2The Mole Chemical reactions involve atoms and molecules. The ratios with which elements combine depend on the number of atoms not on their mass.Individual atoms and molecules are extremely small. Hence a larger unit is appropriate for measuring quantities of matter.A mole is equal to exactly the number of atoms in exactly grams of carbon 12.This number is known as Avogadro’s constant mole is equal to 6.02 x 1023 particles.One gram of H atoms contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms.
3Definitions of the Mole 1 mole of a substance has 6.02 x 1023 particles of that substance.1 mole of atoms has a mass equal to the atomic weight in grams.Examples1 mole of atoms of O is the number of atoms in 8g of O1 mole of atoms of Na is the number of atoms in 23g of Na1 mole H2O is the number of molecules in 18g H2O1 mole H2 is the number of molecules in 2g H2.1 mole of any gas at STP is equal to 22.4 dm3. STP is defined as 0 oC and 1 atmosphere of pressure.
4The Molar and Formula Mass The Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a substanceThe units for Molar Mass are g mol-1.The formula mass is the sum of atomic masses in a formula.If the formula is a molecular formula, then the formula mass may also be called a molecular mass.Example: H2OFrom the Periodic Table - Atomic Masses: H = , O =The formula mass = 2( ) =
5Formula Mass and the Mole The atomic mass of Carbon 12 is exactly1 atomic mass unit = 1/12 of the atomic mass of carbon 12.The periodic table gives the average atomic mass for an element relative to Carbon 12.1 mole of a substance is 6.02 x 1023 particles.The mole of atomic mass units is equal to gram.
6Example 1: Calculating the Molar Mass of a Compound Calculate the formula mass or Molar Mass of Na3PO4.Atom#Atomic MassTotalNa3X=69.0P1X31.0O4X64.0164.0Therefore the molar mass is g mol-1
7Example 2: Find the mass of 2.50 moles of Ca(OH)2 Find the molar mass of Calcium hydroxide and multiply by 2.50 molThe molar mass of Ca(OH)2 is1 Ca x =2 O x =2 H x =Molar Mass = g mol-12.50 mol x g mol-1 = g
8Calculating Moles Moles = Mass The number of moles in a given mass of a substance can be determined by dividing the mass by the molar massMoles =MassMolar Mass
9Example 3:Find the number of moles in grams of Ca(OH)2 Find the molar mass of and divide it into the given mass From the previous example the molar mass of calcium hydroxide is gmol g Ca(OH)2 . = mol g mol-1 Ca(OH)2
10Calculating Mass From Moles The mass of a quantity of a substance can be found by multiplying the number of moles by the molar massMass =Moles X Molar Mass
11Example 4 Calculating Mass from Moles Calculate the mass of 2.50 moles of Na3PO4Mass =Moles X Molar Mass=2.50 mol x g mol-1409 g
12Percentage Composition To find the percentage of each element in a compound it is necessary to compare the total mass of each element with the formula mass.The percent by mass of each element in a compound is equal to the percentage that its atomic mass is to the formula mass.Example: Calculate the percentage of oxygen in potassium chlorate, KClO3Atomic masses: K = 39.09, Cl = and O =Formula mass = (16.00) =Percent Oxygen = (3(16.00)/122.54) (100)= 39.17%
13ExampleCalculate the percentage by mass of each element in potassium carbonate, K2CO3First calculate the formula mass for K2CO3 .2 Potassium atoms K x =1 carbon atom C x =3 Oxygen atoms O x =Total =To find the percent of each element divide the part of the formula mass that pertains to that element with the total formula massPercent of Potassium K = X =56.58 %138.21Percent of Carbon C = X = %Percent of Oxygen O = X = %
14Empirical Formula Determination The empirical formula is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a substanceExample: CH2Ois the empirical formula for methanal (CH2O), ethanoic acid (C2H4O2) and glucose (C6H12O6)To find the empirical formula of a compound:Divide the amount of each element (either in mass or percentage) by its atomic mass. This calculation gives you moles of atoms for each element that appears in the formulaConvert the results to small whole number ratios. Often the ratios are obvious. If they are not divide all of the other quotients by the smallest quotient
15ExampleAnalysis of a certain compound showed that grams of compound contained grams of hydrogen, grams of Carbon, and grams of Oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula of the compound.First divide the amount by the atomic mass to get the number of moles of each kind of atom in the formulaHydrogen H = g = mol1.01 g mol-1Carbon C = g = mol12.01 g mol-1Oxygen O = g = mol16.00 g mol-1Analysis of the ratios shows that the first two are identical and that the third is twice the other two. Therefore the ratio of H to C to O is 1 to 1 to 2. The empirical formula is HCO2
16Molecular FormulaGives the actual number of atoms of each element in a moleculeTo calculate the molecular formula from the empirical formula it is necessary to know the molecular (molar) mass.Add up the atomic masses in the empirical formula to get the factorDivide this number into the molecular formula mass.If the number does not divide evenly you probably have a mistake in the empirical formula or its formula massMultiply each subscript in the empirical formula by the factor to get the molecular formula
17Molecular Formula Example Example: Suppose the molecular mass of the compound in the previous example, HCO2 is Calculate the molecular formula.The empirical formula mass of is1 H x 1 =1 C x =2 O x =Total45 is exactly half of the molecular mass of 90.So the formula mass of HCO2 is exactly half of the molecular mass. So the molecular formula is double that of the empirical formula or H2C2O4
18Structural formulaShows the arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule.Two compounds with same molecular formula but different structural formula are known as isomers or structural isomers.
