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NLP Tools By : Asef pourmasoumi Hossein Kamyar Supervisor : Dr. Kahani.

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1 NLP Tools By : Asef pourmasoumi Hossein Kamyar Supervisor : Dr. Kahani

2 NLP Tasks Sentence splitter & Tokenizer Stemming Discourse analysis Coreference Resolution Named entity recognition (NER) Natural language generation Natural language understanding Part of speech tagging (POS) Optical character recognition (OCR) Semantic role labeling (SRL) Parsing & Chunker Relationship extraction Question answering Text Summarization Summarization Evaluation

3 NLP Tasks Machine Translation Sentiment analysis Speech recognition Speech segmentation Topic segmentation Word sense disambiguation Text simplification Text-to-speech Query expansion RTE Text to image Clustering & Classification & IR And …

4 Sentence splitter & Tokenizer GATE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS Sentence Segmentation tool download link : UNIVERSITY OF STANFORD including the part-of-speech (POS) tagger, the named entity recognizer (NER), the parser, and the coreference resolution system. download link : MontyTagger link : Ling Pipe OpenNLP link : Natural Language Toolkit open source Python modules, Windows, Mac OSX and Linux. link : Sentence breaking,sentence boundary disambiguation

5 Stemming Oleander Porter's algorithm - stemming library in C++ released under BSD Lovins stemming algorithm - with source code in a couple of languages Porter stemming algorithm - including source code in several languages Lancaster stemming algorithm - Lancaster University, UK UEA-Lite Stemmer - University of East Anglia, UK Themis - open source IR framework, includes Porter stemmer implementation (PostgreSQL, Java API) Snowball - free stemming algorithms for many languages, includes source code, including stemmers for five romance languages PTStemmer - A Java/Python/.Net stemming toolkit for the Portuguese language jsSnowball - open source JavaScript implementation of Snowball stemming algorithms for many languages hindi_stemmer - open source stemmer for Hindi czech_stemmer - open source stemmer for Czech

6 Coreference Resolution Illinois has online & downloadable CR UNIVERSITY OF STANFORD integrated in the Stanford suite of NLP tools, StanfordCoreNLP.StanfordCoreNLP download link : Ling Pipe OpenNLP link : Natural Language Toolkit download link : BART (Beautiful Anaphora Resolution Toolkit.) download link : Guitar (A General Tool for Anaphora Resolution) download link : CR determines which words("mentions") refer to the same objects ("entities").

7 Named entity recognition Given a stream of text, determine which items in the text map to proper names, such as people or places, and what the type of each such name is (e.g. person, location, organization). Illinois Stanford Natural Language Processing Group link : downloadable (written in java) English & German. Ling Pipe OpenNLP link : Natural Language Toolkit link :

8 Part of speech tagging Illinois Stanford Natural Language Processing Group link : downloadable (written in java). English, Arabic, Chinese. Ling Pipe OpenNLP link : MontyTagger link : Natural Language Toolkit open source Python modules, Windows, Mac OSX and Linux. link : GATE And many others in Given a sentence, determine the part of speech for each word. Many words, especially common ones, can serve as multiple parts of speech. For example, "book" can be a noun ("the book on the table") or verb ("to book a flight").

9 Semantic role labeling Illinois has online & downloadable SRL MontyTagger Link : ASSERT (Automatic Statistical SEmantic Role Tagger) Link : Downloadable, OS : RedHat Linux It is designed and implemented by Sameer S. Pradhan, with some initial contribution from Daniel Gildea at the University of Rochester.Sameer S. Pradhan Daniel Gildea ASSERT is trained to tag: i) PropBank arguments, ii) Thematic roles, and iii) Opinions, in plain text.PropBank SwiRL: The Semantic Role Labeler English constructed on top of full syntactic analysis of text using Eugene Charniak's parser. SwiRL trains one classifier for each argument label using a rich set of syntactic and semantic features. Link : CoNLL-2005 Shared Task: Semantic Role Labeling: Systems & Results Link :

