C: higher potential electrons from the electrode to the Ox at increasing rateThe increase in reduction rate cell current to increaseinet (cell current)ic (cathodic-reduction- current)İa (anodic-oxidation current)
70E ↑ic ↑ but ia ↓ Rise in voltammetric wave At C: [Ox] is limited İt is depleted by reductionRate of fresh Ox from bulk of solutionA peak in currentId: diffusion limited current -IL
71But we will need high matematical calculations We have another straightforward solutionWe have current at the point C in our handHow we can find this to calculate [analyte]
733. Cyclic Voltammetry Why: to understand the mechanism of Redox rxn How works: again 3 electrodes like voltametryWhat the difference isPotential reversed so reverse everything (if rxnreversible
74While Ox at the electrode surface depleted by the reduction replaced by the Red. (diffuses into the solution)Hence, if we reverse the potential sweep from the positive side of the peak, we shall observe the reverse effect.As the potential sweeps back towards the redox potential, the reduced species will start to be re-oxidized to Ox. The current will now increase in the negative (oxidizing) direction until an oxidation peak is reached.two peaks: 1st: the reduction of the original substrate 2nd: reoxidation of the product back to the original substrate.peak currents almost identical heights.The average of the two peak potentials is equal to the standard redox potential, regardless of the concentration of substrate or its diffusion coefficients or rates of electron transfer.
754. ChronoamperometryInstead of sweeping the potential, the latter is stepped in a square-wave fashion to a potential just past where the peak would appear in linear-sweep voltammetry.The current is then monitored as a function of time. Decay occurs because of the collapse (or spreading out) of the diffusion layer
76decay is proportional to the reciprocal of the square root of time, as shown by the Cottrell equation:Chronoamperometry can be used to determine any of the variables in the above equation, providing that the others are known. A,C,D or n
77Constant related to the diffusion layer thickness 5. Amperometryusual name for the analytical application of the chronoamperometric technique.With certain cell and electrode configurations, the decaying current reaches an approximately steady state after a certain time.This is shown by the shaded part of the curve in the figure leftThe current has become effectively independent of time, as indicated by the following equation:Constant related to the diffusion layer thickness
796. Conductivity inverse of resistance A measure of the ease of passage of electric current through a solution.Ohm’s lawE=I/R ; L=1/R and thereforeE=I/LThe conductivity varies according tothe charge on the ion,the mobility of the ionthe degree of dissociation of the ion.
80impedance: conductance, capacitance and inductance attantion In principle, a change in conductance can be used to follow any reaction that produces a change in the number of ions, the charge on the ions, the dissociation of the ions or the mobility of the ions. Usually a differential type of cell is used, as shown in the following Figure.
817. Piezo-Electric Effect PrinciplesIn 1880, The Curie brothers discovered “1. anisotropic crystals give out an electrical signal when mechanically stressed.”2. if an electrical signal is applied to such crystals, they will deform mechanically (With the application of an oscillating electrical potential, the crystal will vibrate).
82Every crystal has its own natural resonant frequency of oscillation, which can be modulated by its environment. The usual value of this frequency is in the 10 MHz region, i.e. radiofrequency.The actual frequency is dependent on the mass of the crystal, (any other material coated on it)The change in resonant frequency (Af) resulting from the adsorption of an analyte on its surface can be measured with high sensitivity ( Hz g-’),when applied in sensors can thus result in devices with pg detection limits.The relationship between the surface mass change, Δm, and the change in resonant frequency, Δf, is given by the Sauerbrey equation, as follows:Δm:the mass in grams of the adsorbed material on an area A (cm2) of the sensing region,Δ f : the overall resonant frequency.For a 15 kHz crystal, a resolution of 2500 Hz kg-l is likely, so that a detection limit of g (1 pg) is achievable.Materials showing the piezo-electric effect ceramic materials such as barium and lead titanatesSome organic polymers, such as poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) (-CF2-CH2-CF2-),, also form crystals with piezo-electric properties.