20Stoichiometry Problems Stoichiometry problems involve the calculation of amounts of materials in a chemical reaction from known quantities in the same reactionThe substance whose amount is known is the given substanceThe substance whose amount is to be determined is the required substance
21Mass to Mass ProblemsGoal: To calculate the mass of a substance that appears in a chemical reaction from the mass of a given substance in the same reaction.The given substance is the substance whose mass is known.The required substance is the substance whose mass is to be determined.
22Steps in a Mass to Mass Problem Find the formula masses for the given and the required substancesConvert the given mass to moles by dividing it by the molar massMultiple the given moles by the mole ratio to get the moles of the required substanceMultiple the number of moles of the required substance by its molar mass to get the mass of the required substance
24Example 1 Mass-Mass Problem Glucose burns in oxygen to form CO2 and H2O according to this equation:C6H12O O2 6 CO H2OHow many grams of CO2 are produced from burning 45.0 g of glucose?
25Example 2 Mass-Mass Problem What mass of Barium chloride is required to react with 48.6 grams of sodium phosphate according to the following reaction:2 Na3PO4 + 3BaCl2 Ba3(PO4) NaCl
26Example 2 = 92.6 g of BaCl2 2 Na3PO4 + 3BaCl2 Ba3(PO4)2 + 6 NaCl What mass of Barium chloride is required to react with 48.6 grams of sodium phosphate according to the following reaction2 Na3PO4 + 3BaCl2 Ba3(PO4) NaClMolar Masses: Na3PO4 = 3(23.0) (16.0) =164 g mol-1BaCl2 = (35.5) = g mol-148.6g Na3PO4x3 mol BaCl2208.3 g mol-1 BaCl2164.0 g mol-1 Na3PO42 mol Na3PO4= 92.6 g of BaCl2
27Example 3What mass of carbon dioxide is produced from burning 100 grams of ethanol in oxygen according to the following reaction :C2H5OH + 3 O2 CO H2O
28Example 3 C2H5OH + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 3 H2O = 191.3 g CO2 What mass of carbon dioxide is produced from burning 100 grams of ethanol in oxygen according to the following reaction :C2H5OH + 3 O2 CO H2OMolar Masses: C2H5OH = 2(12) +6(1)+ 16 = 46CO2 = (16) =100.0 g C2H5OHx2 mol CO2X44.0 g mol-1 CO246.0 g mol-11 mol C2H5OH= g CO2
30Mass to Volume Problems Goal: To calculate the volume of a gas that appears in a chemical reaction from the mass of a given substance in the same reaction.Remember 1 mole of any gas at STP is equal to 22.4 dm3. STP is defined as 0 oC and 1 atmosphere of pressure.
31Steps in a Mass to Volume Problem Find the gram formula masses for the given substance.Convert the given mass to moles by dividing it by the molar massMultiple the given moles by the mole ratio to get the moles of the required substanceMultiple the number of moles of the required substance by the molar volume, 22.4 dm3 mol-1, to get the volume of the required substance.This procedure is only valid if the required substance is a gas. It does not work for solids, liquids, or solutions.
32Example 1 Mass-Volume Problem Sucrose burns in oxygen to form CO2 and H2O according to this equation:C12H22O O2 12 CO H2OWhat volume of CO2 measured at STP is produced from burning 100 g of sucrose?