10 Parser & Chunker Illinois Stanford link : downloadable (written in java), English, Arabic, Chinese. OpenNLP link : Natural Language Toolkit link : Determine the parse tree (grammatical analysis) of a given sentence

11 Question answering List of question-and-answer websites WebsiteFoundedAlexa RankingRegistration? Allexperts No AOL Answers Yes Answerbag Answers No Askpedia Ask Me Help Desk Yes AskvilleYes Blurtit ChaCha1198 Experts Exchange Yes Wolfram Alpha No Wikipedia Reference Desk20017No

12 Automatic Summarization Produce a readable summary of a chunk of text. Often used to provide summaries of text of a known type, such as articles in the financial section of a newspaper. Other Multi-document online text summarizer

13 Summarization Evaluation ROUGE (Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation) Link : Downloadable, written in Perl. MEADeval: ( An Evaluation Framework for Extractive Summarization) Link: Downloadable, written in Perl

14 Machine Translation Stanford : Entailment-based MT evaluation Link : Downloadable (written in java) It is based on the Stanford RTE system, which performs inference between two short texts, determining if one is entailed by the other. We use this inference mechanism to predict the adequacy of MT system output at the segment level compared to a reference translation. EGYPT system System from 1999 JHU workshop. Mainly of historical interest.EGYPT system GIZA++ and mkcls Franz Och. C++. GPL.GIZA++mkcls Thot Phrase-based model building kitThot Phramer An Open-Source Java Statistical Phrase-Based MT DecoderPhramer Moses A new open-source phrase-based MT decoder with functionality beyond Pharaoh.Moses SRILM : For creating n-grams.SRILM Syntax Augmented Machine Translation via Chart Parsing Andreas Zollmann and Ashish VenugopalSyntax Augmented Machine Translation via Chart Parsing Rewrite a decoder for IBM ModelRewrite BLEU scoring tool for machine translation evaluationBLEU scoring tool Free, but getting them requires hassle Pharaoh decoder Philip Koehn, ISI.Pharaoh decoder MTTK Machine Translation Tool Kit. Deng and Byrne.MTTK

15 Topic segmentation Given a chunk of text, separate it into segments each of which is devoted to a topic, and identify the topic of the segment. Stanford Link : Downloadable (written in java) English, Arabic, Chinese version 14.7MB, Features Import and manipulate text from cells in Excel and other spreadsheets. Train topic models (LDA and Labeled LDA) to create summaries of the text. Select parameters (such as the number of topics) via a data-driven process. Generate rich Excel-compatible outputs for tracking word usage across topics, time, and other groupings of data.

16 Word sense disambiguation WordNet::SenseRelate Link : Two different word sense disambiguation algorithms, WordNet-SenseRelate-AllWords :Assigns a sense to each word in a text. WordNet-SenseRelate-TargetWord : Assigns a sense to a given target word. WordNet-SenseRelate-WordToSet : A ssigns the meaning to a word that is most related to a given set of words. They carry out word sense disambiguation by measuring the semantic similarity between a word and its neighbors. In particular, a word is assigned the sense that is most related to its neighbors. GWSD is a system for unsupervised all-words graph-based word sense disambiguation Link : Many words have more than one meaning; we have to select the meaning which makes the most sense in context. For this problem, we are typically given a list of words and associated word senses, e.g. from a dictionary or from an online resource such as WordNet.

17 List of Toolkits NameLanguageCreatorssite AlchemyAPI C, C++, C#, Java, Python, Perl, Ruby Orchestr8 [1] Antelope framework C#, VB.netProxem [2] Apertium C++, Java(various) [3] Cogito Expert System S.p.A. [4] Carabao Language Kit Any COM+ compliant language. Digital Sonata Pty Ltd [5] DELPH-IN LISP, C++Deep Linguistic Processing with HPSG Initiative [6] Distinguo C++Ultralingua Inc. [7] Ellogon C / C++Georgios Petasis [8] FreeLing C++Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya [9] General Architecture for Text Engineering JavaGATE open source community [10] Graph Expression JavaStartup huti.ru [11] Learning Based Java JavaCognitive Computation Group at the University of Illinois [12] LingPipe JavaAlias-i [13] LinguaStream JavaUniversity of Caen, France [14]

