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By : Asef pourmasoumi Hossein Kamyar

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1 By : Asef pourmasoumi Hossein Kamyar
NLP Tools By : Asef pourmasoumi Hossein Kamyar Supervisor : Dr. Kahani

2 NLP Tasks Sentence splitter & Tokenizer Stemming Discourse analysis
Coreference Resolution Named entity recognition (NER) Natural language generation Natural language understanding Part of speech tagging (POS) Optical character recognition (OCR) Semantic role labeling (SRL) Parsing & Chunker Relationship extraction Question answering Text Summarization Summarization Evaluation NLP Tasks

3 NLP Tasks Machine Translation Sentiment analysis Speech recognition
Speech segmentation Topic segmentation Word sense disambiguation Text simplification Text-to-speech Query expansion RTE Text to image Clustering & Classification & IR And … NLP Tasks

4 Sentence splitter & Tokenizer
Sentence breaking ,sentence boundary disambiguation GATE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS Sentence Segmentation tool download link : UNIVERSITY OF STANFORD including the part-of-speech (POS) tagger, the named entity recognizer (NER), the parser, and the coreference resolution system. download link : MontyTagger link : Ling Pipe OpenNLP link : Natural Language Toolkit open source Python modules, Windows, Mac OSX and Linux. link : Sentence splitter & Tokenizer

5 Oleander Porter's algorithm - stemming library in C++ released under BSD
Lovins stemming algorithm - with source code in a couple of languages Porter stemming algorithm - including source code in several languages Lancaster stemming algorithm - Lancaster University, UK UEA-Lite Stemmer - University of East Anglia, UK Themis - open source IR framework, includes Porter stemmer implementation (PostgreSQL, Java API) Snowball - free stemming algorithms for many languages, includes source code, including stemmers for five romance languages PTStemmer - A Java/Python/.Net stemming toolkit for the Portuguese language jsSnowball - open source JavaScript implementation of Snowball stemming algorithms for many languages hindi_stemmer - open source stemmer for Hindi czech_stemmer - open source stemmer for Czech Stemming

6 Coreference Resolution
CR determines which words("mentions") refer to the same objects ("entities"). Illinois has online & downloadable CR UNIVERSITY OF STANFORD integrated in the Stanford suite of NLP tools, StanfordCoreNLP. download link : Ling Pipe OpenNLP link : Natural Language Toolkit download link : BART (Beautiful Anaphora Resolution Toolkit.) download link : Guitar (A General Tool for Anaphora Resolution) download link : Coreference Resolution

7 Named entity recognition
Given a stream of text, determine which items in the text map to proper names, such as people or places, and what the type of each such name is (e.g. person, location, organization). Illinois Stanford Natural Language Processing Group link : downloadable (written in java) English & German. Ling Pipe OpenNLP link : Natural Language Toolkit link : Named entity recognition

8 Given a sentence, determine the part of speech for each word
Given a sentence, determine the part of speech for each word. Many words, especially common ones, can serve as multiple parts of speech. For example, "book" can be a noun ("the book on the table") or verb ("to book a flight"). Illinois Stanford Natural Language Processing Group link : downloadable (written in java). English, Arabic, Chinese. Ling Pipe OpenNLP link : MontyTagger link : Natural Language Toolkit open source Python modules, Windows, Mac OSX and Linux. link : GATE And many others in Part of speech tagging

9 Semantic role labeling
Illinois has online & downloadable SRL MontyTagger Link : ASSERT (Automatic Statistical SEmantic Role Tagger) Link : Downloadable, OS : RedHat Linux It is designed and implemented by Sameer S. Pradhan, with some initial contribution from Daniel Gildea at the University of Rochester. ASSERT is trained to tag: i) PropBank arguments, ii) Thematic roles, and iii) Opinions, in plain text. SwiRL: The Semantic Role Labeler English constructed on top of full syntactic analysis of text using Eugene Charniak's parser. SwiRL trains one classifier for each argument label using a rich set of syntactic and semantic features. Link : CoNLL-2005 Shared Task: Semantic Role Labeling: Systems & Results Link : Semantic role labeling

