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Take out verification letter, team letter, and textbook(if you have one). Bellwork # 2 –What is OIP? Copy and answer the following: 1. What is an observation?

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Presentation on theme: "Take out verification letter, team letter, and textbook(if you have one). Bellwork # 2 –What is OIP? Copy and answer the following: 1. What is an observation?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Take out verification letter, team letter, and textbook(if you have one). Bellwork # 2 –What is OIP? Copy and answer the following: 1. What is an observation? 2. What are the two types of observations? 3. What is an inference? 4. What is a prediction? Homework: - Search for 3 SRP ideas. - Complete inference and observation practice and lab equipment identification(2 sheets)

3 Safety and Inquiry

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5 1. Follow all instructions given by your instructor. When uncertain about a procedure or directions, ask the instructor for clarification. Do not attempt to use any equipment or materials until instructed. 2. Always wear safety goggles in lab. 3. If contact lenses are worn during labs involving chemicals, non-vented, labeled goggles must be worn. All other appropriate personal protective equipment for the lab must be worn.

6 4. A serious attitude is needed at all times during lab activities. No horseplay will be tolerated. 5. NO open-toed shoes are to be worn in lab. Long pants or long skirts should be worn in lab. 6. NO gum, candy, drinks or other edible materials are allowed in the lab.

7 7. NO tasting or smelling is allowed unless instructed by the teacher. When smelling, use a wafting technique 8. Hands should be kept away from the face and mouth. 9. NO mouth pipetting is allowed. 10. Always pour acid into water, NEVER WATER INTO ACID. acid water

8 11. Broken glassware must be placed in a specified container. You must notify the teacher. 12. Return all equipment and materials to designated areas and clean up thoroughly when finished with the lab activity. Dispose of chemicals as instructed. 13. Any accident must be properly reported to the instructor.

9 14. Wash hands before leaving lab. 15. Know the location and proper use of the following safety equipment: fire extinguisher fire blanket goggles eyewash safety/drench shower emergency call-back button first aid kit

10 16. Know the proper safety procedures for the following situations: fire chemical splash to the body eye emergency chemical spill cuts burns Rule of Thumb: TELL THE TEACHER!

11 AGHS Lab Safety Rap

12 What do scientists do?

13 Scientists make observations!

14 YOU can't pass this OBSERVATION TEST How well do you observe?

15 Observations can be qualitative or quantitative Qualitative: observations using only the senses! Quantitative: observations that use numbers or measurements or make relative comparisons such as more than, all, less than, few, or none.

16 Qualitative Data : Quantitative Data : Candles What kinds of qualitative and quantitative observations could you make about these candles?

17 What kinds of qualitative and quantitative observations could you make about this latte?

18 latte What kinds of qualitative and quantitative observations could you make about this latte?

19 Let’s practice!

20 Observation Activity

21 Qualitative: Quantitative: - Before: 1.___________________1._______________________ 2.___________________2._______________________ 3.___________________3._______________________ - During: 1.___________________1. _____________________ 2.___________________2._____________________ 3.___________________- After: 1.___________________1._________________________ 2.___________________ 3.___________________

22 Bellwork # 3 OIP Aug 23/26 Copy and complete the following for the picture shown: – 3 qualitative observations: – 3 quantitative observations – 1 inference prediction 1. Homework: Complete observation, inference, prediction, opinion practice sheet.

23 Scientists make inferences! Inference: An explanation or interpretation of an observation.

24 They are not the final explanations of the observation. There may be several logical inferences for a given observation. There is no way to be sure which inference best explains the observation without further investigation. They are not the final explanations of the observation. There may be several logical inferences for a given observation. There is no way to be sure which inference best explains the observation without further investigation.