18 List of Toolkits NameLanguageCreatorssite Mallet JavaUniversity of Massachusetts Amherst[15] MII nlp toolkit JavaUCLA Medical Imaging Informatics (MII) Group[16] Modular Audio Recognition Framework Java The MARF Research and Development Group, Concordia University [17] MontyLingua Python, JavaMIT[18] Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) Python[19] NooJ (based on INTEX).NETUniversity of Franche-Comté, France[20] OpenNLP JavaOnline community[21] Rosette C, C++, Java,.NET Basis Technology[22] ScalaNLP ScalaDavid Hall and Daniel Ramage[23] Stanford NLP JavaThe Stanford Natural Language Processing Group[24] Text Engineering Software Laboratoryz(Tesla) JavaUniversity of Cologne[25] Thinktelligence Delegator JavaThinktelligence Corporation[26] UIMA Java / C++Apache[27] WebLab-project JavaOW2[28] UniteX Java & C++Laboratoire d'Automatique Documentaire et Linguistique[29] The Dragon Toolkit JavaDrexel University[30] Factorie JavaUniversity of Massachusetts Amherst[31] Silpa Indic Language Processing Toolkit PythonSilpa opensource community developers[32]

19 o Online version. Java source code is downloadable. Part of speech tagging Example : Houston, Monday, July Men have landed and walked on the moon. Two Americans, astronauts of Apollo 11, steered their fragile four-legged lunar module safely and smoothly to the historic landing yesterday at 4:17:40 P.M., Eastern daylight time. Neil A. Armstrong, the 38-year-old civilian commander, radioed to earth and the mission control room here: "Houston, Tranquility Base here; the Eagle has landed."

20 Part of speech tagging

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22 o Online version. Perl source code is downloadable. Semantic Role Labeling

23 o Online version. Java source code is downloadable. Named entity recognition Example : Houston, Monday, July Men have landed and walked on the moon. Two Americans, astronauts of Apollo 11, steered their fragile four-legged lunar module safely and smoothly to the historic landing yesterday at 4:17:40 P.M., Eastern daylight time. Neil A. Armstrong, the 38-year-old civilian commander, radioed to earth and the mission control room here: "Houston, Tranquility Base here; the Eagle has landed.”

24 Named entity recognition Example : Houston, Monday, July Men have landed and walked on the moon. Two Americans, astronauts of Apollo 11, steered their fragile four-legged lunar module safely and smoothly to the historic landing yesterday at 4:17:40 P.M., Eastern daylight time. Neil A. Armstrong, the 38-year-old civilian commander, radioed to earth and the mission control room here: "Houston, Tranquility Base here; the Eagle has landed.”

25 o Online version. Java source code is downloadable. Coreference Resolution

26 o Online version. Java source code is downloadable. Coreference Resolution

27 o Online version. Java source code is downloadable. Parser & Chunker

28 o Online version for Arabic, English, Chinese Java source code is downloadable. Parser & Chunker

29 Automatic Summarization

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33 TEHRAN, July 18, 2011 (AFP) - Iran has taken "full control" of three camps of the Iranian Kurdish rebel PJAK movement inside neighbouring Iraq, a a commander of the elite Revolutionary Guards told the official IRNA news agency on Monday. "All the three camps on Iraqi soil that were backing the terrorist group have fallen under our control and we have full control of the area," said Colonel Delavar Ranjbarzadeh, who commands Revolutionary Guards in the northwestern Iran border town of Sardasht. He added that operations launched on Saturday inside Iraq were still continuing in other areas but he did not give more details. Ranjbarzadeh added that a member of the Revolutionary Guards was killed in the fighting and three others wounded and that "many anti-revolutionary and PJAK terrorist members were (also) killed.” On Sunday IRNA quoted an unnamed source in Sardasht as saying "five PJAK members were killed in the clashes.” "Among those killed, is the deputy head of Marvan camp," Ranjbarzadeh said. He described Marvan as the "main camp for the PJAK terrorist group", adding that 30 members of the group had been living there for the past four years. On Sunday a spokesman for the PJAK told AFP in Iraq that Iranian forces had suffered several casualties in the fighting near the Banjaween area of Iraq Kurdistan's Sulaimaniyah province. "Since midnight (2100 GMT Saturday), heavy battles have been ongoing between PJAK and the Iranian army, resulting in two killed and four wounded," said PJAK spokesman Sherzad Kamankar.. Last week a senior army official said Tehran "reserves the right" to attack the bases of the Party of Free Life of Kurdistan (PJAK), in Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region.. "We reserve the right to attack and destroy terrorist bases in border areas" near the autonomous Iraqi region of Kurdistan, the official was quoted as saying by IRNA on July 11. "The terrorists will not be allowed to take sanctuary in Iraq's territory and attack Iran with the support of America and the Zionist regime," the official said. "Action will be taken against these terrorists.” Iranian forces regularly shell border districts of Iraq's Kurdish region, targeting PJAK bases

