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Percy Bysshe Shelley Lecture 12

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1 Percy Bysshe Shelley Lecture 12
Ode to a Skylark Percy Bysshe Shelley Lecture 12

2 About the poem Shelley has personified the skylark as a Spirit, as kind of celestial being. The bird sours into the sky singing happily, hidden from view but her song fills the earth and sky. Bird’s song is a symbol of happiness and peace. Skylark becomes metaphor for the poet, maiden in love, glow worm, rose and sound of rain. Mary Shelley wrote about the poem, ‘In the Spring we spent a week or two near Leghorn…It was on a beautiful summer evening while wandering among the lanes whose myrtle hedges were the bowers of the fire-flies, that we heard the carolling of the skylark.’

3 Like the ‘Ode to the West Wind’, ‘the Skylark’ was inspired by a specific experience; Shelley is inspired by the happiness in the song of the bird. There are two main lines of thought in the poem. The first is to understand what the bird stands for or is comparable to. The second is about the secret behind the skylark’s happiness, that is so strongly manifested through its song.

4 Hail to thee, blithe Spirit
Hail to thee, blithe Spirit! Bird thou never wert – That from Heaven or near it Pourest thy full heart In profuse strains of unpremeditated art. Calls her happy spirit. Profuse : intense

5 Higher still and higher From the earth thou springest, Like a cloud of fire; The blue deep thou wingest, And singing still dost soar, and soaring ever singest. Compares it to a cloud lighted by the glowing light of the setting sun.

6 In the golden lightning Of the sunken sun, O'er which clouds are bright'ning, Thou dost float and run, Like an unbodied joy whose race is just begun. Captures the evening time. Unbodied joy: unbounded joy

7 The pale purple even Melts around thy flight; Like a star of Heaven, In the broad daylight Thou art unseen, but yet I hear thy shrill delight – Night time approaches & the bird in invisible from view. Compare the bird to a star in daylight.

8 Keen as are the arrows Of that silver sphere Whose intense lamp narrows In the white dawn clear, Until we hardly see, we feel that it is there. Talks about the moon, as it is hidden from view in day time.

9 All the earth and air With thy voice is loud, As, when night is bare, From one lonely cloud The moon rains out her beams, and Heaven is overflowed. Compares the bird & its song to moon & its silver moonlight.

10 What thou art we know not; What is most like thee
What thou art we know not; What is most like thee? From rainbow clouds there flow not Drops so bright to see, As from thy presence showers a rain of melody: - Compares to clouds which shower rain, while the bird springs forth melodious song.

11 Like a Poet hidden In the light of thought, Singing hymns unbidden, Till the world is wrought To sympathy with hopes and fears it heeded not: Tries to decide what the singing bird is comparable to; like the skylark they are all hidden from view. Like a poet composing who awakens the world.

12 Like a high-born maiden In a palace-tower, Soothing her love-laden Soul in secret hour With music sweet as love, which overflows her bower: Like a maiden making music to soothe her love.

13 Like a glow-worm golden In a dell of dew, Scattering unbeholden Its aërial hue Among the flowers and grass which screen it from the view: Like a glow-worm spreading light in darkness.

14 Like a rose embowered In its own green leaves, By warm winds deflowered, Till the scent it gives Makes faint with too much sweet these heavy-wingéd thieves: Like a rose that spreads fragrance everywhere.

15 Sound of vernal showers On the twinkling grass, Rain-awakened flowers – All that ever was Joyous and clear and fresh - thy music doth surpass. The song as welcoming as the spring showers.

16 Teach us, Sprite or Bird, What sweet thoughts are thine: I have never heard Praise of love or wine That panted forth a flood of rapture so divine. Seeks instruction from the bird, calls its song divine.

17 Chorus hymeneal, Or triumphal chant, Matched with thine would be all but an empty vaunt – A thing wherein we feel there is some hidden want. Chorus hymeneal: a religious hymn Triumphal chant: song of victory Vaunt: empty boast, swagger

18 What objects are the fountains Of thy happy strain
What objects are the fountains Of thy happy strain? What fields, or waves, or mountains? What shapes of sky or plain? What love of thine own kind? what ignorance of pain? Asks about the secret of its happiness.

19 With thy clear keen joyance
Languor cannot be: Shadow of annoyance Never came near thee: Thou lovest, but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. Languor: tiredness Compares the bird’s life to human condition and experiences of pain, annoyance, tiredness and love’s satiety

20 Waking or asleep, Thou of death must deem Things more true and deep Than we mortals dream, Or how could thy notes flow in such a crystal stream? The skylark has no fear of death, it’s free of all pain of death. Humans fear death because they are ignorant of what lies beyond death. The skylark knows that and is therefore not afraid.

21 We look before and after, And pine for what is not: Our sincerest laughter With some pain is fraught; Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought. Humans worry about their past and future, he longs for what does not exist, and his laughter is mixed with sorrow.

22 Yet, if we could scorn Hate and pride and fear, If we were things born Not to shed a tear, I know not how thy joy we ever should come near. Humans suffer from hate and pride and fear and do not find happiness.

23 Better than all measures Of delightful sound, Better than all treasures That in books are found, Thy skill to poet were, thou scorner of the ground! pays tribute to the bird’s song.

24 Teach me half the gladness That thy brain must know; Such harmonious madness From my lips would flow, The world should listen then, as I am listening now. Asks the bird to teach him the art to happiness, since that is the key to the lovely song. The world would listen to him as he is now listening to the bird.

25 themes Power of the natural world. Lamenting human condition.
Power of imagination. Role of poet and poetry in reforming society.

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