83The frequency at which an oscillator works is usually determined by a quartz crystal. When a direct current is applied to such a crystal, it vibrates at a frequency that depends on its thickness, and on the manner in which it is cut from the original mineral rock. Some oscillators employ combinations of inductors, resistors, and/or capacitors to determine the frequency. However, the best stability (constancy of frequency) is obtained in oscillators that use quartz crystals
85Most bioassays photometric type How workChanges in species with photometric properties.Example:
86The problem: how to make a sensor by using an optical technique. The basic optical response is based on the Beer-Lambert law (usually referred to as Beer’s law), as follows:IO: the intensity of the incident light;I: the intensity of the transmitted light;A: the absorbance (usually measured directly by an instrument),ε: extinction coefficient,C : the concentration of the analyte,L: the pathlength of light through the solution. (result in limitation of size of sensors, which does not occur in electrochemical devices)
87What are the advantages of optical sensors? No ‘reference electrode’ is needed, although a reference source is often useful.There is no electrical interference.An immobilized reagent does not have to be in contact with any optical fibres, and can easily be replaced.There are no electrical safety hazards.Some analytes, such as oxygen, can be detected in equilibrium.They are highly stable with respect to calibration, especially if the ratio of the intensities at two different wavelengths can be measured.They can respond simultaneously to more than one analyte by using multiple immobilized reagents with different wavelengths for response, e.g. 02 and CO.Multi-wavelength measurements can be made to monitor changes in the state of the reagent.They have potential for higher-information content than electrical transducers.
88What are the disadvantages of optical sensors? They will only work if appropriate reagent phases can be developed.They are subject to background ambient light interference. This may be excluded either directly or by using a modulation technique.They have a limited dynamic range when compared to electrical sensors – typically 102 compared with 106 – for ion-selective electrodes.They are extensive devices, and dependent on the amount of reagent, and hence difficult to miniaturize.There are problems with the long-term stability of the reagents under incident light.Response times may be slow because of the time of mass transfer of analytes to the reagent phase.
911. Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy The absorbance is measured by passing incident radiation through the monochromator of a spectrometer and then measuring its intensity with a photomultiplier or photodiode, thus producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the absorbance at a particular wavelength.The measured absorbance is linearly proportional to the concentration.However, the apparatusrelatively cumbersomeExpensive,
932. Fluorescence Spectroscopy (animation) Species absorb light,the excited species will decay in one of a variety of ways.decay to the lowest excited singlet state,re-emit radiation, usually at a lower wavelength than the original excitation.This phenomenon is known as fuorescence,Emitted light can be measured
101particularly useful with immunoassays Example: Luminol is normally used as a label and employed in any assay involving;oxygen,hydrogen peroxide orperoxidase.particularly useful with immunoassaysBut sensitivity is limited because the quantum yield is only 1%.Example:A particularly interesting approach, combining both luminescence and fluorescenceAn antigen labelled with the luminol, while the corresponding antibody labelled with a fluorescent compound.the emission from the luminol will excite the fluorescence.Ag-Ab: luminol emits light of 460 nm, which excites the fluorescor,İt emits fluorescence in turn at 525 nm,thus results in an increased quantum yield.At the same time, unlabelled antigen combines with labelled antibody,in which case there is no fluorescence but emissionluminol at 460 nm permits analysis of both bound and unbound.
102Their usage in Biosensors Examples: A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operationTheir usage in BiosensorsExamples:luminol with hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase.A fibre-optic sensor for H202 : peroxidase immobilized on PAGE (polyacrylamide gel) + luminol at the end of the fibre.The luminescence is detected in situno external light source is needed.The sensor can be connected directly to the photodiode.It will detect 1-10 mM H202, with a response time of 2 min.One obvious application is to 'connect' the sensor toa glucose-glucose oxidase reaction system to determine glucose, for which a linear concentration range of mM can be obtained.
103A recent example:adamantyl dioxetine phosphate adamantyl dioxetine anion (by alkaline phosphatase ),unstablefluoresces.fluorescence lifetime is several minutes, unlike conventional luminescenceSuch behaviour could be used in many types of assay which involve phosphate ester hydrolysis using alkaline phosphatase.adamantyl dioxetane phosphate compete with other organic phosphates for the phosphatase.
