Presentation on theme: "Objectives The science of chemistry Matter and its Properties Elements."— Presentation transcript:
0 Chapter 1 Matter and Change Laura PeckPre-AP chemistryDickson County High SchoolAccompanies: Holt Modern Chemistry Text
1 ObjectivesThe science of chemistryMatter and its PropertiesElements
2 Chemistry is a Physical Science Chemistry: is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes.
3 Six Branches of Chemistry 1. Organic: studies carbon molecules created by life. (Petroleum, Plastics, biofuels, etc)2. Inorganic: studies non-organic molecules. (organometallics, metal alloys, ion batteries, glass, etc)3. Physical: The study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy (plasma TVs, energy production, etc)
4 Six Branches cont…….4. Analytical: the identification of the components and composition of materials. (blood testing, water analysis, pollution, EPA, etc)5. Biochemistry: the study of substances and processes occurring in living things. (Medical, pharmaceuticals, treatments, allergies, etc)6. Theoretical: the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds. (everything above)
5 3 Types of Research1. Basic Research: carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge. (NASA, HUBBLE, etc)2. Applied Research: Generally carried out to solve a problem (developing new drugs.. Etc)3. Technological Development: involves the production and use of products that improve our quality of life. (iPads, iPhones, Droids, etc..)
6 Matter and Its Properties Atom: smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element.Mass: measure of the amount of matter.Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space.Element: a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom.Compound: substance that can be broken down into simpler stable substances. Made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.
7 Properties and Changes in Matter Extensive properties: depend on the amount of matter that is present. (volume, mass, etc)Intensive properties: do not depend on the amount of matter present. (melting point, boiling point, etc)Physical Property: characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. (melting, boiling, etc)Physical Change: change that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance. (cutting, melting, etc)
8 Change of state: physical change from one state to another. Solid: definite volume definite shapeLiquid: definite volume indefinite shapeGas: neither definite volume nor shapePlasma: high-temperature state where most atoms lose their electrons.
9 Chemical Properties and Chemical Changes Chemical properties is the substance’s ability to change into another substance.Chemical Change ( ) or Reaction is when substances are converted into other substancesReactants: the ‘ingredients’ – wood, oxygen & heatProducts: what are formed – ash, CO2 & steamCO2H2O(Oxygen)
10 Energy and Changes in Matter Enthalpy is the amount of energy released or absorbed during a chemical or physical change (. )To melt from Ice to liquid, the H2O must absorb energy from the environment.To freeze from liquid to ice, the H2O must release energy to the environment.(energy levels) solid<liquid<gas<plasmaThe Law of Conservation of Energy dictates that energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
12 Mixtures are made from 2 or more substances that retain their identities. Homogeneous = same throughoutHeterogeneous = not uniformPure Substance has fixed composition and the same characteristic properties throughout.Compound = 2 or more elements chemically bonded togetherElement = identical atoms throughout.
13 Laboratory Chemicals and Purity Grades of Purity, but none are 100% pureYou NEVER EVERReturn a reagent backTo the original bottle.This will contaminateThe purity of yourMaster reagent!Primary Standard Reagents highestACS (American Chemical SocietySpecified reagents)USP (U.S. Pharmacopoeia standard)CP (Chemically Pure)NF (National Formulary specifications)FCC (Food Chemical Code specifications)Technical (industrial chemicals) lowest
14 Elements Groups/families: vertical columns Periods: horizontal rows Similar chemical propertiesPeriods: horizontal rowsPhysical/chemical properties change regularly across.………….……….…………………………………………………………………………….………
15 Types of ElementsMetals: an element that is a good electrical conductor and heat conductor.Properties: most are solid at room Temperature, malleability, ductile,Tensile strength, luster.Discuss the differences betweenCopper and mercury.
16 Nonmetals: poor conductors of heat and electricity. Many are gases at room temperature. Bromine is a liquid. Carbon, Phosphorous, selenium, sulfur and iodine are solids.Tend to be brittle.
17 Metalloids: Has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals. Solid at room temperature, less malleable, semiconductors, some have luster.Which metalloid isEssential for ourComputer-drivenTechnology?What State has aValley namedAfter it?
18 Noble Gases: Part of the nonmetals, these elements are gases at room temperature. Generally unreactive with other elementsWhich noble gas isClose to ‘running out’In commercial production?Discuss why its production Is limited by radioactiveDecay.
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