33Example 2 Mass-Volume Problem What volume of carbon dioxide gas would be produced by reacting 25.0 g of sodium carbonate with hydrochloric acid according to the following reaction:Na2CO HCl 2 NaCl + CO2 + H2O= 5.28 dm3 of CO2
35Solutions and Stoichiometry Many times the reactants and/or products of chemical reactions are water solutions.In these cases the concentration of the solution must be determined in order to determine amounts of reactants or productsThe concentration of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given amount of solution
36Molarity The most common concentration unit is Molarity Molarity (M) = Moles of solutedm3 of solution
37Molarity Calculations How many grams of NaOH are required to prepare 250 cm3 of M solution?Molar Mass of NaOH = = 40.0 g/mol250 cm3 = dm3(0.500 mol) x(40.0 g)x (0.250 dm3 )= 5.00 g( dm ) x( mol )
38Molarity Calculations Calculate the concentration of a NaCl solution that contains 24.5 g of NaCl in 250 cm3 of solution.Molar mass of NaCl = = 58.5(24.5 g NaCl)X1= 1.67 M(58.5 g mol-1 )(0.250 dm3 )
39Stoichiometry Calculations Involving Solutions 1 Copper metal reacts with nitric acid according to the following reaction:8 HNO3 (aq) Cu 3 Cu(NO3)2 (aq) H2O (l) NO (g)What volume of M HNO3 would be required to consume a copper penny whose mass is 3.08 grams?(3.08 g Cu )(8 mol HNO3)(1 dm3)( 1000 cm3)(63.55 g mol-1 Cu )(3 mol Cu)= 16.2 cm3
40Stoichiometry Calculations Involving Solutions 2 15.0 cm3 of a M AgNO3 solution is required to precipitate the sodium chloride in 10 cm3 of a salt solution. What is the concentration of the solution?AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) +KNO3 (aq)Molar Mass NaCl = = 58.5 g/mol0.500 mol AgNO3 Xdm3 x1 mol NaCl X58.5 g mol NaCldm31 mol AgNO3= g of NaCl0.439 g of NaCl x58.5 g mol dm3= mol dm-3 or 0.75 M
41Cookie Recipe Recipe Ingredients 1 cube butter 1 cup canola oil 2 cups white sugar1 egg1 teaspoon vanilla extract1/2 teaspoon salt1 teaspoon baking soda4 1/2 cups all-purpose flour1 cup oatmeal1 (12 ounce) package chocolate chipsMakes 24 cookiesIn my cupboard I have:5 cubes butter8 cups canola oil8 cups white sugar12 eggs20 teaspoons vanilla extract1 pound salt40 teaspoons baking soda45 cups all-purpose flour30 cups oatmeal5 (12 ounce) packages chocolate chips5 pounds of dog biscuitsHow many cookies I can make with out going to the store?
42Limiting ReagentAlthough we have been basing our calculations thus far on only one of the reactants in a chemical reaction, the reaction will only occur if we have all of the reactantsThe mole ratio determines how much of each reactant we need for the reactionOften we have an excess of one of the reactantsThen not all of that reactant will be used up. There will be some left over.It is known as the excess reagent.The other reactant will be used up and it will determine the amount of product we can form.It is known as the limiting reagent
43Limiting ReagentTo determine which of the reagents is the limiting reagentCalculate the number of moles of each reactantMultiply first reactant by the appropriate mole ratio to get the number of moles of the second reactant that you need.Compare the amount of the second reactant you have to the amount you need .If you have more than you need it is in excess and the first reactant is the limiting reagentIf you have less of the second reactant than you need it becomes the limiting reagentUse the number of moles of the limiting reagent to calculate the required quantity in the problem
44Limiting Reagent Example 1 Barium chloride reacts with potassium phosphate as follows:3 BaCl2 (aq) + 2 K3PO4(aq) à 6 KCl (aq) + Ba3(PO4)2 (s)Calculate the mass of barium phosphate that could be formed when a solution containing g of potassium phosphate is added to a solution containing g of barium chloride.Molar mass potassium phosphate = 3(39.10) + (30.97) + 4(16.00) = g mol-1Molar mass barium chloride = (137.34) + 2(35.45) = g mol-1Molar mass barium phosphate = 3(137.34)+ 2(30.97)+(8)(16.00) = g mol-1Moles barium chloride = g / g mol-1 = molMoles potassium phosphate = g / g mol-1 = molThe mole ratio is 3 mol BaCl2 to 2 mol K3PO4. While there are more moles of BaCl2 than K3PO4, It is not 1.5 times greater. Therefore BaCl2 is the limiting reagent and all other calculations will be based on barium chloride.( mol BaCl2) (1mol Ba3(PO4)2) ( g mol-1 Ba3(PO4)2 )( 3 mol BaCl2)= g of Ba3(PO4)2
45Percentage YieldChemical reactions frequently do not proceed to completion.The amount of product recovered is often less than would be predicted from stoichiometric calculations.In these situations it is helpful to calculate a percent yield.
46Percent YieldThe Theoretical Yield is defined as the amount of product(s) calculated using Stoichiometry calculationsThe Actual Yield is the amount of product that can actually be recovered when the reaction is done in a lab.The Percent Yield is calculated as followsActual yieldx 100Theoretical yield
47Percent YieldIron reacts with copper sulfate in a single replacement reaction as follows Fe (s) + CuSO4 (aq) FeSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)30.00 grams of iron metal were added to excess were added to excess copper sulfate dissolved in a water solution grams of copper were recovered. Calculate the theoretical yield of copper in this experiment .1. First calculate the theoretical yield(30.00 g Fe) (1 mol Cu ) (63.55 g mol-1 Cu)(55.85 g mol-1 Fe) (1 mol Fe )2. Divide the actual yield by the theoretical yield and multiply by 100= g Cu22.50 g Cu34.14 g CuX 100 = %