1044. BioluminescenceCertain biological species (firefly) emit luminescence. This originates in a group of substances of varied structures known as luciferins.The enzyme-catalysed oxidation of luciferin results in luminescence.
105Rxnvery sensitive down to femtomole [10-15 ] example: determination of creatine kinaserelated to myocardial infarction and muscle disordersBacterial luciferases do not use luciferins but ..Most analytical reactions NADH for FMN to FMNH2Example:
108In most photometric methods: Advantages of luminescence methods when compared with other photometric methodsIn most photometric methods:comparison of light absorbed in the presence of the analyte with the corresponding light in the absence of the analyte,(which will not usually be zero).Luminescence (chemiluminescence- bioluminescence) is measured against a background of complete absence of light.Much more sensitive detectors much lower levels of light detecteddetection limits very much lower
109Optice transducersFiber optic glasses (optic fibers) key components. An optical fiber is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length.Light is kept in the core of the optical fiber by total internal reflection. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that occurs when a ray of light strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.
110When light crosses a boundary between materials with different refractive indices, the light beam will be partially refracted at the boundary surface, and partially reflected. However, if the angle of incidence is greater (i.e. the ray is closer to being parallel to the boundary) than the critical angle – the angle of incidence at which light is refracted such that it travels along the boundary – then the light will stop crossing the boundary altogether and instead be totally reflected back internally. This can only occur where light travels from a medium with a higher refractive index to one with a lower refractive index. For example, it will occur when passing from glass to air, but not when passing from air to glassairglass
111Optical fibers regarded as ‘light conductors’ or ‘light wires’. metal electrical wires conduct electricity (often over very long distances)Optical fibres does the same for light.optical fibres are even for telephone transmission.Optical fibres behave as waveguides for light.Original fibres are made of glass,but now polymeric materials usedmuch cheaper than glass and the metal wiresThe light waves are propagated along the fibre by total internal rejection (TIR).TIR depends on the angle of incidence and the refractive indices of the media:
1142.7.7 Device Constructionsystem works better with a ‘reference blank’, with the light source then being split between the sample and the reference.Detection may be effected at different analytical and reference wavelengths and one then obtains the ratio of the signals at the two wavelengths.This eliminates scatter and source fluctuations.Waveguides for different forms of light may need to be made of differentmaterials, as follows:λ > 450 nm, plastic (such as polyacrylamide)λ > 350 nm, glassλ < 350 nm, fused silicaλ > 1000 nm, germanium crystalIn a photometric sensor, the reagent has to be immobilized so that it can interact with the analyte, probably to form a complex with distinctive optical properties which can then be monitored by the sensor.
115Solid-Phase Absorption Label Sensors The criteria for the application of these are as follows:Choice of immobilization supportImmobilization of indicators, thus retaining activity in the desired raysImmobilization of biorecognition molecules with retention of activityCell geometryChoice of source and detector componentsportable device low-power components (desirable) such as LED (light emitting diode)sources and photodiode detectors.LEDs have only a limited range of wavelengths
120Ion-selective Electrodes: SelectivitySelectivity:the ability to discriminate between different substances.It is a function of the selective component (biodetection element), although sometimes the operation of the transducer contributes to the selectivity.Ion-selective Electrodes:Respond to particular ionsBUT, nearly all can respond to some other ions (interference)Interference can be measured and for commercial sensors, it should be given.
121ki,j:Electrode potential and a selectivity coefficient, The interference is expressed in the Nicolskii-Eisenman equationki,j:Electrode potential and a selectivity coefficient,ai : activity of the primary analyte of charge naj: activity of the interfering analyte of charge zE: potantial of the system ; K and S: konstant
122ki,j determined by a “two-point, mixed solution method” Example: Selectivityki,j determined by a “two-point, mixed solution method”Example:The cell potantial primary analyte (E1) (0.001M)0.001M (primary analyte)+0.1 or 0.01M potentially interfering ion (E2)
123SelectivityQuestion: Transducer: A calcium ISE S: mV/decade in a M solution. E1: mV (in a M calcium chloride solution) E2: mV (mixed sol. M calcium chloride and 0.1 M sodium chloride).Calculate the selectivity coefficient for calcium ions in the presence of sodium.