10 Parser & Chunker link :
Determine the parse tree (grammatical analysis) of a given sentence Illinois Stanford link : downloadable (written in java), English , Arabic, Chinese. OpenNLP link : Natural Language Toolkit link : Parser & Chunker

11 Question answering List of question-and-answer websites Website
Founded Alexa Ranking Registration? Allexperts 1998 1957 No AOL Answers 2006 6634 Yes Answerbag 2003 1128 Answers 2005 127 Askpedia 123765 Ask Me Help Desk 6686 Askville Blurtit 1716 ChaCha 1198 Experts Exchange 1996 1424 Wolfram Alpha 2009 3883 Wikipedia Reference Desk 2001 7 Question answering

12 Automatic Summarization
Produce a readable summary of a chunk of text. Often used to provide summaries of text of a known type, such as articles in the financial section of a newspaper. Other Multi-document online text summarizer Automatic Summarization

13 Summarization Evaluation
ROUGE (Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation) Link : Downloadable, written in Perl. MEADeval: (An Evaluation Framework for Extractive Summarization) Link: Downloadable, written in Perl Summarization Evaluation

14 Machine Translation Stanford : Entailment-based MT evaluation
EGYPT system System from 1999 JHU workshop. Mainly of historical interest. GIZA++ and mkcls Franz Och. C++. GPL. Thot Phrase-based model building kit Phramer An Open-Source Java Statistical Phrase-Based MT Decoder Moses A new open-source phrase-based MT decoder with functionality beyond Pharaoh. SRILM : For creating n-grams. Syntax Augmented Machine Translation via Chart Parsing Andreas Zollmann and Ashish Venugopal Rewrite a decoder for IBM Model BLEU scoring tool for machine translation evaluation Free, but getting them requires hassle Pharaoh decoder Philip Koehn, ISI. MTTK Machine Translation Tool Kit. Deng and Byrne. Stanford : Entailment-based MT evaluation Link : Downloadable (written in java) It is based on the Stanford RTE system, which performs inference between two short texts, determining if one is entailed by the other. We use this inference mechanism to predict the adequacy of MT system output at the segment level compared to a reference translation. Machine Translation

15 Topic segmentation Stanford
Given a chunk of text, separate it into segments each of which is devoted to a topic, and identify the topic of the segment. Stanford Link : Downloadable (written in java) English , Arabic, Chinese version 14.7MB, Features Import and manipulate text from cells in Excel and other spreadsheets. Train topic models (LDA and Labeled LDA) to create summaries of the text. Select parameters (such as the number of topics) via a data-driven process. Generate rich Excel-compatible outputs for tracking word usage across topics, time, and other groupings of data. Topic segmentation

16 Word sense disambiguation
Many words have more than one meaning; we have to select the meaning which makes the most sense in context. For this problem, we are typically given a list of words and associated word senses, e.g. from a dictionary or from an online resource such as WordNet. WordNet::SenseRelate Link : Two different word sense disambiguation algorithms, WordNet-SenseRelate-AllWords :Assigns a sense to each word in a text. WordNet-SenseRelate-TargetWord : Assigns a sense to a given target word. WordNet-SenseRelate-WordToSet : Assigns the meaning to a word that is most related to a given set of words. They carry out word sense disambiguation by measuring the semantic similarity between a word and its neighbors. In particular, a word is assigned the sense that is most related to its neighbors. GWSD is a system for unsupervised all-words graph-based word sense disambiguation Link : Word sense disambiguation