25 What observations can you make about the picture? What inferences can you make to explain your observations?

26 What observations can you make? What inferences can you make to explain your observations?

27 OBSERVATION OR INFERENCE? The bell is ringing observation

28 OBSERVATION OR INFERENCE? The flower has red petals

29 OBSERVATION OR INFERENCE? The boy has tears in his eyes, so he must be sad. inference

30 OBSERVATION OR INFERENCE? There is a lot of red in the painting, so I think the artist was mad when he painted it. inference

31 OBSERVATION OR INFERENCE? The dog has 3 legs. He must have been hit by a car. Observation then inference!

32 Scientists make predictions! Prediction: An inference made about what will happen in the future; it is based on observations, available data, and prior knowledge.

33 What predictions can you make? Are the predictions realistic and based on prior experience?

34 Bellwork # 4 OIP Pick up the sheet from the corner of the desk and complete the side with the man sitting in a chair. Have your, observations, inferences, and prediction homework on your desk for me to check. Homework: Complete testable questions, variables, and OIP (back of BW #3) practice worksheets.

35 Observation, Inference, and Prediction Activity (aliens)

36 Today Discuss and share OIP pictures Discuss BW answers Take notes for testable question Identify testable questions Take notes on variables Identify variables

37 How do scientists design an experiment? They ask a testable question They state a hypothesis They design an experiment to test the hypothesis They conduct the experiment, collect data, and analyze the results They communicate the results They research information about the topic They draw a conclusion. Was the hypothesis correct?

38 First, they ask a testable question. One that can be answered by designing and conducting an experiment!

39 Which of the following are testable questions? 1.How does stirring affect the rate that salt dissolves in water? 2.Does pizza taste better than chicken nuggets? 3.Do cold temperatures affect the amount fruit produced by an apple tree? 4.What variables can affect attendance at a football game? 5.Is Batman a better superhero than Superman?

40 TESTABLE OR NOT TESTABLE EXAMPLES (T or NT) ___1. If I give the plants fertilizer, then the plants will grow taller than the neighbor’s plants. ___2. If I get lucky then the plants will grow bigger. ___3. My plants aren’t growing bigger because I do not water them enough.

41 Testable Question Practice (Posing a question) Identify 5 testable questions and 5 non-testable questions.

42 Testable questions are ones that allow you to change only one variable at a time to determine how it affects the outcome. Independent (manipulated) variable: the thing that is changed or tested in the experiment. Dependent (responding) variable: the result or the response to the changes made.

43 One of the testable questions we looked at earlier was: What is the investigator going to do? Stir Stirring is the independent variable because the investigator can decide how fast, how slow, or how often to stir. What changes because of the stirring? The rate the salt dissolves For example: How does stirring affect the rate that salt dissolves in water? So, the rate the salt dissolves is the dependent variable because the it depends on the stirring.

44 All good experiments have an independent variable and a dependent variable. But they also have some variables that stay the same. These are the constant variables in the experiment. There can be only one independent variable for a successful experiment!

45 For example: Samantha did an experiment with an electromagnet made from a battery and wire wrapped around a nail. Different size nails were used and the number of paper clips that the electromagnet could pick up was measured. Identify: Manipulated variable Responding variable Constant variable(s) Identify: Manipulated variable Responding variable Constant variable(s) Remember, the independent (manipulated) variable is the one that is changed or tested in the experiment! Different size nails Remember, the dependent (responding) variable is the one that changes or responds ! (Usually the variable you are measuring.) The size of the nail number of paper clips that the Electromagnet could pick up Number of paper clips picked up Remember, the constant variables are the one that are kept the same or unchanged ! Remember, the constant variables are the one that are kept the same or unchanged ! battery, wire, number of times the wire was wrapped around the nail

46 For example: A student conducts an experiment to test whether changing the surface of the floor will affect the distance a toy car will roll. Identify: Manipulated variable Responding variable Constant variable(s) Identify: Manipulated variable Responding variable Constant variable(s) Remember, the independent (manipulated) variable is the one that is changed or tested in the experiment! the surface of the floor Remember, the dependent (responding) variable is the one that changes or responds ! (Usually the variable you are measuring.) The type of surface affect the distance a toy car will roll. Distance the car rolls Remember, the constant variables are the one that are kept the same or unchanged ! Remember, the constant variables are the one that are kept the same or unchanged ! Same toy car, pushing the car with the same force each time

47 Another one… Students of different ages were given the same puzzle to assemble. The puzzle assembly time was measured. manipulated variable: Responding variable: Constant variable: age of students assembly time same puzzle

48 Last one… An experiment was done to determine if temperature would have an effect how fast a turtle moved. manipulated variable: Responding variable: Constant variable: temperature how fast turtle moved same turtle

49 Bellwork # 3 Testable Question Copy the following and label as testable (T) or not testable (NT): 1.Does the color of a surface affect its temperature? 2.Is feeding a snake a live animal wrong? 3.How many cats are in the world? 4.Does the mass of a toy car affect the distance it travels? Homework: Complete hypothesis and posing questions practice worksheets.

50 How do scientists design an experiment? They ask a testable question They state a hypothesis They design an experiment to test the hypothesis They conduct the experiment, collect data, and analyze the results They communicate the results They research information about the topic They draw a conclusion. Was the hypothesis correct?

51 Bellwork # 4 Scientific Method Standard: Scientific Method8-1.1 Design a controlled scientific investigation Recognize the importance of a systematic process for safely and accurately conducting investigations Explain the importance of and requirements for replication of scientific investigations. Bellwork #3: Scientific Method Copy the steps of the scientific method as they are written. Now, go back and place them in order by writing the correct number beside each. _____Research the problem _____Observe and record _____Make a hypothesis _____Identify the problem _____Arrive at a conclusion _____Test the hypothesis Homework:

52 Knowing the independent and dependent variables in an experiment will help an investigator make a prediction about the outcome. This prediction is called a hypothesis. The hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. A hypothesis can be written as an If…then… statement.

53 A properly worded hypothesis can be written in the form: “IF (Manipulated Variable) THEN (Responding Variable) WILL….” If sugar is added to water in a vase, then the flowers will stay fresher longer. MV: sugar in water RV: time flowers will stay fresh CV: temperature, type of flowers, size of container MV: sugar in water RV: time flowers will stay fresh CV: temperature, type of flowers, size of container

54 A good hypothesis – Is based on observation and previous knowledge or experience. – Must be something that can be tested. – Contains the manipulated and the responding variable.

55 An investigator has observed that chickens lay more eggs at certain times of the year. It has also been observed that this occurs during the late spring and summer months. An inference has been made that the extra eggs are due to longer daylight hours. Amount of daylight and chicken egg production are the variables the investigator has decided to investigate. An investigator has observed that chickens lay more eggs at certain times of the year. It has also been observed that this occurs during the late spring and summer months. An inference has been made that the extra eggs are due to longer daylight hours. Amount of daylight and chicken egg production are the variables the investigator has decided to investigate. Testable question: How does the length of daylight affect chicken egg production? Independent variable: length of daylight Dependent variable: chicken egg production HYPOTHESIS: If the length of daylight increases, then chicken egg production will increase. HYPOTHESIS: If the length of daylight increases, then chicken egg production will increase.

56 Hypothesis Practice Write a hypothesis for the following: 1.Manipulated variable: number of recycling posters Responding variable: amount of aluminum cans in courtyard Hypothesis:________________________________________ 2.Manipulated variable: temperature of solution Responding variable: dissolving time of powdered drink mix Hypothesis:________________________________________ 3.Manipulated variable: depth of Lake Conroe Responding variable: water temperature Hypothesis:________________________________________

57 Hypothesis Practice Classify these statements as hypotheses (H) or non- hypotheses (NH). If the statement is a hypothesis (H), rewrite it as an “If…then…” statement. _____ 1. Rocks that remain in a river bed longer will become smoother. _____ 2. Older siblings make better students. _____ 3. Rainbows include the colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. _____ 4. Seeds exposed to ultraviolet radiation, take longer to germinate.

58 Hypothesis Practice -Classify these statements as hypotheses (H) or non-hypotheses (NH). If the statement is a hypothesis (H), rewrite it as an “If…then…” statement. The more cabbage in the stew, the stronger the flavor. Most apples are red. The faster the river flows, the greater the erosion. Dental floss is waxed. As more salt is dissolved in water, the water will become cloudy. The earth’s crust contains 90 elements. Magnetism and gravity are not the same. If the length of a vibrating string is increased, the sound will become louder. As the temperature of the environment increases, the temperature of cold blooded animals increases. A change in weather causes a change in mood.

59 How do scientists design an experiment? They ask a testable question They state a hypothesis They design an experiment to test the hypothesis They conduct the experiment, collect data, and analyze the results They communicate the results They research information about the topic They draw a conclusion. Was the hypothesis correct?

60 Design an experiment to test the hypothesis Plan for independent and dependent variables Plan for the factors that should be held constant (controlled variables) List the materials needed to conduct the experiment List the procedures to be followed Plan for recording, organizing, and analyzing the data

61 How do scientists design an experiment? They ask a testable question They state a hypothesis They design an experiment to test the hypothesis They conduct the experiment, collect data, and analyze the results They communicate the results They research information about the topic They draw a conclusion. Was the hypothesis correct?

62 When you conduct the experiment, always record your data in tables, graphs, or charts! Tables should be set up like this: Manipulated VariableResponding Variable Graphs should be set up like this: DRY MIX DRY represents Dependent-Responding-Y axis MIX represents Manipulated-Independent-X axis

63 How do scientists design an experiment? They ask a testable question They state a hypothesis They design an experiment to test the hypothesis They conduct the experiment, collect data, and analyze the results They communicate the results They research information about the topic They draw a conclusion. Was the hypothesis correct?

64 By looking at the data collected, and the tables and graphs of the data, the investigator must decide if the hypothesis was correct (supported) or incorrect (not supported). correct Repeat the experiment Expand the experiment (Can the procedure be improved?) Ask a new question based on what you’ve learned incorrect Modify the hypothesis based on your what you’ve learned and try again!

65 Scientific Method

66 The Scientific Method Video

67 Scientific Method Monty PythonMonty Python

68 Inquiry Lab Let’s try our own experiment!

69 Measurement QUANTITY TO BE MEASURED UNITSYMBOL LENGTHMeterm MASSKilogramkg VOLUMELiterL TEMPERATURECelsius°C TIMESeconds

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71 Measuring Length Ruler: How many millimeters are in 1 centimeter? What is the length of the line in centimeters? _______cm What is the length of the line in millimeters? _______mm What is the length of the line to the nearest centimeter? ________cm HINT: Round to the nearest centimeter – no decimals. 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters

72 Problem/Question Observation/Research Formulate a Hypothesis Experiment Collect and Analyze Results Conclusion Communicate the Results

73 Steps of the Scientific Method Problem/Question 1. Problem/Question: Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation.

74 Steps of the Scientific Method Observation/Research 2. Observation/Research: Make observations and research your topic of interest.

75 Steps of the Scientific Method Formulate a Hypothesis 3. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question. Example: If soil temperatures rise, then plant growth will increase.

76 Steps of the Scientific Method Experiment 4. Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure. Include a detailed materials list. The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).

77 Steps of the Scientific Method Collect and Analyze Results 5. Collect and Analyze Results: Modify the procedure if needed. Confirm the results by retesting. Include tables, graphs, and photographs.

78 Steps of the Scientific Method Conclusion 6. Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis. Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.

79 Steps of the Scientific Method Communicate the Results 7. Communicate the Results: Be prepared to present the project to an audience. Expect questions from the audience.

80 Do you know the difference between the independent and dependent variables?

81 Independent Variable (aka Manipulated Variable) The independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter.

82 Dependent Variable (aka Responding Variable) The dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable.

83 Control Group The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested. All experiments should have a control group.

84 Constants The constants in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same.

85 Scientific Method In an Experiment there are: Dependent Variables: variable that changes according to changes in other variables Independent Variables: variable that is changed for testing Controls: serve as a standard for comparison Constants: a factor that doesn’t change throughout experiment


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