125How to calculate DETECTION LIMIT: There are many definitions of DL. 2. SensitivityRange, Linear Range and Detection LimitsSensitivityHow to calculate DETECTION LIMIT: There are many definitions of DL.it is important to know ..what concentration range is covered andover what section of this range the response is linear.At the lower level is the detection limit.DL is the concentration of analyte at which the extrapolated linear portion of the calibration graph intersects the baseline – a horizontal line corresponding to zero change in response for several decades of concentration change.
127Linear Range: should include effective constentration of the target SensitivityLinear Range: should include effective constentration of the targetFor example: for determination of glucose, biosensor’s linear range cover (0.2-20mM, possible concentration of glucose in blood, normal-diabetic respectively)Potentiometric sensor’s linear range largerpH (H+)-selective electrode’s linear range from ph ( )Amperometric sensors and biosensors do not ranges have ranges of much more than two or three powers of ten
128Statistical anaylsis important for bioanalytical chemistry SensitivityStatistical anaylsis important for bioanalytical chemistryMean, standart deviation, CV (Coefficient of Variation),CV = (Standard Deviation / Mean) * 100Example
130the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it. Response Time3. Time Factors3.1. Responce TimesSome definationsthe time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it.The amount of time it takes for a device to react to an input signal.time to allow the system to come to equilibrium, the response time.
131Chemical sensors: their response time short For example: nitrate electrodes the most reproducible results were obtained after stirring the solution in contact with the electrode for ~30 s.Biosensors:Response times from a few sec.- to a few min.Up to 5 min acceptable>10 min too long.if the time becomes too long it can affect the usefulness of the method for repetitive routine analyses.
132In many publications, these times (recovery and response) are combined Recovery Time3.2. Recovery Times: the time that elapses before a sensor is ready to be used for another sample measurement.It may beimmediateafter one measurement the sensor system has to rest to resume its base equilibrium before it can be used with the next sample.In many publications, these times (recovery and response) are combined
133Biosensors and chemical sensor’s lifetimes can be different The most robust pH electrodes tend to deteriorate after months of use.What does lifetime mean? Types?The response during continous usethe sensor is in constant contact with an analyte solution and successive readings are made over a period of, e.g. hours.This lifetime in use can be defined as the time after which the response has declined by a given percentage (say 5%).
1343. Storage stability: the period when the sensor is stored lifetimes2. Shelf life stability: the time over which the assembled sensor is stored, perhaps in a buffer solution or an ISAB (ionic-strength adjustment buffer)3. Storage stability: the period when the sensor is storeddry in its packing, for an ion-selective electrode,when a biological material is stored separately, perhaps refrigerated.All organic material deteriorates with time, especially when taken out of its natural environment.Biosensor studies to show how the response of the biosensor to a standard sample changes with time over hours, days and even months.Generally pure enzymes have the lowest stability, whereas tissue preparations have the highest.
135lifetimesExamples to Techniques to improve lifetime of biomaterials of biosensor:Gibson et all in stabilizing a range of enzymes by using a mixture of the followings as additives (stabilizers)a polyelectrolyte (DEAE-dextrin)A sugar alcohol (lacticol)Enhanced the retention of enzyme activity during..DesiccationThermal stressThey optimized this method on ..Alcohol dehydrogenaseHorseradish peroxidaseOther scientist perform on 12 other enzymes
136L-glutamate biosensor (NMP-TCNQ-modified graphite electrodes) lifetimesExamples:Alcohol oxidase (alcohol determination; with membrane immobilization andhorseradish peroxidase (amperometric oxidation of hydrogen peroxide ) with a mediated coupled reaction and N- methylphenothiazine- tetracyanoquino- dimethane (NMP- TCNQ) on a graphite electrode.In both cases, stabilizers promoted a considerable increasein storage stabilityin the shelf life (dried form; 37°C)Similarly;L-glutamate biosensor (NMP-TCNQ-modified graphite electrodes)L-glutamate oxidasean increase in shelf lifeOther workers, (just the DEAE-dextran polyelectrolyte)glucose oxidase biosensors, were less successful.In fact, lyophilized glucose oxidase alone is extremely stable, (for 2 years at 0°C and for 8 years at - 15°C)In solution, it is most stable at pH 5, while below pH 2 and above pH 8 the catalytic activity is rapidly lost.