34 Corpora LDC (Linguistic Data Consortium) link and its catalogue by year. Provides the largest range of corpora on CD-ROM. Cost ranges from cheap (e.g., ACL-DCI disk) to pricey. CDs can be purchased individually; institutions can become members and receive discounts on CDs.link European Language Resources Association link and its catalogue. Distribution agency is ELDA. Rapidly growing collection of materials in European languages.link ELDA ICAME (International Computer Archive of Modern English) link Sells various corpora (including Brown and London-Lund).link NIST link Reuters corpora are now distributed by NIST.link TRACTOR link TELRI Research Archive of Computational Tools and Resource. Corpora, many multilingual, in European community languages.link CLR (Consortium for Lexical Research) link. Focuses more on language processing tools and lexicons, but does have some corpora.link OTA (Oxford Text Archive) link Provides mainly literary texts. Has a bright new web site. Most materials are available on the web or by anonymous ftp to ota.ox.ac.uk.link Leipzig Corpora Collection link Sentence collections in MySQL database for 17 mainly European languages.link

35 Corpora BNC (British National Corpus) link A 100 million word corpus of British English And now, an XML edition.link European Corpus Initiative Multilingual Corpus I (ECI/MCI)link A 98 million word corpus, covering most of the major European languages, as well as Turkish, Japanese, Russian, Chinese, and Malay. Cheap.link Survey of English Usage link At the Department of English Language and Literature at University College London. Includes the British part of ICE, the International Corpus of English project. Now available tagged, and parsed for function. 83,419 sentences. Includes ICECUP, dedicated retrieval software. Also, Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English (800,000 words, tagged and parsed, half from ICE-GB and half from London-Lund).link International Corpus of English (ICE)link Million word collections of English from various world Englishes: ICE-NZ, ICE-HK, ICE-East Africa, etc.link Corpora held by Lancaster University link This link provides its own annotations.link The European Language Activity Network link Promises a uniform query language for accessing corpora in all EU languages -- but isn't quite there yet.link Talkbank link. Rich video and transcripts.link

36 NLP Research Group Academic departments with computational linguistics programs Institute for Communicating and Collaborative Systems at the University of Edinburgh Institute for Communicating and Collaborative Systems Institute for Research in Cognitive Science at the University of Pennsylvania Institute for Research in Cognitive Science Computational Linguistics & Phonetics at Saarland University Computational Linguistics & Phonetics Computational Linguistics and Language Technology at Ohio State University Computational Linguistics and Language Technology Stanford Natural Language Processing Group Computational Linguistics at the University of Washington Computational Linguistics Human Language Technology Research Institute at the University of Texas at Dallas Human Language Technology Research Institute Department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (Cognitive Computation Group) Department of Computer ScienceCognitive Computation Group Center for Language and Speech Processing at Johns Hopkins University Center for Language and Speech Processing Non-university computational linguistics groups German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence

37 NLP Research Sponsors  Summer Internships and Opportunities  Google Internships  Summer of Code 2008  custom essay  Data Science Summer Institute

38 Blogs, Video Lectures Blogs Hal Daume III's NLP blog LingPipe blog (Bob Carpenter) LingPipe blog Fernando Pereira's Structured Learning blog Language Log John Langford's Machine Learning blog Jamie Pennebaker's Wordwatcher's blog Video lectures ACL Video Archive Videos of Machine Learning lectures Machine Learning and Cognitive Science 2007 – includes talks by Chris Manning, Sharon Goldwater, John Goldsmith, and others. Machine Learning and Cognitive Science 2007 MIT workshop: Where Does Syntax Come From? Have We All Been Wrong? – speakers include Chris Manning, Noam Chomsky, Partha Niyogi, Howard Lasnik and Joshua Tenenbaum. MIT workshop: Where Does Syntax Come From? Have We All Been Wrong? NIPS 2007 tutorials – including Geoffrey Hinton, Ben Taskar, and Robert Shapire. NIPS 2007 tutorials Graduate Summer School: Probabilistic Models of Cognition: The Mathematics of Mind (July , 2007) – slides and webcast links of all the talks. A lot of good introductory stuffs on graphical models, Bayesian learning, etc. Graduate Summer School: Probabilistic Models of Cognition: The Mathematics of Mind (July , 2007) Microsoft Research – Videos on Researchchannel. Microsoft Research Google Roundtable

39 Conferences General (World Wide): ACL / ANLP / COLING / LREC / HLTACLANLPCOLINGLRECHLT General (USA): NAACL / CICLINGNAACLCICLING General (Europe): EACL / RANLP / AMLaPEACLRANLPAMLaP General (Asia): ijc-NLP (formerly, NLPRS) / PACLIC / PACLING / JNLP / IALPijc-NLP (formerly, NLPRS)PACLICPACLINGJNLPIALP Formal Grammar: FG / LFG / HPSG / TAG+FGLFGHPSGTAG+ Machine Learning: ICML / ECML / NIPSICMLECMLNIPS Statistical NLP: EMNLP / CoNLL / WVLCEMNLPCoNLLWVLC Information Retrieval: SIGIR / ECIRSIGIRECIR Computational Semantics: IWCS / ICoSIWCSICoS Others: IWPT / WAS / MOL / SENSEVAL / FSMNLPIWPTWASMOLSENSEVALFSMNLP

40 Journals NLP/CL Computational Linguistics linklink Natural Language Engineering linklink Journal on Research on Language and Computation linklink Language Resources and Evaluation link (Formerly Computers and the Humanities)linkComputers and the Humanities Research on Language and Computation link (More)linkMore Logic, Language and Information linklink Computer Speech and Language linklink Linguistic Issues in Language Technology link (LiLT)link (LiLT) Journal of Interesting Negative Results in Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning CfP: Interesting Negative Results in Summarization linklink Terminology linklink Traitement Automatique des Langues linklink CfP: Special Issue on Scaling NLP linklink Texto! linklink Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory linklink ICAME Journal linklink

41 Journals IR/IS Information Retrieval linklink D-Lib Magazine linklink Information Processing & Management linklink Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology linklink Information Science linklink Information Development linklink Information Design Journal + Document Design linklink Speech Processing International Journal of Speech Technology linklink Speech Communication linklink Journal of the Acoustical Society of America linklink IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing linklink IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech & Language Processing link CfP: Special Issue on New Approaches to Statistical Speech and Text Processing linklink

42 Journals Linguistics linklink Lingua linklink Natural Language & Linguistic Theory linklink Natural Language Semantics linklink Cambridge Occassional Papers in Linguistics linklink System linklink Speculative Grammarian linklink Discourse/Pragmatics Discourse Processes linklink Text & Talk linklink Multicultural Discourses linklink Journal of Pragmatics linklink

43 Journals Language and Identity Language in Society linklink Journal of Language, Identity, and Education linklink Language & Intercultural Communication linklink BioInformatics Bioinformatics linklink Biomedical Informatics linklink Applied Bioinformatics linklink Online Journal of Bioinformatics linklink In Silico Biology linklink Artificial Intelligence in Medicine linklink

44 Supplementary Links

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