17 List of Toolkits Name Language Creators site AlchemyAPI [1]
C, C++, C#, Java, Python, Perl, Ruby Orchestr8 [1] Antelope framework C#, Proxem [2] Apertium C++, Java (various) [3] Cogito Expert System S.p.A. [4] Carabao Language Kit Any COM+ compliant language. Digital Sonata Pty Ltd [5] DELPH-IN LISP, C++ Deep Linguistic Processing with HPSG Initiative [6] Distinguo C++ Ultralingua Inc. [7] Ellogon C / C++ Georgios Petasis [8] FreeLing Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya [9] General Architecture for Text Engineering Java GATE open source community [10] Graph Expression Startup [11] Learning Based Java Cognitive Computation Group at the University of Illinois [12] LingPipe Alias-i [13] LinguaStream University of Caen, France [14] List of Toolkits

18 List of Toolkits Name Language Creators site Mallet MII nlp toolkit
Java University of Massachusetts Amherst [15] MII nlp toolkit UCLA Medical Imaging Informatics (MII) Group [16] Modular Audio Recognition Framework The MARF Research and Development Group, Concordia University [17] MontyLingua Python, Java MIT [18] Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) Python [19] NooJ (based on INTEX) .NET University of Franche-Comté, France [20] OpenNLP Online community [21] Rosette C, C++, Java, .NET Basis Technology [22] ScalaNLP Scala David Hall and Daniel Ramage [23] Stanford NLP The Stanford Natural Language Processing Group [24] Text Engineering Software Laboratoryz(Tesla) University of Cologne [25] Thinktelligence Delegator Thinktelligence Corporation [26] UIMA Java / C++ Apache [27] WebLab-project OW2 [28] UniteX Java & C++ Laboratoire d'Automatique Documentaire et Linguistique [29] The Dragon Toolkit Drexel University [30] Factorie [31] Silpa Indic Language Processing Toolkit Silpa opensource community developers [32] List of Toolkits

19 Example : Houston, Monday, July Men have landed and walked on the moon. Two Americans, astronauts of Apollo 11, steered their fragile four-legged lunar module safely and smoothly to the historic landing yesterday at 4:17:40 P.M., Eastern daylight time. Neil A. Armstrong, the 38-year-old civilian commander, radioed to earth and the mission control room here: "Houston, Tranquility Base here; the Eagle has landed." Online version. Java source code is downloadable. Part of speech tagging

20 Part of speech tagging

21 Part of speech tagging

22 Online version. Perl source code is downloadable. Semantic Role Labeling

23 Java source code is downloadable.
Example : Houston, Monday, July Men have landed and walked on the moon. Two Americans, astronauts of Apollo 11, steered their fragile four-legged lunar module safely and smoothly to the historic landing yesterday at 4:17:40 P.M., Eastern daylight time. Neil A. Armstrong, the 38-year-old civilian commander, radioed to earth and the mission control room here: "Houston, Tranquility Base here; the Eagle has landed.” Online version. Java source code is downloadable. Named entity recognition

24 Named entity recognition
Example : Houston, Monday, July Men have landed and walked on the moon. Two Americans, astronauts of Apollo 11, steered their fragile four-legged lunar module safely and smoothly to the historic landing yesterday at 4:17:40 P.M., Eastern daylight time. Neil A. Armstrong, the 38-year-old civilian commander, radioed to earth and the mission control room here: "Houston, Tranquility Base here; the Eagle has landed.” Named entity recognition

25 Online version. Java source code is downloadable. Coreference Resolution

26 Online version. Java source code is downloadable. Coreference Resolution

27 Online version. Java source code is downloadable. Parser & Chunker

28 Online version for Arabic, English, Chinese
Java source code is downloadable. Parser & Chunker

29 Automatic Summarization

30 Automatic Summarization

31 Automatic Summarization

32 Automatic Summarization

33 Automatic Summarization
TEHRAN, July 18, 2011 (AFP) - Iran has taken "full control" of three camps of the Iranian Kurdish rebel PJAK movement inside neighbouring Iraq, a a commander of the elite Revolutionary Guards told the official IRNA news agency on Monday. "All the three camps on Iraqi soil that were backing the terrorist group have fallen under our control and we have full control of the area," said Colonel Delavar Ranjbarzadeh, who commands Revolutionary Guards in the northwestern Iran border town of Sardasht. He added that operations launched on Saturday inside Iraq were still continuing in other areas but he did not give more details. Ranjbarzadeh added that a member of the Revolutionary Guards was killed in the fighting and three others wounded and that "many anti-revolutionary and PJAK terrorist members were (also) killed.” On Sunday IRNA quoted an unnamed source in Sardasht as saying "five PJAK members were killed in the clashes.” "Among those killed, is the deputy head of Marvan camp," Ranjbarzadeh said. He described Marvan as the "main camp for the PJAK terrorist group", adding that 30 members of the group had been living there for the past four years. On Sunday a spokesman for the PJAK told AFP in Iraq that Iranian forces had suffered several casualties in the fighting near the Banjaween area of Iraq Kurdistan's Sulaimaniyah province. "Since midnight (2100 GMT Saturday), heavy battles have been ongoing between PJAK and the Iranian army, resulting in two killed and four wounded," said PJAK spokesman Sherzad Kamankar.. Last week a senior army official said Tehran "reserves the right" to attack the bases of the Party of Free Life of Kurdistan (PJAK), in Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region.. "We reserve the right to attack and destroy terrorist bases in border areas" near the autonomous Iraqi region of Kurdistan, the official was quoted as saying by IRNA on July 11. "The terrorists will not be allowed to take sanctuary in Iraq's territory and attack Iran with the support of America and the Zionist regime," the official said. "Action will be taken against these terrorists.” Iranian forces regularly shell border districts of Iraq's Kurdish region, targeting PJAK bases Automatic Summarization

34 LDC (Linguistic Data Consortium) link and its catalogue by year
LDC (Linguistic Data Consortium) link and its catalogue by year. Provides the largest range of corpora on CD-ROM. Cost ranges from cheap (e.g., ACL-DCI disk) to pricey. CDs can be purchased individually; institutions can become members and receive discounts on CDs. European Language Resources Association link and its catalogue. Distribution agency is ELDA. Rapidly growing collection of materials in European languages. ICAME (International Computer Archive of Modern English) link Sells various corpora (including Brown and London-Lund). NIST link Reuters corpora are now distributed by NIST. TRACTOR link TELRI Research Archive of Computational Tools and Resource. Corpora, many multilingual, in European community languages. CLR (Consortium for Lexical Research) link. Focuses more on language processing tools and lexicons, but does have some corpora. OTA (Oxford Text Archive) link Provides mainly literary texts. Has a bright new web site. Most materials are available on the web or by anonymous ftp to Leipzig Corpora Collection link Sentence collections in MySQL database for 17 mainly European languages. Corpora

35 BNC (British National Corpus) link A 100 million word corpus of British English And now, an XML edition. European Corpus Initiative Multilingual Corpus I (ECI/MCI)link A 98 million word corpus, covering most of the major European languages, as well as Turkish, Japanese, Russian, Chinese, and Malay. Cheap. Survey of English Usage link At the Department of English Language and Literature at University College London. Includes the British part of ICE, the International Corpus of English project. Now available tagged, and parsed for function. 83,419 sentences. Includes ICECUP, dedicated retrieval software. Also, Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English (800,000 words, tagged and parsed, half from ICE-GB and half from London-Lund). International Corpus of English (ICE)link Million word collections of English from various world Englishes: ICE-NZ, ICE-HK, ICE-East Africa, etc. Corpora held by Lancaster University link This link provides its own annotations. The European Language Activity Network link Promises a uniform query language for accessing corpora in all EU languages -- but isn't quite there yet. Talkbank link. Rich video and transcripts. Corpora

36 Academic departments with computational linguistics programs
Institute for Communicating and Collaborative Systems at the University of Edinburgh Institute for Research in Cognitive Science at the University of Pennsylvania Computational Linguistics & Phonetics at Saarland University Computational Linguistics and Language Technology at Ohio State University Stanford Natural Language Processing Group Computational Linguistics at the University of Washington Human Language Technology Research Institute at the University of Texas at Dallas Department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (Cognitive Computation Group) Center for Language and Speech Processing at Johns Hopkins University Non-university computational linguistics groups German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence NLP Research Group

37 NLP Research Sponsors Summer Internships and Opportunities
Google Internships Summer of Code 2008 custom essay Data Science Summer Institute NLP Research Sponsors

38 Blogs, Video Lectures Blogs Video lectures Hal Daume III's NLP blog
LingPipe blog (Bob Carpenter) Fernando Pereira's Structured Learning blog Language Log John Langford's Machine Learning blog Jamie Pennebaker's Wordwatcher's blog Video lectures ACL Video Archive Videos of Machine Learning lectures Machine Learning and Cognitive Science 2007 – includes talks by Chris Manning, Sharon Goldwater, John Goldsmith, and others. MIT workshop: Where Does Syntax Come From? Have We All Been Wrong? – speakers include Chris Manning, Noam Chomsky, Partha Niyogi, Howard Lasnik and Joshua Tenenbaum. NIPS 2007 tutorials – including Geoffrey Hinton, Ben Taskar, and Robert Shapire. Graduate Summer School: Probabilistic Models of Cognition: The Mathematics of Mind (July , 2007) – slides and webcast links of all the talks. A lot of good introductory stuffs on graphical models, Bayesian learning, etc. Microsoft Research – Videos on Researchchannel. Google Roundtable Blogs, Video Lectures

39 Conferences General (World Wide): ACL / ANLP / COLING / LREC / HLT
General (USA): NAACL / CICLING General (Europe): EACL / RANLP / AMLaP General (Asia): ijc-NLP (formerly, NLPRS) / PACLIC / PACLING / JNLP / IALP Formal Grammar: FG / LFG / HPSG / TAG+ Machine Learning: ICML / ECML / NIPS Statistical NLP: EMNLP / CoNLL / WVLC Information Retrieval: SIGIR / ECIR Computational Semantics: IWCS / ICoS Others: IWPT / WAS / MOL / SENSEVAL / FSMNLP Conferences

40 Journals NLP/CL Computational Linguistics link
Natural Language Engineering link Journal on Research on Language and Computation link Language Resources and Evaluation link (Formerly Computers and the Humanities) Research on Language and Computation link (More) Logic, Language and Information link Computer Speech and Language link Linguistic Issues in Language Technology link (LiLT) Journal of Interesting Negative Results in Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning CfP: Interesting Negative Results in Summarization link Terminology link Traitement Automatique des Langues link CfP: Special Issue on Scaling NLP link Texto! link Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory link ICAME Journal link Journals

41 Journals IR/IS Speech Processing Information Retrieval link
D-Lib Magazine link Information Processing & Management link Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology link Information Science link Information Development link Information Design Journal + Document Design link Speech Processing International Journal of Speech Technology link Speech Communication link Journal of the Acoustical Society of America link IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing link IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech & Language Processing link CfP: Special Issue on New Approaches to Statistical Speech and Text Processing link Journals

42 Journals Linguistics Discourse/Pragmatics Language@Internet link
Lingua link Natural Language & Linguistic Theory link Natural Language Semantics link Cambridge Occassional Papers in Linguistics link System link Speculative Grammarian link Discourse/Pragmatics Discourse Processes link Text & Talk link Multicultural Discourses link Journal of Pragmatics link Journals

43 Journals Language and Identity Language in Society link
Journal of Language, Identity, and Education link Language & Intercultural Communication link BioInformatics Bioinformatics link Biomedical Informatics link Applied Bioinformatics link Online Journal of Bioinformatics link In Silico Biology link Artificial Intelligence in Medicine link Journals

44 Supplementary Links
Supplementary Links

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