137Precision and Accuracy accuracy of a measurement: the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to its actual (true) valueprecision (reproductibilty) of a measurement system: the degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same resultsHigh accuracyLow precisionLow accuracyHigh precision
142Precision and Accuracy Standard addition methodThe method of standard addition is used in instrumental analysis to determine concentration of a substance (analyte) in an unknown sample by comparison to a set of samples of known concentration, similar to using a calibration curve.Standard addition can be applied to most analytical techniques and is used instead of a calibration curve to solve the matrix effect problem.
143Different Transducer Performance Types of analyte Urea biosensor Amino acid biosensorGlucose biosensorUric acidaffected by the amount of enzymeType of immobilizationSome examples
144İn table forward, urea biosensor compared Cationic (NH4+, pH and gas (NH3 and CO2 )pH sensor more enzyme neededBelow 5mM linearLongest response timeAmmonia Gas electrodeBest one4 months stabekUse little enzymeShort response timeCationicBest rsponse timeExcellent response range3 weeks stable
146Determination of urea with an ammonia gas-sensitive semiconductor device in combination with urease F. Winquista, A. Spetza, I. Lundströma and B. DanielssonbaLaboratory of Applied Physics, Linköping Institute of Technology, S Linköping SwedenbDepartment of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Chemical Centre, University of Lund, S Lund SwedenReceived 3 April 1984. Available online 18 January 2002. AbstractAn ammonia gas-sensitive Ir/Pd MOS capacitor is used for urea determinations with the aid of urease in two different systems. One combination utilizes a reaction column with immobilized urease in a flow-injection system. The lower limit of urea detection for 150-μl samples was 0.2 μM. Urea in whole blood and blood serum was determined after a 500-fold dilution, and 15 samples per hour could be assayed. The relative standard deviation was 4.6% (n=10). Recovery tests were satisfactory. Values obtained for urea in serum correlated well with those from a spectrophotometric method. The other combination is based on a small flow cell with free urease enclosed between a dialysis membrane and a gas-permeable membrane. Urea was determined in the concentration range 0.01–50 mM. The enzyme probe could be used for up to four days without changes of behaviour.Urea BiosensorA urea biosensor on an ENFET (urease in sensing gate) pHmM urea2 weeks storage at 4 degree CResponse time 2 min.No interfering with glucosei creatinine and albumineIr-Pd MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) deviceRead the abstract
152Health CareHealth CareMesurements of blood, gases ions and metabolites regularly analyzed.Convential methods slowChemisensors and biosensorsfastLatest ExacTech® biosensor: in 12 secondProblem: sensors for different analytes needs specialist scientist (Nurse) to operate it.BUT, new smart biosensors because of FET technology (field effect transistors) that can combine several measurements in a sensor unit.Sodium, potassium, calcium and pH by one sensorGlucose, lactate and urea
154Dream for scientist to produce.... Health CareDream for scientist to produce....An implanted biosensor for continuous monitoring of a metaboliteHOWVia a microprocessor to a controlled drug-delivery system throug the skin. DiabetesAutomatit delivery system gives insulin (artifical pancrease)
155Control of Industrial Process Environmental Monitoring:
156Health CareHealth CareMesurements of blood, gases ions and metabolites regularly analyzed.Convential methods slowChemisensors and biosensorsfastLatest ExacTech® biosensor: in 12 secondProblem: sensors for different analytes needs specialist scientist (Nurse) to operate it.BUT, new smart biosensors because of FET technology (field effect transistors) that can combine several measurements in a sensor unit.Sodium, potassium, calcium and pH by one sensorGlucose, lactate and urea
157Dream for scientist to produce.... Health CareDream for scientist to produce....An implanted biosensor for continuous monitoring of a metaboliteHOWVia a microprocessor to a controlled drug-delivery system throug the skin. DiabetesAutomatit delivery system gives insulin (artifical pancrease)
158Control of Industrial Process Environmental Monitoring: